Sitting volleyball is a form of volleyball for athletes with a disability that entered the Paralympic Games as a demonstration sport for athletes with amputations in 1976 in Toronto, Ontario and played as a medal sport thereafter. In sitting volleyball, a 7 meter-long, 0.8 meter-wide net is set at 1.15 meters high for men and 1.05 meters high for women. The court is 10 x 6 meters with a 2-meter attack line. Players must have at least one buttock in contact with the floor whenever they make contact with the ball, it is possible to block the serve and jousts are replayed. Athletes with the following disabilities are eligible to compete in sitting volleyball: athletes with amputations, spinal cord injuries, cerebral palsy, brain injuries and stroke. There are no athlete classifications by disability. Skills are identical to the sport of volleyball and the following game terminology apply: Ace - A serve that lands in the opponent's court without being touched. Attack - An attempt by a player to win a point by hitting the ball over the net.
Attack line - In indoor volleyball, a line three metres from the net which marks the limit for where a back-row player may advance to hit a ball from above the net. Back-row player - In indoor volleyball, any of three players positioned at the back of the court. Block - To block an opposing player from spiking the ball by jumping at the net with arms in the air. Boom - In beach volleyball, a spike straight down into the sand. Centre line - In indoor volleyball, the imaginary line running directly under the net and dividing the court in half. Chuck - To push or throw the ball rather than hit it. Court - The playing area. Crossing space - The zone above the net and between two antennae through which the ball must pass during a rally. Dig - A defensive move in which both arms are placed together in an attempt to bounce a hard-hit ball up into the air. End line - A back boundary line of the court. Facial - A boom or spike that hits an opponent in the face. Fault - A foul or error which results in the loss of the rally.
Front-row player - In indoor volleyball, any of three players positioned closest to the net. Front zone - In indoor volleyball, the area between the net and the attack line. Ground - To hit the ball to the ground, preferably on the other team's court. Heater - A hard-hit or spiked ball. Hit - To touch the ball as an offensive player, one of three "hits" allowed a team in getting the ball back over the net. Hold - To let the ball settle into the hands on a shot instead of releasing it immediately. Joust - A joust occurs above the net between two or more opposing players that forces the ball to become stationary. Point is replayed. Kill - To smash the ball overarm into the opponent's court. Kong - A one-handed block, named after King Kong's style of swatting biplanes in the original King Kong movie. Libero - In indoor volleyball, a substitute defensive player adept at digging. Lip - A good dig. Match - A series of sets to determine a winner. Mintonette - The original name for volleyball. Missile - A spike or serve hit out of bounds.
Rally - The exchange of plays that decides each point. Rotate - In indoor volleyball, to move to the next position on the floor in a clockwise manner. Screen - To impede the opponent's view of the ball during the serve. Serve - The stroke used to put the ball in play at the start of each rally. Set - 1; the part of a match completed. 2. To position the ball so a teammate can attack. Setter - A player who excels in setting up teammates to attack. Sideline - A side boundary line on a court. Spade - An ace. Spike - To smash the ball overarm into the opponent's court. Windmill Spike. List includes former members. Sitting volleyball was first demonstrated at the Summer Paralympic Games in 1976 and was introduced as a full Paralympic event in 1980; the 2000 games was the last time standing volleyball appeared on the Paralympic programme. The women's sitting volleyball event introduction followed in the 2004. At the 2016 Summer Paralympics the men's event was won by Iran and the gold medal in the women's event went to the United States.
Ranking Ranking Main article: European Para Volleyball Championships Pieter Joon - World Organization Volleyball for Disabled founder and former president Volleyball variations Volleyball at the Summer Paralympics VolleySlide Sitting volleyball on International Paralympic Committee website Beijing 2008 Paralympic Sitting Volleyball Information with an Australian slant from accessibility.com.au - includes nomination criteria for the 2008 Australian Paralympic Volleyball squad
Royal Canadian Henley Regatta
The Royal Canadian Henley Regatta started in 1880 as the first championship for the newly formed Canadian Amateur Rowing Association. It changed venues until 1903, when it was decided to hold it at St. Catharines Port Dalhousie's Martindale Pond hosted by the St. Catharines Rowing Club permanently; the race was 1 mile 550 yards long, the same distance as the Henley Royal Regatta in England at the time. The pond was an ideal location. Wooden grandstands were built, in 1947, women raced for the first time. In 1964, the distance was changed to 2000 meters, the current standard distance for international competition; the facilities were redone in 1966, in 1972, women's races became a permanent, rather than exhibition event. In 1999, the facilities were again upgraded for the 1999 World Rowing Championships; the Royal Canadian Henley Regatta has welcomed many famous spectators, including Grace Kelly, former Prime Minister The Right Honourable Pierre Elliott Trudeau and former Prime Minister The Right Honourable Jean Chrétien.
The Ontario Heritage Trust erected a plaque honouring the Royal Canadian Henley Regatta at the entrance to the Henley Regatta Course Grandstand, Main Street, St. Catharines. "Competitive rowing became popular in Canada in the 1860s, in 1880 the first Royal Canadian Henley Regatta for international oarsmen was held in Toronto. In 1903, a section of the old Welland Canal at Port Dalhousie was chosen as the permanent site for this popular sporting competition." List of Canadian organizations with royal patronage CSSRA rowing: High School Rowing at the Royal Canadian Henley Course Royal Canadian Henley Rowing Course Official Site Historic images Niagara Falls Public Library
The Maadi Cup is the prize for the New Zealand Secondary Schools Boys' Under 18 Rowing Eights. More colloquially, it is the name given to the New Zealand Secondary Schools Rowing Regatta, at which the Maadi Cup is raced; the regatta is the largest school sports event in the Southern Hemisphere, with over 2100 rowers from 125 secondary schools participating in 2014. The regatta is held annually in late March, alternating between the country's two main rowing venues: Lake Karapiro near Cambridge, Lake Ruataniwha near Twizel; the top prizes at the regatta are the Maadi Cup, Springbok Shield, Levin Jubilee Cup, Dawn Cup and Star Trophy. During World War II, members of the 2nd NZEF based at Maadi Camp in Egypt competed in regattas on the Nile against local Egyptian rowing clubs. At a regatta held on 20 November 1943 the Maadi Camp Rowing Club "Kiwi" oarsmen beat the Cairo River Club by 11 points to six to win the Freyberg Cup, which they gifted to the competitors. In return, as a token of friendship, Youssef Baghat presented the Kiwis with a cup.
Youssef Baghat's cup was offered to the NZARA as a trophy for an annual boys' eight-oared race between secondary schools and was brought to New Zealand at the end of the war. Renamed the Maadi Cup it was first raced for in 1947 at Wanganui where it was won by Mount Albert Grammar School, who beat Sacred Heart College by a half-length. Four boats took part with Allan Tong a member of Wanganui Technical College; the fourth boat was from St Augustine's College. The Maadi Cup gained its native timber pyramid shaped base from Mt Albert Grammar's woodwork master and first rowing coach, Jack Jenkin, in 1951. Only 15 schools have won the cup, with Wanganui Collegiate School the most successful, having won it 17 times. Members for the 2nd NZEF competed in rowing regattas and won races run by the Cairo River Club until they were shipped back to New Zealand at the end of the War. Schools that have won the Maadi Cup: 1:Wanganui Collegiate School 2:Christ's College 2:Hamilton Boys' High School 4:Mount Albert Grammar School 5:Tauranga Boys' College 6:Westlake Boys High School 7:Auckland Grammar School 7:St Paul's Collegiate School 7:Wanganui Technical College 10:Fraser High School 10:King's College 10:New Plymouth Boys' High School 10:Sacred Heart College 10:St Bede's College 10:Wanganui High School 10:St Andrew's College, Christchurch 10:Christchurch Boy's High School Springbok ShieldThe Springbok Shield is the prize for the boys' under 18 coxed four.
It was instigated in 1964 by Mr Cecil Purvis, visiting South Africa at the time and met with members of the Johannesburg youth rowing community. After much discussion the Springbok Shield eventuated; the Shield is made from segments of all the woods from South Africa and was first rowed for in 1965 when it was won by Hamilton Boys' High School. Levin 75th Jubilee CupThe Levin Cup is awarded to the winner of the girls' under 18 eight. In 1981 the Maadi Regatta was held on Lake Horowhenua; that year the Levin Borough Council was holding its 75th Jubilee. The mayor, Jack Bolderson, decided that a fitting memorial would be for a cup for the girls senior eight; the inaugural winner was Wanganui Girls College. Dawn CupThe Dawn Cup is awarded to the winner of the girls' under 18 coxed four. Star TrophyThe Star Trophy is the prize awarded to the top overall school at the Regatta, therefore come to denote the top rowing school in New Zealand; the Star trophy was donated by Star Boating Club. The award is determined on a points basis: schools winning events get 5 points, runners up get 3 points, third place-getters get one point Executive TrophyThe Executive Trophy is the prize awarded to the top overall school in sweep-oar events at the Regatta.
Presidents ScullThe Presidents Scull is the prize awarded to the top overall school in sculling events at the Regatta. Rowers and coxswains in the Maadi Cup must be full-time students at a registered New Zealand school, must be studying at secondary level, they must have a satisfactory school attendance record, in the opinion of the school's principal, in order to participate. The regatta is split into four age classification: under 15, under 16, under 17, under 18. Only students who are under the specified age at 1 January preceding the regatta may compete in that class. For example, a student, aged 15 on 1 January may compete in the under 16, under 17 and under 18 classifications, but not the under 15 classification. Females may cox male boats, vice versa; the minimum weight for coxswains is 55 kg for under 18 open-weight events, 50 kg for all other events. For lightweight events, the international weight standard is used: males must be under 72.5 kg, females must be under 59 kg. In mid-2007, the New Zealand Secondary Schools Sports Council introduced a quota system restricting the number of new-to-school and international students a school can field at national championships, including the Maadi Cup, in an aim to reduce top sporting schools "poaching" athletes from other schools.
A new-to-school student is a student who has enrolled at the school in the 24 months prior to the event, excluding students who enrolled at the school in Year 9 or below. An international student is a student, not a New Zealand or Australian citizen, or the holder of a New Zealand resident visa or domestic-endorsed student visa. For eights, no more than three crew members that are classified as a new-to-school or international students are permitted per boat, with no more than t
Wheelchair fencing is a version of fencing for athletes with a disability. Wheelchair fencing is governed by the International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation, a federation of the International Paralympic Committee, is one of the sports in the Summer Paralympic Games; the Paralympic games take place every 4 years in different countries. Class A class B class C Paralympic sport Wheelchair fencing at the Summer Paralympics IWAS Wheelchair Fencing Wheelchair Fencing on International Paralympic Committee website Wheelchair fencing at the Paralympics
Henley Royal Regatta
Henley Royal Regatta is a rowing event held annually on the River Thames by the town of Henley-on-Thames, England. It was established on 26 March 1839, it differs from the three other regattas rowed over the same course, Henley Women's Regatta, Henley Masters Regatta and Henley Town and Visitors' Regatta, each of, an separate event. The regatta lasts for five days ending on the first weekend in July. Races are head-to-head knock out competitions, raced over a course of 1 mile 550 yards; the regatta attracts international crews to race. The most prestigious event at the regatta is the Grand Challenge Cup for Men's Eights, awarded since the regatta was first staged; as the regatta pre-dates any national or international rowing organisation, it has its own rules and organisation, although it is recognised by both British Rowing and FISA. The regatta is organised by a self-electing body of Stewards, who are former rowers themselves. Pierre de Coubertin modelled elements of the organisation of the International Olympic Committee on the Henley Stewards.
The regatta is regarded as part of the English social season. As with other events in the season, certain enclosures at the regatta have strict dress codes; the Stewards’ Enclosure has a strict dress code of lounge suits for men. Entries for the regatta close at 6:00 pm sixteen days before the Regatta. In order to encourage a high quality of racing, create a manageable race timetable and to ensure that most crews race only once a day, each event has a limited number of places. Qualifying races are held on the Friday before the regatta; the regatta's Committee of Management decides at its absolute discretion which crews are obliged to qualify. The qualifying races take the form of a timed processional race up the regatta course, with the fastest crews qualifying. Times are released for non-qualifying crews only; this does not stop an enthusiastic band of unofficial timers with synchronised watches working out how fast their first round opposition might be. If it is apparent that there are a number of outstanding crews in an event, they may be'selected' by the Stewards, to prevent them from meeting too early in the competition.
The regatta insists that selection is not the same as seeding, the main difference being that there is no'rank order' as is the case in, for example, a tennis tournament. The draw is a public event that takes place in the Henley town hall at 3 pm on the Saturday before the regatta. For each event the names of all selected crews are placed on pieces of paper which are drawn at random from the Grand Challenge Cup; these crews are placed on pre-determined positions on the draw chart, as far apart as possible. The remaining qualifying crews are drawn from the cup, filling in from the top of the draw chart downwards, until all places have been filled; each event in the regatta takes the form of a knockout competition, with each race consisting of two crews racing side by side up the Henley course. The course is marked out by two lines of booms, which are placed along the river to form a straight course 2,112 metres long; the course is wide enough to allow two crews to race down with a few metres between them.
As such it is not uncommon for inexperienced steersmen or coxswains to crash into the booms costing their crew the race. The race begins at the downstream end of Temple Island, where the crews attach to a pair of pontoons; the race umpire will call out the names of the two crews and start them when they are both straight and ready. Each crew is assigned to row on either the'Bucks' or'Berks' side of the race course; the coxswains or steersmen are expected to keep their crew on the allocated side of the course at all times during the race, else they risk disqualification. The only exception is when a crew leads by a sizeable margin and is not deemed by the umpire to be impeding the trailing crew. There are several progress markers along the course. Intermediate times are recorded at two of them – "the Barrier" and "Fawley", in addition to the time to the finish; the regatta has official commentary, announced at these points along the course. The commentary is renowned for being unemotional and factual, with the commentator only allowed to announce the rate of striking, which crew is leading, the distance between the crews, the progress marker which the crews are passing.
Henley Royal Regatta has always been raced over a distance of ‘about one mile and 550 yards’ from Temple Island upstream towards Henley Bridge. However, four distinct courses have been used over the regatta's history, with smaller changes being made incrementally. Changes to the course have all been aimed at improving the prospects for safe racing; this ran from a point just upstream of Temple Island. At the first regatta in 1839, the finish line was Henley Bridge itself, but it was quickly realised that this had inherent problems. From 1840 onward the finish was moved downstream slightly. A grandstand was erected for their guests outside the Red Lion. Other spectators could watch from the adjacent roadway while those with carriages surveyed the scene from a vantage p
Boston Rowing Marathon
The Boston Rowing Marathon is a rowing head race taking place on the third Sunday of September annually in Lincolnshire, over the exceptionally long distance of 49.2 km. The course is along the River Witham from Lincoln to Boston, The event started as a one-off competition in 1946, as a pub bet, was big news for the town; this original row was from Boston to Lincoln and was repeated for the next 3 years as a private event. In 1949, Crowland Rowing Club competed, the course was reversed to finish at Boston, it was easier to finish at the boathouse, the pub was next door. In 1950 the event was opened to all competitors and has remained so to this day, is organised by Boston Rowing Club; the long distance of the event thus attracts a lot of entries. The event is unusual in accepting entries from all crews and categories; the current record for the marathon is 2 h 59 min 45 s, set in 1991 by a University of London Boat Club men's eight. The race was cancelled in 2000, due to that year's fuel crisis, in 2011 due to an unusually prolific growth of water weed.
The start is a set of landing stages at Lincoln Rowing Centre, Stamp End Lock, Waterside South, Lincoln. The centre was founded in 2006 in response to marathon being the only rowing hosted in Lincoln; the race follows the straightened Witham downstream to the finish line at Boston Rowing Club boathouse, 660 m north of the first bridges in Boston. One lock is present in the course; the Great River Race on the River Thames, founded in 1988, is a 22-mile rowing race, but is only open to traditional boats. The Ringvaart Regatta, founded in 1976, is a 100 km rowing race on the Ringvaart in the Netherlands. Website
Australian Rowing Championships
The Australian Rowing Championships is an annual rowing event that determines Australia's national rowing champions and facilitates selection of Australian representative crews for World Championships and the Olympic Games. It is Australia's premier regatta, with states and schools sending their best crews; the Championships commence with the National Regatta - men's, women's and lightweight events in open, under 23, under 19, under 17 and school age categories. Rowers at the National Regatta race in their local club colours with composite crews permitted; the Championships conclude with the Interstate Regatta - eight events competed by state representative crews or scullers selected by the state rowing associations. The states compete for an overall points tally. Inter-colonial racing began in Australia in 1833. Schools and club events were the top-class races throughout the mid 19th century although New South Wales and Victoria raced in men's IVs from 1863. In 1878 Victoria and New South Wales commenced inter-colonial racing in eight-oared boats and the other colonies and joined them such that by 1906 all six Australian states were sending a men's VIII and a sculler, to the annual Interstate Regatta.
A national open rowing championship was discussed at Australian Rowing Council meetings from 1946 but it wasn't until the 1960s that support for the concept was unanimous outside of New South Wales and Victoria. The first National Open Championship Regatta was held in 1962 and was held every two years. Since 1969 the National Regatta has been annual and since 1976 has been held within the same single programme as the Interstate Regatta creating the combined Australian Rowing Championships; the National Regatta includes a diverse program of club and school events. The Sydney Cup was first presented in 2005; the current title holders are Methodist Ladies' College. The Barrington Cup was first presented in 1984; the current title holders are Scotch College VIC. The Interstate Regatta is held at the conclusion of the National Regatta and includes the following races for state representative crews: Australia's blue-ribbon annual rowing race for men. Contested by state representative senior heavyweight men's coxed eights.
An intercolonial sculling race between New South Wales and Victoria was first held in 1868 and annually from 1895 with Queensland racing. Tasmania has been represented since 1903. South Australia and West Australia have entered scullers with some regularity but not until the 1960s; the first President of the Australian Amateur Rowing Council, Mr E. C. Watchorn, donated the President's Cup in 1925 as the perpetual trophy for the annual Australian Interstate Single Sculling Championship, it was first won by A A Baynes of Queensland. Mervyn Wood contested the event on nine occasions, won on a record eight occasions, seven of them consecutive 1946 to 1952. G Squires contested the event on eight occasions from 1956 to 1963 winning at his last attempt and finishing second six times. Ted Hale contested the event on a record twelve occasions and won on six occasions, all consecutive from 1976 to 1981, his NSW colleague Dr. Dick Redell finished 2nd to Hale in'76,'77 &'79 and was 3rd in'78. Duncan Free contested the event on eight occasions from 1996 to 2004 winning seven times.
Bobby Pearce won on three occasions from 1927 to 1929 and by a 30 length margin in 1928. His cousin Cecil Pearce won from 1936 to 1939. Cecil's son Gary Pearce won in 1965; the premier interstate event for women was the ULVA trophy which from 1920 till 1998 was a fours event. The trophy had first been presented by the United Licensed Victuallers Association of Queensland. In 1999 the women's interstate race was changed to an event for VIIIs with the Queen's Cup as the prize. Of the seventy-eight occasions between 1920 and 1999 that the race was held in IVs, New South Wales won thirty-one times with eleven of those victories consecutive between 1955 and 1965. Victoria managed twenty-four victories in that period with eleven of them consecutive and enjoying another eleven year consecutive run from 2005 to 2015. Of the twenty-five events up until 2015, Victoria were the victors on eighteen occasions. Kim Crow contested the event for Victoria on nine occasions in the ten years 2007 to 2016 and achieved nine victories.
Pauline Frasca made eleven appearances for Victoria in the event between from 2003 and 2014 and saw nine victories. Robyn Selby Smith contested the event for Victoria on ten occasions between 2002 and 2012 achieving seven victories. Alexandra Hagan contested the event on nine consecutive occasions for West Australia between 2008 and 2016. Lucy Stephan contested the event on seven consecutive occasions for Victoria for seven straight wins from 2012 to 2018. Kate Hornsey was seated in every Tasmanian VIII entered in the event between 2003 to 2014, she stroked six of those crews. The Penrith Cup for a lightweight men's IV was introduced in 1958. Simon Burgess contested the event on ten occasions for Tasmania between 1993 and 2005, eight as stroke, he was victorious on seven consecutive occasions from 1999 to 2005, five of those as stroke. Thomas Gibson contested the event on eight occasions for Tasmania between 2004 and 2012, he was victorious six times, four of those as stroke. Samuel Beltz contested the event on ten occasions for Tasmania between 2002 and 2014.
He was victorious eight times. Vaughan Bollen contested the event on eleven occasions - nine times for South Australia, twice for Victoria, he won twice, once for each of th