Alamosa is a city under Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Alamosa County, United States. The city population was 8,780 at the 2010 United States Census; the city is the commercial center of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado, is the home of Adams State University. Alamosa was established in May 1878 by the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad and became an important rail center; the railroad had an extensive construction and shipping facility in Alamosa for many years and headquartered its remaining narrow gauge service here with trackage reaching many points throughout southwest Colorado and northern New Mexico. Alamosa is now a notable tourist town with many nearby attractions, including the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and Colorado Gators Reptile Park; the town hosts "Summer Fest on the Rio" which occurs the first weekend in June, the Early Iron car show over the Labor Day weekend, "Weekends on the Rio" on various Sundays throughout the summer The city takes its name from the Spanish adjective Alamosa, meaning "of cottonwood", for the cottonwood forests which grow along the Rio Grande and throughout town.
Alamosa is located at 37°28′N 105°52′W, at the junction of U. S. Routes 160 and 285. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles, of which 5.4 square miles is land and 0.12 square miles, or 2.26%, is water. Alamosa is located along the Rio Grande in the San Luis Valley, in the highest general agricultural land in the United States. Elevation is about 7,500 feet in Alamosa with peaks over 14,000 feet within 23 miles of town in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Alamosa features a cold desert climate with long, cold winters and warm summers, dry weather year-round. Normals range from a low of −4 °F in January to a high of 82 °F in July. Annual precipitation is only 7.25 inches, with summer being the wettest. The aridity depresses mean snowfall to around 32 inches, the median to only 22.3 inches. The altitude and dryness of the air cause day-night temperature differences to be severe year-round. Alamosa's geography and nighttime temperatures account for it being listed as the coldest city in the contiguous United States, with a record average of 227 nights per year with a minimum temperature of 32 °F or less, 48.7 nights with minima below 0 °F.
As of the census of 2000, there were 7,960 people, 2,974 households, 1,769 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,995.0 people per square mile. There were 3,215 housing units at an average density of 805.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.53% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 2.20% Native American, 0.95% Asian, 0.26% Pacific Islander, 22.36% from other races, 4.28% from two or more races. 46.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,974 households out of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.5% were married couples living together, 14.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.5% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 3.04. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.4% under the age of 18, 21.8% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.1 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,453, the median income for a family was $33,017. Males had a median income of $27,100 versus $22,671 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,405. About 18.1% of families and 25.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.4% of those under age 18 and 17.0% of those age 65 or over. The city of Alamosa is a Home Rule Municipality like many other Colorado towns; the City Council has four elected from wards and two at large. The Council has authority to make and repeal laws and ordinances; the city elects a mayor-at-large on a non-partisan ballot. The current mayor of Alamosa is Ty Coleman. Alamosa Public Schools are part of the Alamosa School District RE-11J, include Alamosa Elementary School, Ortega Middle School, Alamosa High School. Robert Alejo is the Superintendent of Schools.
Adams State University, founded in 1921 as a teacher's college, offers both undergraduate and graduate programs. Graduate level programs emphasize teaching and education, art and business. Many courses are available online. In 2015, the college reached an all-time high enrollment of 3,701 students; the University's location in Alamosa, with an elevation of about 7,800 ft above sea level, attracts many athletes to the school's athletic program. In 2014, ASU added a cycling program. Alamosa is on the Rio Grande River, crossed by two auto bridges, one pedestrian bridge and one rail bridge in town. Auto traffic is served by U. S. Highway 160 running east and west and U. S. Highway 285 and State Highway 17 running north and south. Alamosa is served by the San Rio Grande Railroad; the local airport is San Luis Valley Regional Airport. Alamosa is the shopping center for the San Luis Valley and has a Walmart Supercenter, a Walgreens and two supermarkets and City Market. There are a number of fast food restaurants, two medical clinics, a regional hospital, San Luis Valley Regional Medical Center.
Adams State University is located in Alam
A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Governor of Colorado
The Governor of Colorado is the chief executive of the U. S. state of Colorado. The governor is the head of the executive branch of Colorado's state government and is charged with enforcing state laws; the governor has the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Colorado General Assembly, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason or impeachment. The governor is the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. Seven people served as governor of Colorado Territory over eight terms, appointed by the President of the United States. Since statehood, there have been 36 governors; the longest-serving governors were Richard "Dick" Lamm and Roy Romer, who each served 12 years over three terms. The shortest term occurred in March 16 and 17, 1905, when the state had three governors in the span of 24 hours: Alva Adams won the election, but soon after he took office, the legislature declared his opponent, James Peabody, but on the condition that he resign, so that his lieutenant governor, Jesse McDonald, could be governor.
Thus, Peabody served less than a day as governor. The current governor is Democrat Jared Polis, who took office on January 8, 2019; the self-proclaimed Provisional Government of the Territory of Jefferson was organized on November 7, 1859. Jefferson Territory included all of present-day Colorado, but extended about 3 miles farther east, 138 miles farther north, about 50 miles farther west; the territory was never recognized by the federal government in the tumultuous days before the American Civil War. The Jefferson Territory had only one governor, Robert Williamson Steele, a pro-union Democrat elected by popular vote, he proclaimed the territory dissolved on June 6, 1861, several months after the official formation of the Colorado Territory, but only days after the arrival of its first governor. The Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, from parts of the territories of New Mexico and Nebraska, the unorganized territory, the western portion of Kansas Territory; the State of Colorado was admitted to the Union on August 1, 1876.
To serve as governor, one must be at least 30 years old, be a citizen of the United States, have been a resident of the state for at least two years prior to election. The state constitution of 1876 called for election of the governor every two years, with their term beginning on the second Tuesday of the January following the election. An amendment passed in 1956, taking effect in 1959, increased terms to four years. There was no term limit applied to the governor. There is however no limit on the total number of terms one may serve as long as one who has served the two term limit is out of office for four years. Should the office of governor become vacant, the lieutenant governor becomes governor. If both the offices governor and lieutenant governor are vacant, the line of succession moves down through the senior members of the state senate and state house of representatives of the same party as the governor; the lieutenant governor was elected separately from the governor until a 1968 amendment to the constitution made it so that they are elected on the same ticket.
List of Colorado state legislatures Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles State of Colorado Law and government of Colorado Governor of Colorado Lieutenant Governor of Colorado General Constitutions Specific Office of the Governor of Colorado
Adams State Grizzlies
The Adams State Grizzlies are the athletic teams that represent Adams State University, located in Alamosa, Colorado, in NCAA Division II intercollegiate sports. The Grizzlies compete as members of the Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference for all 19 varsity sports; the Grizzlies have won 26 national championships. The Grizzly track and cross-country teams are coached by Damon Martin, winner of 20 National Coach of the Year awards. ASU's Men's cross-country team was the first team in history to record a perfect score at the National Championships in 1992; this was the first year Adams competed in NCAA Division II, after competing in the NAIA. The women's cross-country team won 15 National Championships between 1992 and 2009. 2016 World Indoor Champion Boris Berian ran for Adams during the 2012 track seasons, winning national championships for the 800m both indoors and outdoors. The football team is run by Head Coach Josh Blankenship, he is in his fourth year with the Adams State Grizzly Football Team.
Over the last two years the team has put up a 5-16 record rebuilding a program from the ground up. The football locker room is state of the art with electronic displays for film viewing and visual management of team roles and positions; the weight room is available for all Grizzly sports team athletes and was custom-designed for use in national advertising campaigns by the company that donated the weightlifting equipment. 1930–1945: Independent 1946–1955: New Mexico Intercollegiate Conference 1956: Independent 1957–present: Rocky Mountain Athletic Conference One of the people who rodeo for Adams State, Cordell Curtis, is a current PRCA champion in bullriding. Official website
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
A public university is a university, publicly owned or receives significant public funds through a national or subnational government, as opposed to a private university. Whether a national university is considered public varies from one country to another depending on the specific education landscape. In Egypt, Al-Azhar University was founded in 970 AD as a madrassa, making it one of the oldest institutions of higher education in the world, formally becoming a university in 1961, it was followed by a lot of universities opened as public universities in the 20th century such as Cairo University, Alexandria University, Assiut University, Ain Shams University, Helwan University, Beni-Suef University, Benha University, Zagazig University, Suez Canal University, where tuition fees are subsidized by the government. In Kenya, the Ministry of Education controls all of the public universities. Students are enrolled after completing the 8-4-4 system of education and attaining a mark of C+ or above. Students who meet the criteria determined annually by the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service receive government sponsorship, as part of their university or college fee is catered for by the government.
They are eligible for a low interest loan from the Higher Education Loan Board. They are expected to pay back the loan after completing higher education. In Nigeria public universities can be established by both the federal government and by state governments. Examples include the University of Lagos, Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Ibadan, University of Benin, University of Nigeria, Ahmadu Bello University, Abia State University, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Gombe State University, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Federal University of Technology Yola, University of Maiduguri, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, University of Jos, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, University of Ilorin, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University South Africa has 23 public tertiary educational institutions, either categorised as a traditional university or a comprehensive university. Prominent public South African universities include the University of Johannesburg, University of Cape Town, Nelson Mandela University, North-west University, University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Pretoria, University of Stellenbosch, University of Witwatersrand, Rhodes University and the University of South Africa.
In Tunisia, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research controls all of the public universities. For some universities, the ministry of higher education coordinates with other ministries like: the Ministry of Public health or the Ministry of Information and Communication Technologies. Admission in a public university in Tunisia is assured after succeeding in the Tunisian Baccalaureate: Students are classified according to a Formula score based on their results in the Baccalaureate; the students make a wishlist with the universities they want to attend on a state website dedicated for orientation. Thus, the high-ranking-students get priority to choose. Examples of Tunisian public universities: Carthage University, Carthage Ez-Zitouna University, Tunis Manouba University, Manouba Tunis El Manar University, Tunis Tunis University, Tunis Université Tunis Carthage University of Gabès, Gabès University of Gafsa, Gafsa University of Jendouba, Jendouba University of Kairouan, Kairouan University of Monastir, Monastir University of Sfax, Sfax University of Sousse, Sousse There are 40 public universities in Bangladesh.
The universities do not deal directly with the government, but with the University Grants Commission, which in turn deals with the government. Many private universities are established under the Private University Act of 1992. All universities in Brunei are public universities; these are major universities in Brunei: University of Brunei Darussalam Brunei Technological University Sultan Sharif Ali Islamic University In mainland China, nearly all universities and research institutions are public and all important and significant centers for higher education in the country are publicly administered. The public universities are run by the provincial governments; some public universities are national. Private undergraduate colleges do exist, which are vocational colleges sponsored by private enterprises; the majority of such universities are not entitled to award bachelor's degrees. Public universities enjoy higher reputation domestically. Eight institutions are funded by the University Grants Committee.
The Academy for Performing Arts receives funding from the government. The Open University of Hong Kong is a public university, but it is self-financed; the Shue Yan University is the only private institution with the status of a university, but it receives some financial support from the government since it was granted university status. In India, most universities and nearly all research institutions are public. There are some private undergraduate colleges engineering schools, but a majority of these are affiliated to public universities; some of these private schools are partially aided by the national or state governments. India has an "open" public university, the Indira Gandhi National Open University, which offers distance education, in terms of the number of enrolled students is now the largest university in the world with over 4 million students. There are private educational institutes in Indonesia; the government (Ministry of Re
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado School of Mines referred to as "Mines", is a public teaching and research university in Golden, devoted to engineering and applied science, with special expertise in the development and stewardship of the Earth's natural resources. Mines placed 82nd in the 2017 U. S. News & World Report "Best National Universities" ranking. In the 2016–17 QS World University Rankings by subject, the university was ranked as the top institution in the world for mineral and mining engineering. Golden, established in 1859 as Golden City, served as a supply center for miners and settlers in the area. In 1866, Bishop George M. Randall of Massachusetts arrived in the territory and, seeing a need for higher education facilities in the area, began planning for a university which would include a school of mines. In 1870, he opened the Jarvis Hall Collegiate School in the central building of the Colorado University Schools campus just south of the town of Golden, accompanied it with Matthews Hall divinity school in 1872, in 1873 the School of Mines opened under the auspices of the Episcopal Church.
In 1874 the School of Mines, supported by the territorial government since efforts began in 1870, was acquired by the territory and has been a state institution since 1876 when Colorado attained statehood. Tuition was free to residents of Colorado; the school's logo was designed by prominent architect Jacques Benedict. The first building on the current site of the school was built in 1880 with additions completed in 1882 and 1890; the building, known as "Chemistry Hall," stood. The next building to be added to the campus was Engineering Hall, built in 1894, still in use today by the Economics and Business Division. Other firsts include the first Board of Trustees meeting held in 1879. In 1906, Mines became the first school of its kind in the world to own and operate its own experimental mine, designed for practical teaching of the students, located on Mt. Zion and succeeded in the 1930s by the Edgar Mine. In 1879, there was some discussion about merging School of Mines and the State University in Boulder.
Because of the specialized focus of School of Mines, it was decided that such a merger would not be appropriate. During the early years of the institution, the chief administrator was the "Professor in Charge"; the designation "President" was first used in 1880. The "M" on Mt. Zion, a prominent feature in the Golden area, was constructed in 1908 and lighted in 1932. Early academic departments were drafting, metallurgy and mining. In the 1920s, departments formed in petroleum engineering and geophysics. Petroleum refining was added in 1946; the Humanities and Social Sciences Division and the Department of Physical Education and Athletics provide nontechnical educational opportunities for Mines students. Other facilities include: Ben Parker Student Center, Arthur Lakes Library, Green Center and the Edgar Mine, located in Idaho Springs; the Colorado School of Mines is a public research university devoted to engineering and applied science. In August 2007, a new student recreation center was completed.
In 2008, the school finished expanding its main computer center, the Center for Technology and Learning Media. In May 2008 the school completed construction and installation of a new supercomputer nicknamed "Ra" in the CTLM managed by the Golden Energy Computing Organization, a partnership among the Colorado School of Mines, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the National Center for Atmospheric Research and the National Science Foundation; the school operates the Colorado School of Mines Geology Museum, which displays rock and mineral specimens collected from Colorado's numerous mining districts as well as around the world. The museum's exhibits include specimens from the Frank Allison gold and silver collection, part of the famous Nininger meteorite collection, Sweet Home Mine rhodochrosite, as well as a model uranium mine and various pieces of mining related art. Mines is the host of the annual Colorado State Science Olympiad, which draws teams from both the northern regional and southern regional competitions.
One or two teams advance to the national finals, depending on the number of teams registered to compete. Mines hosts the Colorado Regional Science Bowl, shares hosting of the Colorado State MathCounts Competition with University of Denver, alternating biennially. Since 1964, the Colorado School of Mines has hosted the annual oil shale symposium, one of the most important international oil shale conferences. Although the series of symposia stopped after 1992, the tradition was restored in 2006; the design of the university's buildings have varied over time, spanning a spectrum of styles from Second Empire to Postmodernist, created by noted Colorado architectural masters including Robert S. Roeschlaub, Jacques Benedict, Temple Hoyne Buell. To date, three main academic buildings are gone, while the present campus includes: Major open-air athletic facilities of the Colorado School of Mines include historic Campbell Field and Darden Field; the honorary named Colorado School of Mines buildings commemorate Dr. Victor C.
Alderson, Edward L. Berthoud, George R. Brown, Dr. Regis Chauvenet, Dr. Melville F. Coo