Château de La Petite-Pierre
The Château de la Petite-Pierre, Burg Lützelstein is a castle in the commune of La Petite-Pierre in the Bas-Rhin département of France, in Alsace. All the names of the place are related to "small stone", come from Old Franconian Lítzelstäin, with the French name as a translation, it is the headquarters of the Parc naturel régional des Vosges du Nord. It has been listed as monument historique by the French Ministry of Culture since April 1922. There was a stronghold in the place, built by the family of Hugues IV of Nordgau, Count of Egisheim. Built at the end of the 12th century, the Château de la Petite-Pierre is recorded from 1212. Count Hugo, either the son or grandson of the powerful Count of Blieskastel, is held as the constructor; the fief was recognised as the "County of Lützelstein", within the German Holy Roman Empire at the same time. The counts have used the title Graf von Lützelstein also Comte de Petite-Pierre, meaning the same Comte de Lunéville, which might be due to a confusion of transferral of power at some point.
A probable, order of the early counts of Lützelstein, as precise documentation is not at hand: Hugo I of Blieskastel, Count of Lützelstein or Lunéville, second son of Folmar I, Count of Blieskastel with Clementia of Metz. His brother Folmar II, Count of Blieskastel was married to Jutta, daughter of Simon I, Count of Saarbrücken. Hugo married Kunigunde, daughter of Konrad, Count of Kyrburg and Mathilde of Bar, had Hugo II. Hugo II of Blieskastel, Count of Lützelstein. Married Judith of Lorraine, daughter of Philippe, son of Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine. Hugo III, Count of Lützelstein, married daughter of Simon III, Count of Saarbrücken. Elisabeth of Vinstingen, a grandniece of Simon. In 1223, due to a conflict with the Bishop of Strasbourg, the counts of Parva Petra were forced to yield it as a fief to the bishop as an episcopal stronghold, under the bishop's reign. In 1403, Friedrich of Lutzelstein died, his uncle Bourcard/Burkhard II of Lutzelstein, Bishop of Strasbourg, was one of the claimants, as well as Friedrich's sister, married to Johann of Leiningen.
Burkhard divided the property letting Palatine count Robert III, Holy Roman Emperor a fourth and the rest to his daughters. Sons of Burkhard and of the Leiningen family ruled for some time in Lützelstein; however the Palatine count Frederick I seized it all in 1452/62 as the new holders died without legitimate heirs. In 1566, it became the residence of George John I, Count Palatine of Veldenz, who carried out major works; the French Army occupied the castle in 1677. Vauban was charged with improving the fortifications. In 1870 that the fortifications were removed. Since 1977, the building has housed the administrative services of the Parc naturel régional of Vosges du Nord. In the multi-media exhibition there, a room is devoted to the history of the castle with, in particular, a superb model of Staedtel, the fortified old town, according to plans of 1771, an impressive sight of the castle's ancient cistern; the fortified town,with the Saint-Louis chapel, the 15th-century church choir and the bastion tower protecting the cisterns, is linked to the castle.
The castle is located at the end of a crest, separated from the old town by an artificial ditch dating from the beginning of the 13th century. The pentagonal keep; the residence has been altered but in its cellar the filtering cistern dates from the 14th century. On the southern façade are Romanesque windows; the well with Renaissance decoration, the main door with pilasters and the staircase turret date from the 16th century. The polygonal construction exhibits Gothic ornamentation, in particular hooked capitals. List of castles in France Château de La Petite-Pierre - Parc naturel régional des Vosges du Nord Ministry of Culture listing
Phalsbourg is a commune in the Moselle department in Grand Est in north-eastern France, with a population of about 5,000. It lies high on the west slopes of the Vosges, 25 miles northwest of Strasbourg by rail. In 1911, it contained an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue and a teachers' seminary, its industries included the manufacture of gloves, straw hats and liqueurs, quarrying. The area of the city of Phalsbourg Pfalzburg, was part of the principality of Lützelstein, under the overlordship of Luxembourg the bishops of Metz and of Strasbourg, before coming under the Dukes of Pfalz-Veldenz, all within the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation. In 1570, Duke Georg Johann I of Pfalz-Veldenz founded the town of Pfalzburg as a refuge for Reformed Protestants kicked out of the Duchy of Lorraine, as an administrative center of his holdings, but the cost forced him to sell the city and the surrounding district of Einarzhausen between 1583 and 1590 to Lorraine, whose territory surrounded most of the area.
In 1608, his successor Georg Gustav of Pfalz-Veldenz founded nearby Lixheim for Reformed refugees, but was forced to sell the new town in 1623 to Lorraine. From 1629 to 1660, Pfalzburg and Lixheim were combined as the Principality of Pfalzburg, for duchess Henriette of Lorraine and her three successive husbands; the principality was acknowledged by Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II in 1629. After the death of Henriette, the principality returned to Lorraine, but the next year, Lorraine had to cede it to France in the Treaty of Vincennes in 1661, at a time when most of Lorraine was occupied by French troops since 1634. The famous French military engineer Vauban reconstructed the town's fortifications in 1680; the town was of military importance as commanding one of the passes of the Vosges. The fortifications of Phalsbourg resisted the Allies in 1814 and 1815, the Germans for four months under the commander Taillant in 1870, but they were taken on 12 December of that year, have since been razed.
The town was German again under its old name of Pfalzburg. The United States Air Forces in Europe built an air base near the city in 1953; the base was returned in 1967 to the French government. The base is used by the French military's 1er Régiment d'Hélicoptères de Combat; the town is home to the annual Erckmann-Chatrian summer festival. It is the birthplace of Georges Mouton. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb". Communes of the Moselle department Ripley, George. "Pfalzburg". The American Cyclopædia. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Pfalzburg". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Northern Vosges Regional Nature Park
The Northern Vosges Regional Natural Park is a protected area of woodland, wetland and historical sites in the region Grand Est in northeastern France. The area was designated as a regional natural park in 1976. At its inauguration, the park covered a total area of 120,000 hectares, but it has since grown to 130,500 hectares; the rich natural landscape has been added to the UNESCO list of international biosphere reserves. Northern Vosges PNR does not include any of the Vosges Mountains but rather the foothills just north of them. No part of it lies in the department of Vosges but rather it spans two other departments, Bas-Rhin and Moselle; the following communes are members of Northern Vosges PNR:In Bas-Rhin: In Moselle: List of regional natural parks of France Official park website
Bas-Rhin is a department in Alsace, a part of the Grand Est super-region of France. The name means "Lower Rhine", geographically speaking it belongs to the Upper Rhine region, it is the more populous and densely populated of the two departments of the traditional Alsace region, with 1,121,407 inhabitants in 2016. The prefecture and the General Council are based in Strasbourg; the INSEE and Post Code is 67. The inhabitants of the department are known as Bas-Rhinoises; the Rhine has always been of great historical and economic importance to the area, it forms the eastern border of Bas-Rhin. The area is home to some of the foothills of the Vosges Mountains. To the north of Bas-Rhin lies the Palatinate forest in the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate, the German State of Baden-Württemberg lies to the east. To the south lies the department of Haut-Rhin, the town of Colmar and southern Alsace, to the west the department of Moselle. On its south-western corner, Bas-Rhin joins the department of Vosges.
The Bas-Rhin has a continental-type climate, characterised by cold, dry winters and hot, stormy summers, due to the western protection provided by the Vosges. The average annual temperature is 7 °C on high ground; the annual maximum temperature is high. The average rainfall is 700 mm per year. Established according to data from the Infoclimat station at Strasbourg-Entzheim, over the period from 1961 to 1990; this is the last French department to have kept the term Bas meaning "Lower" in its name. Other departments using this prefix preferred to change their names - e.g.: Basses-Pyrenees in 1969 became Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Basses-Alpes in 1970 became the department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence. The same phenomenon was observed for the inférieur departments such as Charente-Inférieure, Seine-Inférieure, Loire-Inférieure. Bas-Rhin is one of the original 83 departments created on 4 March 1790, during the French Revolution. On 14 January 1790 the National Constituent Assembly decreed: "- That Alsace be divided into two departments with Strasbourg and Colmar as their capitals.
In 1871 Bas-Rhin was annexed by Germany and became Bezirk Unterelsass in Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen. Strasbourg, the chef lieu of Bas-Rhin is the official seat of the European Parliament as well as of the Council of Europe; the demography of Bas-Rhin is characterized by high density and high population growth since the 1950s. In January 2014 Bas-Rhin had 1,112,815 inhabitants and was 18th by population at the national level. In fifteen years, from 1999 to 2014, its population grew by more than 86,000 people, or about 5,800 people per year, but this variation is differentiated among the 517 communes. The population density of Bas-Rhin is 234 inhabitants per square kilometre in 2014, more than twice the average in France, 112 in 2009; the first census was conducted in 1801 and this count, renewed every five years from 1821, provides precise information on the evolution of population in the department. With 540,213 inhabitants in 1831, the department represented 1.66% of the total French population, 32,569,000 inhabitants.
From 1831 to 1866, the department gained 48,757 people, an increase of 0.26% on average per year compared to the national average of 0.48% over the same period. Demographic change between the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and the First World War was higher than the national average. Over this period, the population increased by 100,532 inhabitants, an increase of 16.74%, compared to 10% nationally. The population increased by 9.23% between the two world wars from 1921 to 1936 compared to a national growth of 6.9%. Like other French departments, Bas-Rhin experienced a population boom after the Second World War, higher than the national level; the rate of population growth between 1946 and 2007 was 83.83%
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
In American English, a pitcher is a container with a spout used for storing and pouring contents which are liquid in form. In English-speaking countries outside North America, a jug is any container with a handle and a mouth and spout for liquid—American "pitchers" are more to be called jugs elsewhere. A pitcher has a handle, which makes pouring easier. A ewer is a vase-shaped pitcher decorated, with a base and a flaring spout, though the word is now unusual in informal English describing ordinary domestic vessels. A notable ewer is the America's Cup, awarded to the winning team of the America's Cup sailing regatta match. Pitchers hold one-half gallon gallon, equivalent to two quarts, four pints, sixty-four fluid ounces; the word pitcher comes from the 13th-century Middle English word picher. The word picher is linked to the Old French word pichier, the altered version of the word bichier, meaning drinking cup; the pitcher's origin goes as far back to the Medieval Latin word bicarium from the Greek word bikos, which meant earthen vessel.
Compare with Dutch beker, German Becher and English beaker. An early mention of a pitcher occurs in the Book of Genesis, when Rebekah comes to Abraham's servant bearing a vessel with water. In the Book of Judges, Gideon gives empty pitchers containing lamps to three hundred men divided into three companies. In the gospels of Mark and Luke, Jesus tells two of his disciples to go into the city of Jerusalem, where they will meet a man carrying a pitcher of water, instructs them to follow him to locate the upper room to be used for the Last Supper; the pitcher of Marwan Ibn Mohammad, on display at the Museum of Islamic Art in Cairo, predates the 8th century. During the Tang Dynasty, ewers fashioned from glazed earthenware bore illustrations of Persian textiles and metalwork and depicted increased cultural diversity in populated Chinese cities. Once coveted by the upper classes, ewers became commonplace; the proverb "little pitchers have big ears" cautions adults that children are not always as naïve as they seem.
Amphora Aquamanile Ashtamangala Bridge spouted vessel Hydria Jar Jug Oenochoe Porron
Grand Est Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, is an administrative region in eastern France. It superseded three former administrative regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—on 1 January 2016, as a result of territorial reform, passed by the French legislature in 2014. Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine was a provisional name, created by hyphenating the merged regions in alphabetical order. France's Conseil d'État approved Grand Est as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016; the administrative capital and largest city is Strasbourg. The provisional name of the region was Alsace-Champagne-Ardenne-Lorraine, formed by combining the names of the three present regions—Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine—in alphabetical order with hyphens; the formula for the provisional name of the region was established by the territorial reform law and applied to all but one of the provisional names for new regions. The ACAL regional council, elected in December 2015, was given the task of choosing a name for the region and submitting it to the Conseil d'État—France's highest authority for administrative law—by 1 July 2016 for approval.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Grand Est, took effect. In Alsace and in Lorraine, the new region has been called ALCA, for Alsace-Lorraine-Champagne-Ardennes, on the internet. Like the name Région Hauts-de-France, the name Région Grand Est contains no reference whatsoever to the area's history or identity, but describes its geographical location within metropolitan France. In a poll conducted in November 2014 by France 3 in Champagne-Ardenne, Grand Est and Austrasie were the top two names among 25 candidates and 4,701 votes. Grand Est topped a poll the following month conducted by L'Est Républicain, receiving 42% of 3,324 votes; the names which received a moderate amount of discussion were: Grand Est français, a term used to refer to the northeast quarter of Metropolitan France, although this term refers to a geographic region larger than just ACAL. The term has been used and topped the polls mentioned above. Grand Est Europe, a variant of Grand Est that alludes to the region being a gateway to Europe both through trade and since Strasbourg is home to several European institutions.
However, the name was mocked for. Austrasie, which refers to an historical region spanning parts of present-day northeast France, the Benelux, northwest Germany. Quatre frontières. Grand Est is the sixth-largest of the regions of France. Grand Est borders four countries—Belgium, Luxembourg and Switzerland—along its northern and eastern sides, it is the only French region to border more than two countries. To the west and south, it borders the French regions Hauts-de-France, Île-de-France, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Grand Est contains ten departments: Ardennes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Marne, Haut-Rhin, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Moselle, Vosges; the main ranges in the region include the Vosges to the Ardennes to the north. The region is bordered on the east by the Rhine. Other major rivers which flow through the region include the Meuse, Marne, Saône. Lakes in the region include lac de Gérardmer, lac de Longemer, lac de Retournemer, lac des Corbeaux, Lac de Bouzey, lac de Madine, étang du Stock and lac de Pierre-Percée.
Grand Est climate depends of the proximity of the sea. In Champagne and Western Lorraine, the climate is oceanic, with mild summers, but Moselle and Alsace climates are humid continental, characterized by cold winters with frequent days below the freezing point, hot summers, with many days with temperatures up to 32°C. Grand Est is the result of territorial reform legislation passed in 2014 by the French Parliament to reduce the number of regions in Metropolitan France—the part of France in continental Europe—from 22 to 13. ACAL is the merger of three regions: Alsace, Champagne-Ardenne, Lorraine; the merger has been, still is opposed by some groups in Alsace, a large majority of Alsatians. The territorial reform law allows new regions to choose the seat of the regional councils, but made Strasbourg the seat of the Grand Est regional council—a move to appease the region's politicians; the region has an official population of 5,555,186. The regional council has limited administrative authority concerning the promotion of the region's economy and financing educational and cultural activities.
The regional council has no legislative authority. The seat of the regional council will be Strasbourg; the regional council, elected in December 2015, is controlled by The Republicans. The elected inaugural president of the Grand Est Regional Council is Philippe Richert, the President of the Alsace Regional Council; the current president is Jean Rottner. The region has five tram networks: Strasbourg tramway Reims tramway Nancy Guided Light Transit Mulhouse tramway Saarbahn The region has four airports: EuroAirport Basel M