The 4 Percent Universe
The 4 Percent Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, the Race to Discover the Rest of Reality is a nonfiction book by writer and professor Richard Panek and published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt on January 10, 2011. The book's namesake comes from the scientific confusion over how ordinary matter makes up only four percent of the mass-energy in the universe, with the rest consisting of mysterious dark matter and dark energy that are both invisible and impossible to detect, it is due to dark matter that galaxies are able to keep their shape, with the mass of dark matter creating enough gravitational force to hold the stars that make up a galaxy together. Dark energy, however, is a substance or force responsible for the accelerating expansion of the universe over time; the significant focus of The 4 Percent Universe is on the developments of astronomical science in the 20th century, including the formation of the expanding universe theory by Edwin Hubble in the 1930s. This model, when used in conjunction with Albert Einstein's general relativity helped in the creation of the big bang model and the discovery of the cosmic background radiation in the 1960s.
In following this history, Panek discusses the flaws and missing pieces in the theories and the quest by two major scientific groups to discover the reason for the expansion of the universe not matching the models as expected. The book discusses the science behind the idea of dark matter being made up of weakly interacting massive particles and how scientists tried to determine the existence of dark energy from the 1990s and onward; the two groups involved in this research were the Supernova Cosmology Project headed by Saul Perlmutter and the High-Z Supernova Search Team headed by Brian Schmidt, both of which were involved in pioneering the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for determining the variation in the universe's rate of expansion over its history, which in turn allows prediction of its future expansion. Salon's Laura Miller described Panek and his writing style as a "wondrously clear explicator of some thorny concepts". Writing a review for Science News magazine, Ron Cowen commented that Panek "writes eloquently about the mind-bending search for meaning in a universe dominated by stuff no one can see", while he "weaves together concepts from particle physics, quantum mechanics and cosmology with personal portraits of astronomers".
Kirkus Reviews described the book as having "vivid sketches of scientists, lucid explanations of their work and revealing descriptions of the stormy rivalry that led to this scientific revolution a media cliché, but not in this case." Choice magazine reviewer C. G. Wood rated the work as "highly recommended" and noted that while Panek "does not shortchange the science", the book "concentrates on the personalities of those involved in the personal and sometimes bitter rivalry"; the convoluted nature and number of scientists and events involved in the book's topic is pointed out by Carl Zimmer in writing for The Washington Post, who stated that "Panek's passion for the mysteries of dark matter and dark energy wins the day" and that the premise "succeeds because he recognizes that he's writing not just about red shifts and supernovae, but about people". In a special for The Dallas Morning News, author Fred Bortz commended how Panek takes the complicated scientific nature of the book's topic and "weaves that science into a compelling narrative of a quest full of technological challenges, unexpected turns and expected human rivalries over high stakes, including a future Nobel Prize."Samantha Nelson for The A.
V. Club rated the book a C-, lamenting how Panek is able to describe scientific material in an understandable manner, but that the science is "bogged down by Panek's focus on the teams researching cosmology" noting that the "people behind the scientific discoveries deserve credit, but the science should still be the star of the book." Dark matter in fiction Exotic matter Mirror matter Negative mass Quintessence Scalar field dark matter Self-interacting dark matter Unparticle physics Quintessence: The Search for Missing Mass in the Universe Lea, Richard. "The 4% Universe by Richard Panek – review". The Guardian. Retrieved December 10, 2014. "The 4% Universe: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, the Race to Discover the Rest of Reaiity". Publishers Weekly. PWxyz LLC. 257: 42. December 6, 2010. Retrieved December 10, 2014
Phi Delta Theta
Phi Delta Theta known as Phi Delt, is an international social fraternity founded at Miami University in 1848 and headquartered in Oxford, Ohio. Phi Delta Theta, along with Beta Theta Pi and Sigma Chi form the Miami Triad; the fraternity has about 185 active chapters and colonies in over 43 U. S. states and five Canadian provinces and has initiated more than 251,000 men between 1848 and 2014. There are over 160,000 living alumni. Phi Delta Theta chartered house corporations own more than 135 houses valued at over $141 million as of summer 2015. There are nearly 100 recognized alumni clubs across the U. S. and Canada. The fraternity was founded by six undergraduate students: Robert Morrison, John McMillan Wilson, Robert Thompson Drake, John Wolfe Lindley, Ardivan Walker Rodgers, Andrew Watts Rogers, who are collectively known as The Immortal Six. Phi Delta Theta was created under three principal objectives: "the cultivation of friendship among its members, the acquirement individually of a high degree of mental culture, the attainment of a high standard of morality".
These cardinal principles are contained in The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the document to which each member pledges on his initiation into the fraternity. Among the best-known members of the fraternity are Benjamin Harrison, the 23rd President of the United States, Adlai Stevenson I, the 23rd Vice President of the United States, Baseball Hall of Fame member Lou Gehrig, actor Burt Reynolds, architect Frank Lloyd Wright, Neil Armstrong the first man to walk on the moon, John S. McCain Sr. U. S. Navy Admiral and grandfather of John McCain. In 1839, Beta Theta Pi was founded at Miami University in Ohio. In protest against the president of the university, members of Beta Theta Pi and another fraternity, Alpha Delta Phi, blocked the entrances of the main educational and administrative building in what became known as the Great Snowball Rebellion of 1848. After the president expelled most of the students involved in the uprising, Phi Delta Theta was formed by six men staying in a dormitory the day after Christmas.
Robert Morrison, a senior, proposed to classmate John McMillan Wilson that they form a secret society together. These men are known today as "The Immortal Six." The first meeting was held in Wilson's room at Old North Hall, now called Elliott Hall. During the early meetings, the Founders wrote The Bond of Phi Delta Theta, the fundamental law of the fraternity, it has remained unchanged since, it is believed to be the only document of any fraternity of such a nature. Morrison designed the shield form of the badge, with the eye as an emblem, while Wilson suggested the scroll with the Greek letters on it; the first branch of Phi Delta Theta was founded at Miami University in Oxford, Ohio in 1848. Fearing punishment from the university, the activities of the fraternity were sub rosa for its first three years of existence. Phi Delta Theta took an unusual step, unique among all fraternities, of splitting into two chapters at both Miami and Centre College, so their meetings would be smaller and attract less attention.
As the organization attracted new individuals into their membership including prominent university officials, members began to wear their badges indicating their affiliation. Phi Delta Theta held its first convention in 1851 in Cincinnati, Ohio when the organization had only four chapters; the event was attended by seven members. Despite the limited number, positive steps were taken for the establishment of new chapters by forming an expansion committee, it was during the first convention where the chapter at Miami University was designated as the Grand Chapter whose duties were to oversee the overall fraternity operations. Subsequent conventions were held again in Cincinnati five years later. Another convention was held in 1864 in Bloomington during the American Civil War; the Civil War was difficult for all fraternities. Battles put fraternity brother against fraternity brother. Fifty Phis fought on the side of the Confederacy, it was not until the 1868 Indianapolis convention that the first steps in the creation of an overall administration took place.
The convention was regarded as the first "National Convention" as permanent convention rules were adopted during this time. Twelve years the most important of all Phi Delta Theta conventions took place; the Indianapolis Convention of 1880 established new ritual and customs that are still used today. Moreover, the convention saw the creation of the General Council, the governing body of the fraternity, with Walter B. Palmer, Emory-Vanderbilt 1877, George Banta, Franklin-Indiana 1876, becoming the president and historian, respectively; the convention called for the organization of groups of chapters into provinces, which were to be headed by province presidents. A housing movement began to form during this time; the movement arose out of necessity because it was pointed out that chapter meetings were being conducted in rented halls. Though the housing movement had been gaining momentum, it was not until the 1892 convention that a resolution was passed that advocated that all chapters rent or own at least one house.
In the last two decades of the 19th century, over 50 chapter houses were acquired. For a brief period a resolution was set forth to allow chapters to initiate women. First proposed in 1869, this was considered a radical idea both from a fraternal standpoint and social one as well since women were not allowed to vote until 1920. Although it was met with strong opposition, the issue would not b
The Shaw Prize is an annual award first presented by the Shaw Prize Foundation in 2004. Established in 2002 in Hong Kong, it honours "individuals who are active in their respective fields and who have achieved distinguished and significant advances, who have made outstanding contributions in academic and scientific research or applications, or who in other domains have achieved excellence; the award is dedicated to furthering societal progress, enhancing quality of life, enriching humanity's spiritual civilization." The prize is regarded as the "Nobel of the East". It is named after Sir Run Run Shaw, a philanthropist and forerunner in the Hong Kong media industry; the prize is for recent achievements in the fields of astronomy, life science and medicine, mathematical sciences. Nominations are submitted by invited individuals beginning each year in September; the award winners are announced in the summer, receive the prize at the ceremony in early autumn. The winners receive a certificate; the front of the medal bears a portrait of Shaw as well as the English and the Traditional Chinese name of the prize.
In addition, the winner receives a sum of money, worth US$1.2 million from 1 October 2015. As of 2012, 28 prizes have been awarded to 48 individuals; the inaugural winner for the Astronomy award was Canadian Jim Peebles. Two inaugural prizes were awarded for the Life Science and Medicine category: Americans Stanley Norman Cohen, Herbert Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly won one of the prizes for their works pertaining to DNA while British physiologist Sir Richard Doll won the other for his contribution to cancer epidemiology. Shiing-Shen Chern of China won the inaugural Mathematical Sciences award for his work on differential geometry. Of note, twelve Nobel laureates—Jules Hoffmann, Bruce Beutler, Saul Perlmutter, Adam Riess, Shinya Yamanaka, Robert Lefkowitz, Brian Schmidt, Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, Michael W. Young, Kip Thorne, Rainer Weiss—were previous laureates of the Shaw Prize. Board of Adjudicators: Yuet Wai Kan, Kenneth Young, Peter Goldreich, Randy Schekman, Peter Sarnak Astronomy: Peter Goldreich, Ewine van Dishoeck, Reinhard Genzel, Victoria Kaspi, John A.
Peacock Life Science and Medicine: Randy Schekman, Bruce Beutler, Carol W. Greider, Franz-Ulrich Hartl, Robert Lefkowitz, Eve Marder, Shinya Yamanaka Mathematical Sciences: Peter Sarnak, John M. Ball, David Eisenbud, Sir Timothy Gowers, John Morgan a The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. B Countries mentioned above refer to the sites of the work places of the Laureates at the time of the award. C The rationale for each award is quoted from shawprize.org, the official website of the Shaw Prize Foundation. D Two prizes were awarded for the life science and medicine category in 2004: Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer and Yuet-Wai Kan jointly received one of the prizes. Richard Doll received the other prize. E Half of the 2008 life science and medicine prize went to Keith H. S. Ian Wilmut. General"The Shaw Laureates".
Shawprize.org. Specific Official website
William H. Press
William Henry Press is an astrophysicist, theoretical physicist, computer scientist, computational biologist. He is a member of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Council on Foreign Relations. Other honors include the 1981 Helen B. Warner Prize for Astronomy. Press is a past chair. From 2009 through 2016, Press served as Vice Chair of President Obama's President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. In 2012-2013, he served as the 165th President of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. In July, 2016, he became the elected Treasurer of the U. S. National Academy of Sciences, a member of its Council and Governing Board. Press attended public schools in Pasadena, graduating from Pasadena High School in 1965, his undergraduate education was at Harvard, where he received an A. B. in physics in 1969. He received his Ph. D. in theoretical physics, from Caltech, in 1973, a student of Kip Stephen Thorne. Press was an assistant professor at Caltech was assistant professor at Princeton University before returning to Harvard as a professor in 1976.
At the age of 28, he was the university's then-youngest tenured faculty member. Press was for more than 20 years a professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University, a member of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, he was department chair in Astronomy in 1982-1985. In 1998, Press left Harvard to become deputy laboratory director at Los Alamos National Laboratory, serving under Directors John C. Browne and George Peter Nanos, he oversaw LANL's participation in the Joint Genome Institute and in the construction of the Spallation Neutron Source. Press moved to the University of Texas at Austin in 2007 and, changing his area of research, became the Warren J. and Viola M. Raymer Professor, jointly in the computer science and integrative biology departments. In the field of general relativity, Press is best known for his work with Saul Teukolsky, establishing the dynamic stability of rotating black holes. In astrophysics, Press is best known for his discovery, with Paul Schechter, of the Press–Schechter formalism, which predicts the distribution of masses of galaxies in the Universe.
This latter work enabled the discovery of the accelerating universe by Riess, Brian Schmidt, Saul Perlmutter, for which they received the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics. Notably, with the 2017 Nobel award to Kip Thorne, Press joined the list of hapless individuals whose student and doctoral advisor have both won Nobels, but they haven't, a list that comprises Alfred Sturtevant, Gilbert N. Lewis, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Edward Teller, Victor Weisskopf, Charles Lauritsen, E. B. Wilson, Richard A. Muller, a few others. With Freeman Dyson, Press discovered and named the zero-determinant strategies for the Prisoner's Dilemma and other games. Press is a co-author of the successful Numerical Recipes series of books on scientific computing. William H. Press's website at the University of Texas at Austin Curriculum Vitae Google Scholar Profile: William H. Press
Robert P. Kirshner is an American astronomer the Clowes Professor of Science at Harvard University. Kirshner has worked in several areas of astronomy including the physics of supernovae, supernova remnants, the Large-scale structure of the cosmos and the use of Supernovae to measure the expansion of the universe. In 1981, along with Augustus Oemler, Jr. Paul Schechter, Stephen Shectman, Kirshner discovered the Boötes void in a survey of galaxy redshifts, he led work on SN 1987A, the brightest supernova since Kepler's in 1604, using the International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite in 1987 and the Hubble Space Telescope after its launch in 1990. In the 1990s, together with Oemler, Schechter and others he participated in the Las Campanas Redshift Survey, a 35,000 galaxy survey using fiber optics and plug plates. Kirshner was a member of the High-z Supernova Search Team that used observations of distant supernovae to discover the accelerating universe; this universal acceleration implies the existence of dark energy and was named the breakthrough of 1998 by Science magazine.
For this work, he shared in the 2007 Gruber Cosmology Prize. Brian Schmidt and Adam Riess, both of whom were Kirshner's Ph. D students, shared in the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for the same discovery, his account of this discovery is described in The Extravagant Universe: Exploding Stars, Dark Energy, the Accelerating Cosmos. He has been a member of the National Academy of Sciences since 1998, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1992 and the American Philosophical Society since 2005, he was the President of the American Astronomical Society from 2004–2006. In July, 2015 he was appointed chief program officer for science at the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, where he is leading the team responsible for distributing more than $100 million per year for research and technology that enables fundamental scientific discoveries, he received his A. B. magna cum laude in Astronomy from Harvard College in 1970, where he won a Bowdoin Prize for Useful and Polite Literature. He earned his Ph.
D. in Astronomy, from Caltech in 1975. In 2004, he received the Caltech Distinguished Alumni Award. In 2010, he received an honorary Doctor of Science from the University of Chicago. In 2011, he won the Dannie Heineman Prize in Astrophysics from the American Institute of Physics. In 2012, he won a Guggenheim Fellowship. In 2014, he won the James Craig Watson Medal for service to astronomy from the National Academy of Sciences and shared in the Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics with the High-Z Team. In 2015, he shared the Wolf Prize in Physics with B. J. Bjorken, he is speaker. At Harvard, he was Professor of Astronomy, served as the chair of the Astronomy Department and as Harvard College Professor, he was appointed as the Clowes Professor of Science in 2001. From 1998–2004, he was the Director of the Optical and Infrared Division at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, he helped Harvard join the Magellan Observatory in the Giant Magellan Telescope project. Prior to joining Harvard in 1985, he worked at Kitt Peak National Observatory and taught at the University of Michigan for 9 years, where he rose to become Professor and Chairman of the Astronomy Department and helped to build the 2.4 meter Hiltner Telescope.
At Michigan, he won the Henry Russel Award. In 1999, Kirshner married filmmaker Jayne Loader. From 2001 -- 2007, they were the Masters of one of Harvard's 12 undergraduate houses, he is the father of the television writer/producer, Rebecca Rand Kirshner, Matthew Kirshner of The Management Group in Los Angeles. 2007: Gruber Prize in Cosmology 2011: Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Kirshner's colleagues Brian P. Schmidt and Adam Riess, from the High-z Supernova Search Team for the work done by that collaboration. 2015: Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics, shared with Brian P. Schmidt, Adam Riess, the High-Z Supernova Search Team. 2015: Wolf Prize in Physics Robert Kirshner's Home Page at Harvard
Nobel Prize in Physics
The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to physicist Wilhelm Röntgen in recognition of the extraordinary services he rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and regarded as the most prestigious award that a scientist can receive in physics, it is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death. Through 2018, a total of 209 individuals have been awarded the prize. Only three women have won the Nobel Prize in Physics: Marie Curie in 1903, Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963, Donna Strickland in 2018. Alfred Nobel, in his last will and testament, stated that his wealth be used to create a series of prizes for those who confer the "greatest benefit on mankind" in the fields of physics, peace, physiology or medicine, literature.
Though Nobel wrote several wills during his lifetime, the last one was written a year before he died and was signed at the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris on 27 November 1895. Nobel bequeathed 94% of his total assets, 31 million Swedish kronor, to establish and endow the five Nobel Prizes. Due to the level of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until April 26, 1897 that it was approved by the Storting; the executors of his will were Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, who formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobel's fortune and organise the prizes. The members of the Norwegian Nobel Committee who were to award the Peace Prize were appointed shortly after the will was approved; the prize-awarding organisations followed: the Karolinska Institutet on June 7, the Swedish Academy on June 9, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on June 11. The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the Nobel Prize should be awarded. In 1900, the Nobel Foundation's newly created statutes were promulgated by King Oscar II.
According to Nobel's will, The Royal Swedish Academy of sciences were to award the Prize in Physics. A maximum of three Nobel laureates and two different works may be selected for the Nobel Prize in Physics. Compared with other Nobel Prizes, the nomination and selection process for the prize in Physics is long and rigorous; this is a key reason why it has grown in importance over the years to become the most important prize in Physics. The Nobel laureates are selected by the Nobel Committee for Physics, a Nobel Committee that consists of five members elected by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In the first stage that begins in September, around 3,000 people – selected university professors, Nobel Laureates in Physics and Chemistry, etc. – are sent confidential forms to nominate candidates. The completed nomination forms arrive at the Nobel Committee no than 31 January of the following year; these nominees are scrutinized and discussed by experts who narrow it to fifteen names. The committee submits a report with recommendations on the final candidates into the Academy, where, in the Physics Class, it is further discussed.
The Academy makes the final selection of the Laureates in Physics through a majority vote. The names of the nominees are never publicly announced, neither are they told that they have been considered for the prize. Nomination records are sealed for fifty years. While posthumous nominations are not permitted, awards can be made if the individual died in the months between the decision of the prize committee and the ceremony in December. Prior to 1974, posthumous awards were permitted; the rules for the Nobel Prize in Physics require that the significance of achievements being recognized has been "tested by time". In practice, it means that the lag between the discovery and the award is on the order of 20 years and can be much longer. For example, half of the 1983 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar for his work on stellar structure and evolution, done during the 1930s; as a downside of this approach, not all scientists live long enough for their work to be recognized.
Some important scientific discoveries are never considered for a prize, as the discoverers die by the time the impact of their work is appreciated. A Physics Nobel Prize laureate earns a gold medal, a diploma bearing a citation, a sum of money; the Nobel Prize medals, minted by Myntverket in Sweden and the Mint of Norway since 1902, are registered trademarks of the Nobel Foundation. Each medal has an image of Alfred Nobel in left profile on the obverse; the Nobel Prize medals for Physics, Physiology or Medicine, Literature have identical obverses, showing the image of Alfred Nobel and the years of his birth and death. Nobel's portrait appears on the obverse of the Nobel Peace Prize medal and the Medal for the Prize in Economics, but with a different design; the image on the reverse of a medal varies according to the institution awarding the prize. The reverse sides of the Nobel Prize medals for Chemistry and Physics share the same design of Nature, as a Goddess, whose veil is held up by the Genius of Science.
These medals and the ones for Physiology/Medicine and Literature were designed by Erik Lindberg in 1902. Nobel laureates receive a diploma directly from the hands of the
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well