Exploratory data analysis
In statistics, exploratory data analysis is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics with visual methods. A statistical model can be used or not, but EDA is for seeing what the data can tell us beyond the formal modeling or hypothesis testing task. Exploratory data analysis was promoted by John Tukey to encourage statisticians to explore the data, formulate hypotheses that could lead to new data collection and experiments. EDA is different from initial data analysis, which focuses more narrowly on checking assumptions required for model fitting and hypothesis testing, handling missing values and making transformations of variables as needed. EDA encompasses IDA. Tukey defined data analysis in 1961 as: " Procedures for analyzing data, techniques for interpreting the results of such procedures, ways of planning the gathering of data to make its analysis easier, more precise or more accurate, all the machinery and results of statistics which apply to analyzing data."Tukey's championing of EDA encouraged the development of statistical computing packages S at Bell Labs.
The S programming language inspired the systems'S'-PLUS and R. This family of statistical-computing environments featured vastly improved dynamic visualization capabilities, which allowed statisticians to identify outliers and patterns in data that merited further study. Tukey's EDA was related to two other developments in statistical theory: robust statistics and nonparametric statistics, both of which tried to reduce the sensitivity of statistical inferences to errors in formulating statistical models. Tukey promoted the use of five number summary of numerical data—the two extremes, the median, the quartiles—because these median and quartiles, being functions of the empirical distribution are defined for all distributions, unlike the mean and standard deviation; the packages S, S-PLUS, R included routines using resampling statistics, such as Quenouille and Tukey's jackknife and Efron's bootstrap, which are nonparametric and robust. Exploratory data analysis, robust statistics, nonparametric statistics, the development of statistical programming languages facilitated statisticians' work on scientific and engineering problems.
Such problems included the fabrication of semiconductors and the understanding of communications networks, which concerned Bell Labs. These statistical developments, all championed by Tukey, were designed to complement the analytic theory of testing statistical hypotheses the Laplacian tradition's emphasis on exponential families. John W. Tukey wrote the book Exploratory Data Analysis in 1977. Tukey held. In particular, he held that confusing the two types of analyses and employing them on the same set of data can lead to systematic bias owing to the issues inherent in testing hypotheses suggested by the data; the objectives of EDA are to: Suggest hypotheses about the causes of observed phenomena Assess assumptions on which statistical inference will be based Support the selection of appropriate statistical tools and techniques Provide a basis for further data collection through surveys or experimentsMany EDA techniques have been adopted into data mining, as well as into big data analytics.
They are being taught to young students as a way to introduce them to statistical thinking. There are a number of tools that are useful for EDA, but EDA is characterized more by the attitude taken than by particular techniques. Typical graphical techniques used in EDA are: Box plot Histogram Multi-vari chart Run chart Pareto chart Scatter plot Stem-and-leaf plot Parallel coordinates Odds ratio Targeted projection pursuit Glyph-based visualization methods such as PhenoPlot and Chernoff faces Dimensionality reduction: Multidimensional scaling Principal component analysis Multilinear PCA Nonlinear dimensionality reduction Projection methods such as grand tour, guided tour and manual tour Interactive versions of these plotsTypical quantitative techniques are: Median polish Trimean Ordination Many EDA ideas can be traced back to earlier authors, for example: Francis Galton emphasized order statistics and quantiles. Arthur Lyon Bowley used precursors of the five-number summary. Andrew Ehrenberg articulated a philosophy of data reduction.
The Open University course Statistics in Society, took the above ideas and merged them with Gottfried Noether's work, which introduced statistical inference via coin-tossing and the median test. Findings from EDA are orthogonal to the primary analysis task. To illustrate, consider an example from Cook et al where the analysis task is to find the variables which best predict the tip that a dining party will give to the waiter; the variables available in the data collected for this task are: the tip amount, total bill, payer gender, smoking/non-smoking section, time of day, day of the week, size of the party. The primary analysis task is approached by fitting a regression model where the tip rate is the response variable; the fitted model is tip_rate = 0.18 - 0.01×party_size which says that as the size of the dining p
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
The Mythical Man-Month
The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering is a book on software engineering and project management by Fred Brooks first published in 1975, with subsequent editions in 1982 and 1995. Its central theme is that "adding manpower to a late software project makes it later"; this idea is known as Brooks' law, is presented along with the second-system effect and advocacy of prototyping. Brooks' observations are based on his experiences at IBM while managing the development of OS/360, he had added more programmers to a project falling behind schedule, a decision that he would conclude had, counter-intuitively, delayed the project further. He made the mistake of asserting that one project—involved in writing an ALGOL compiler—would require six months, regardless of the number of workers involved; the tendency for managers to repeat such errors in project development led Brooks to quip that his book is called "The Bible of Software Engineering", because "everybody quotes it, some people read it, a few people go by it".
The book is regarded as a classic on the human elements of software engineering. The work was first published in 1975, reprinted with corrections in 1982, republished in an anniversary edition with four extra chapters in 1995, including a reprint of the essay "No Silver Bullet" with commentary by the author. Brooks discusses several causes of scheduling failures; the most enduring is his discussion of Brooks's law: Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later. Man-month is a hypothetical unit of work representing the work done by one person in one month. Complex programming projects cannot be partitioned into discrete tasks that can be worked on without communication between the workers and without establishing a set of complex interrelationships between tasks and the workers performing them. Therefore, assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will make it later; this is because the time required for the new programmers to learn about the project and the increased communication overhead will consume an increasing quantity of the calendar time available.
When n people have to communicate among themselves, as n increases, their output decreases and when it becomes negative the project is delayed further with every person added. Group intercommunication formula: n / 2 Example: 50 developers give 50 · / 2 = 1225 channels of communication. Brooks added "No Silver Bullet — Essence and Accidents of Software Engineering"—and further reflections on it, "'No Silver Bullet' Refired"—to the anniversary edition of The Mythical Man-Month. Brooks insists that there is no one silver bullet -- "there is no single development, in either technology or management technique, which by itself promises one order of magnitude improvement within a decade in productivity, in reliability, in simplicity." The argument relies on the distinction between accidental complexity and essential complexity, similar to the way Amdahl's law relies on the distinction between "strictly serial" and "parallelizable". The second-system effect proposes that, when an architect designs a second system, it is the most dangerous system they will design, because they will tend to incorporate all of the additions they did not add to the first system due to inherent time constraints.
Thus, when embarking on a second system, an engineer should be mindful that they are susceptible to over-engineering it. The author makes the observation that in a suitably complex system there is a certain irreducible number of errors. Any attempt to fix observed. Brooks wrote "Question: How does a large software project get to be one year late? Answer: One day at a time!" Incremental slippages on many fronts accumulate to produce a large overall delay. Continued attention to meeting small individual milestones is required at each level of management. To make a user-friendly system, the system must have conceptual integrity, which can only be achieved by separating architecture from implementation. A single chief architect, acting on the user's behalf, decides what goes in the system and what stays out; the architect or team of architects should develop an idea of what the system should do and make sure that this vision is understood by the rest of the team. A novel idea by someone may not be included if it does not fit seamlessly with the overall system design.
In fact, to ensure a user-friendly system, a system may deliberately provide fewer features than it is capable of. The point being, if a system is too complicated to use, many features will go unused because no one has time to learn them; the chief architect produces a manual of system specifications. It should describe the external specifications of the system in detail, i.e. everything that the user sees. The manual should be altered as feedback comes in from the users; when designing a new kind of system, a team will design a throw-away system. This system acts as a "pilot plan" that reveals techniques that will subsequently cause a complete redesign of the system; this second, smarter system should be the one delivered to the customer, since delivery of the pilot system would cause nothing but agony to the customer, ruin the system's reputation and maybe the company. Every project manager should create a small core set of formal documents defining the project objectives, how they are to be achieved, going to achieve them, when they are going to be achieved, how much
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Bjarne Stroustrup is a Danish computer scientist, most notable for the creation and development of the C++ programming language. He is a visiting professor at Columbia University, works at Morgan Stanley as a Managing Director in New York. Stroustrup has a master's degree in mathematics and computer science from Aarhus University, a PhD in computer science in 1979 from the University of Cambridge, England supervised by David Wheeler. Stroustrup began developing C++ in 1979, and, in his own words, "invented C++, wrote its early definitions, produced its first implementation... chose and formulated the design criteria for C++, designed all its major facilities, was responsible for the processing of extension proposals in the C++ standards committee." Stroustrup wrote a textbook for the language, The C++ Programming Language. Stroustrup was the head of AT&T Bell Labs' Large-scale Programming Research department, from its creation until late 2002. Stroustrup was elected member of the National Academy of Engineering in 2004.
He was elected a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1994 and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. From 2002 to 2014, Stroustrup was the College of Engineering Chair in Computer Science Professor at Texas A&M University; as of January 2014, Stroustrup is a Managing Director in the technology division of Morgan Stanley in New York City and a Visiting Professor in Computer Science at Columbia University. Stroustrup has written or co-written a number of publications, including the books A Tour of C++, Programming: Principles and Practice Using C++, The C++ Programming Language and Evolution of C++ and The Annotated C++ Reference Manual. Stroustrup has been a noble doctor at ITMO University since 2013. Stroustrup won the Senior Dahl–Nygaard Prize in 2015; the same year, he was made a Fellow of the Computer History Museum for his invention of the C++ programming language. In 2017, the Institution of Engineering and Technology awarded him the Faraday Medal, for pioneering C++, one of the most influential programming languages in the history of computing.
On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, which comes with $500,000. He was named winner of 2018 Computer Pioneer Award of the IEEE Computer Society, he was awarded an honorary doctor from the University Carlos III, Spain on 25 January 2019
Iron John: A Book About Men
Iron John: A Book About Men is a book by American poet Robert Bly published in 1990 by Addison-Wesley, is his best-known work. An exegesis of Iron John, a parable about a boy maturing into adulthood with help of the wild man, part of the Grimms' Fairy Tales published in 1812 by German folklorists Brothers Grimm, it spent 62 weeks on The New York Times Best Seller list and went on to become a pioneering work in the mythopoetic men's movement. Bly used Jungian psychology, various myths, legends and fairy tales to analyze Iron John in the style of Bruno Bettelheim, to find lessons meaningful to men and the men's movement. Bly believes that this fairy tale Iron John contains lessons from the past of great importance to modern men. Bly built upon material in "What Do Men Really Want?: A New Age Interview With Robert Bly" by Keith Thompson, New Age Journal, May 1982, first appeared as a series of pamphlets. The cover was illustrated by Bruce Waldman; the 2004 edition, comes with a new preface by the author.
In 1993 a full-length critique of the book was published by Charles Upton. Carroll, Bret, ed.. "Iron John: A Book About Men". American Masculinities: A Historical Encyclopedia. SAGE Publications. Pp. 241–2. ISBN 978-1-45-226571-1. Welcome to the Robert Bly Web Site
Simon & Schuster
Simon & Schuster, Inc. a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster. As of 2016, Simon & Schuster was publishing 2,000 titles annually under 35 different imprints. In 1924, Richard Simon's aunt, a crossword puzzle enthusiast, asked whether there was a book of New York World crossword puzzles, which were popular at the time. After discovering that none had been published and Max Schuster decided to launch a company to exploit the opportunity. At the time, Simon was a piano salesman and Schuster was editor of an automotive trade magazine, they pooled US$8,000, equivalent to $117 thousand today, to start a company that published crossword puzzles. The new publishing house used "fad" publishing to publish books that exploited current fads and trends. Simon called this "planned publishing". Instead of signing authors with a planned manuscript, they came up with their own ideas, hired writers to carry them out. In the 1930s, the publisher moved to what has been referred to as "Publisher's Row" on Park Avenue in Manhattan, New York.
In 1939, Simon & Schuster financially backed Robert Fair de Graff to found Pocket Books, America's first paperback publisher. In 1942, Simon & Schuster and Western Printing launched the Little Golden Books series in cooperation with the Artists and Writers Guild. In 1944, Marshall Field III, owner of the Chicago Sun, purchased Pocket Books; the company was sold back to Schuster following his death. In the 1950s and 1960s, many publishers including Simon & Schuster turned toward educational publishing due to the baby boom market. Pocket Books focused on paperbacks for the educational market instead of textbooks and started the Washington Square Press imprint in 1959. By 1964 it had published over 200 titles and was expected to put out another 400 by the end of that year. Books published under the imprint included classic reprints such as Lorna Doone, Tom Sawyer, Huckleberry Finn, Robinson Crusoe. In 1966, Max Schuster sold his half of Simon & Schuster to Leon Shimkin. Shimkin merged Simon & Schuster with Pocket Books under the name of Simon & Schuster.
In 1968, editor-in-chief Robert Gottlieb, who worked at Simon & Schuster since 1955 and edited several bestsellers including Joseph Heller's Catch-22, left abruptly to work at competitor Knopf, taking other influential S&S employees, Nina Bourne, Tony Schulte. In 1979, Richard Snyder was named CEO of the company. Over the next several years he would help grow the company substantially. After the 1983 death of Charles Bluhdorn, head of Gulf+Western who acquired Simon in Schuster in 1976, the company made the decision to diversify. Bluhdorn's successor Martin Davis told The New York Times, "Society was undergoing dramatic changes, so that there was a greater need for textbooks and educational information. We saw the opportunity to diversify into those areas, which are more stable and more profitable than trade publishing."In 1984, Simon & Schuster with CEO Richard E. Snyder acquired Esquire Corporation, buying everything but the magazine for $180 million. Prentice Hall was brought into the company fold in 1985 for over $700 million and was viewed by some executives to be a catalyst for change for the company as a whole.
This acquisition was followed by Silver Burdett in 1986, mapmaker Gousha in 1987 and Charles E. Simon in 1988. Part of the acquisition included educational publisher Allyn & Bacon which, according to editor and chief Michael Korda, became the "nucleus of S&S's educational and informational business." Three California educational companies were purchased between 1988 and 1990—Quercus, Fearon Education and Janus Book Publishers. In all, Simon & Schuster spent more than $1 billion in acquisitions between 1983 and 1991. In the 1980s, Snyder made an unsuccessful bid toward video publishing, believed to have led to the company's success in the audio book business. Snyder was dismayed to realize that Simon & Schuster did not own the video rights to Jane Fonda's Workout Book, a huge bestseller at the time, that the video company producing the VHS was making more money on the video; this prompted Snyder to ask editors to obtain video rights for every new book. Agents were reluctant to give these up—which meant the S&S Video division never took off.
According to Korda, the audio rights expanded into the audio division which by the 1990s would be a major business for Simon & Schuster. In 1989, Gulf and Western Inc. owner of Simon & Schuster, changed its name to Paramount Communications Inc. In 1990, The New York Times described Simon & Schuster as the largest book publisher in the United States with sales of $1.3 billion the previous year. That same year, Schuster acquired the children's publisher Green Tiger Press. In 1994, was fired from S&S and was replaced by the company's president and chief operating officer Jonathan Newcomb; that year, Paramount was sold to Viacom. In 1998, Viacom sold Simon & Schuster's educational operations, including Prentice Hall and Macmillan, to Pearson PLC, the global publisher and owner of Penguin and the Financial Times; the professional and reference operations were sold to Hicks Muse Furst. In 2002, Simon & Schuster acquired its Canadian distributor Distican. Simon & Schuster began publishing in Canada in 2013.
At the end of 2005, Viacom split into two companies: CBS Corporation, the other retaining the Viacom name. In 2005, Simon & Schuster acquired Strebor Books International, founded in 1999 by author Kristina Laferne Roberts, who has written under the pseudonym "Zane." A year in 2006, Simon & Schuster launched the conservative imprint Threshold Editions. In 2009, Simon & Schuster