City College of New York
The City College of the City University of New York is a public senior college of the City University of New York in New York City. Located in Hamilton Heights overlooking Harlem in Manhattan, City College's 35-acre Collegiate Gothic campus spans Convent Avenue from 130th to 141st Streets, it was designed by renowned architect George B. Post, many of its buildings have achieved landmark status. Affectionately known as "the Harvard of the proletariat," the college has graduated ten Nobel Prize winners, one Fields Medalist, one Turing Award winner, three Pulitzer Prizes winners, 3 Rhodes Scholars. Among these alumni, the latest is John O'Keefe. Founded in 1847, City College was the first free public institution of higher education in the United States, it is the oldest of CUNY's 24 institutions of higher learning, is considered its flagship college. Other primacies at City College that helped shape the culture of American higher education include the first student government in the nation; the City College of New York was founded as the Free Academy of the City of New York in 1847 by wealthy businessman and president of the Board of Education Townsend Harris.
A combination prep school, high school / secondary school and college, it would provide children of immigrants and the poor access to free higher education based on academic merit alone. It was one of the early public high schools in America following earlier similar institutions being founded in Boston and Baltimore; the Free Academy was the first of what would become a system of municipally-supported colleges – the second, Hunter College, was founded as a women's institution in 1870. In 1847, New York State Governor John Young had given permission to the state Board of Education to found the Free Academy, ratified in a statewide referendum. Founder Townsend Harris proclaimed, "Open the doors to all… Let the children of the rich and the poor take their seats together and know of no distinction save that of industry, good conduct and intellect." Dr. Horace Webster, a United States Military Academy at West Point graduate, was the first president of the Free Academy. On the occasion of The Free Academy's formal opening, January 21, 1849, Webster said: The experiment is to be tried, whether the children of the people, the children of the whole people, can be educated.
In 1847, a curriculum was adopted which had nine main fields: mathematics, language, drawing, natural philosophy, experimental philosophy and political economy. The Academy's first graduation took place in 1853 in Niblo's Garden Theatre, a large theater and opera house on Broadway, near Houston Street at the corner of Broadway and Prince Street. In its early years, the Free Academy showed tolerance for diversity in comparison to its urban neighbor, Columbia College, exclusive to the sons of wealthy families; the Free Academy had a framework of tolerance that extended beyond the admission of students from every social stratum. In 1854, Columbia's trustees denied distinguished chemist and scientist Oliver Wolcott Gibbs a faculty position because of Gibbs's Unitarian religious beliefs. Gibbs was a professor and held an appointment at the Free Academy since 1848. In the history of CCNY, in the early 1900s, President John H. Finley gave the College a more secular orientation by abolishing mandatory chapel attendance.
This change occurred at a time. In 1866, the Free Academy, a men's institution, was renamed the "College of the City of New York". In 1929, the College of the City of New York became the "City College of New York"; the institution became known as the "City College of the City University of New York" when the CUNY was formally established as the umbrella institution for New York City's municipal-college system in 1961. The names City College of New York and City College, remain in general use. With the name change in 1866, lavender was chosen as the College's color. In 1867, the academic senate, the first student government in the nation, was formed. Having struggled over the issue for ten years, in 1895, the New York state Legislature voted to let the City College build a new campus. A four-square block site was chosen, located in Manhattanville, within the area, enclosed by the North Campus Arches. Like President Webster, the second president of the newly renamed City College was a West Point graduate.
The second president, General Alexander S. Webb, assumed office in 1869, serving for the next three decades. One of the Union Army's heroes at Gettysburg, General Webb was the commander of the Phi
Baruch College is a public research university in New York City. It is a constituent college of the City University of New York system. Named for financier and statesman Bernard M. Baruch, the college operates undergraduate, Ph. D. programs through its Zicklin School of Business, the Weissman School of Arts and Sciences, the Marxe School of Public and International Affairs. Baruch is one of CUNY's senior colleges, it traces its roots back to the 1847 founding of the Free Academy, the first institution of free public higher education in the United States. The New York State Literature Fund was created to serve students who could not afford to enroll in New York City’s private colleges; the Fund led to the creation of the Committee of the Board of Education of the City of New York, led by Townsend Harris, J. S. Bosworth, John L. Mason, which brought about the establishment of what would become the Free Academy, on Lexington Avenue in Manhattan; the Free Academy became the College of the City of New York, now The City College of New York.
In 1919, what would become Baruch College was established as City College School of Business and Civic Administration. On December 15, 1928, the cornerstone was laid on the new building which would house the newly founded school. At this point, the school did not admit women. At the time it opened it was considered the biggest such school for the teaching of business education in the United States. By the 1930s, women were allowed into the School of Business; the total enrollment at CCNY reached an all-time high of 40,000 students in 1935, the School of Business had an enrollment of more than 1,700 students in the day session alone. In 1953, it was renamed the Baruch School of Business in honor of Bernard Baruch, after an 1889 graduate of CCNY who went on to become a prominent financier and adviser to two presidents. In 1961, the New York State Education Law established the City University of New York system. In 1968, the Baruch School of Business was spun off as Baruch College, an independent senior college in the City University system.
The first president of the new college was the previous Federal Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Robert C. Weaver. In 1971, the college appointed a noted educator, as its president, he was succeeded by economist Joel Edwin Segall in 1977. Segall recruited several well-known faculty members to the School of Business and established the college's permanent home on Lower Lexington Avenue. Matthew Goldstein was president of the school from 1991 to 1998, he was responsible for raising admissions requirements and creating the School of Public Affairs in 1994. Edward Regan, former comptroller of New York state, served as president from 2000 to 2004. During his tenure, test scores rose, student retention rates increased, many new faculty members were hired. In 2001, the Vertical Campus opened and Baruch accepted its first students from the CUNY Honors College, now known as the Macaulay Honors College; the college implemented a common core curriculum for all undergraduates. Baruch received donations from alumni, the Vertical Campus, 23rd Street building, Performing Arts complex, respectively.
Alumni giving has increased under "Baruch Means Business," a $150 million capital campaign. In August 2009, Waldron resigned from her position to become a University Professor at the Graduate Center. Stan Altman, the former dean of the School of Public Affairs from 1999 to 2005, was named interim president. On February 22, 2010, Dr. Mitchel Wallerstein, Dean of the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs at Syracuse University, was appointed as the next President of Baruch College, he took office on August 2, 2010. Baruch was the scene of student protests in 2011 as a result of tuition hikes; this resulted in arrests. Larry Zicklin, who endowed the Zicklin School of Business with an $18 million gift in 1997, is a Clinical Professor at Stern School of Business at New York University and teaches courses in Corporate Governance and the Management of a Financial Business at Stern. Zicklin is a Senior Fellow at the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania; the college is composed of three academic schools, the Zicklin School of Business, the Weissman School of Arts & Science, the Marxe School of Public Affairs.
The Zicklin School of Business grants a Bachelor of Business Administration degree in 19 different business related areas, a Masters of Business Administration in 14 business related areas, a Masters of Science in 8 business related programs. The Weissman School of Arts and Sciences grants a Bachelor of Arts degree in over 26 different arts and science related areas, a Masters of Arts in Corporate Communications and Mental Health Counseling, a Masters of Science in Financial Engineering and Industrial Organizational Psychology; the Austin W. Marxe School of Public and International Affairs grants a Bachelor of Science degree in Public Affairs, a Masters of Public Administration in 5 different public affairs-related areas and a Masters of Science in Education in Higher Education Administration; the college houses several doctoral programs offered through the CUNY Graduate Center. They include Business as well as Organizational Psychology; as of June 2013, the CUNY Ph. D. in Business degree is offered jointly by the Graduate Center and Baruch College.
The Lawrence and Eris Field Building known as the 23rd Street Building, is still in use by the college today. According to Mr
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Newport News, Virginia
Newport News is an independent city in the U. S. state of Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 180,719. In 2013, the population was estimated to be 183,412, making it the fifth-most populous city in Virginia. Newport News is included in the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is at the southeastern end of the Virginia Peninsula, on the northern shore of the James River extending southeast from Skiffe's Creek along many miles of waterfront to the river's mouth at Newport News Point on the harbor of Hampton Roads. The area now known as Newport News was once a part of Warwick County. Warwick County was one of the eight original shires of Virginia, formed by the House of Burgesses in the British Colony of Virginia by order of King Charles I in 1634; the county was composed of farms and undeveloped land until 250 years later. In 1881, fifteen years of explosive development began under the leadership of Collis P. Huntington, whose new Peninsula Extension of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway from Richmond opened up means of transportation along the Peninsula and provided a new pathway for the railroad to bring West Virginia bituminous coal to port for coastal shipping and worldwide export.
With the new railroad came a terminal and coal piers where the colliers were loaded. Within a few years and his associates built a large shipyard. In 1896, the new incorporated town of Newport News, which had replaced Denbigh as the county seat of Warwick County, had a population of 9,000. In 1958, by mutual consent by referendum, Newport News was consolidated with the former Warwick County, rejoining the two localities to their pre-1896 geographic size; the more known name of Newport News was selected as they formed what was Virginia's third largest independent city in population. With many residents employed at the expansive Newport News Shipbuilding, the joint U. S. Air Force-U. S. Army installation at Joint Base Langley–Eustis, other military bases and suppliers, the city's economy is connected to the military; the location on the harbor and along the James River facilitates a large boating industry which can take advantage of its many miles of waterfront. Newport News serves as a junction between the rails and the sea with the Newport News Marine Terminals located at the East End of the city.
Served by major east-west Interstate Highway 64, it is linked to others of the cities of Hampton Roads by the circumferential Hampton Roads Beltway, which crosses the harbor on two bridge-tunnels. Part of the Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport is in the city limits; the original area near the mouth of the James River was first referred to as Newportes Newes as early as 1621. The source of the name "Newport News" is not known with certainty, though it is the oldest English city name in the Americas. Several versions are recorded, it is the subject of popular speculation locally; the best-known explanation holds that when an early group of Jamestown colonists left to return to England after the Starving Time during the winter of 1609–1610 aboard a ship of Captain Christopher Newport, they encountered another fleet of supply ships under the new Governor Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr in the James River off Mulberry Island with reinforcements of men and supplies. The new governor ordered them to turn around, return to Jamestown.
Under this theory, the community was named for Newport's "good news". Another possibility is that the community may have derived its name from an old English word "news" meaning "new town". At least one source claims that the "New" arose from the original settlement's being rebuilt after a fire. Another source gave the original name as New Port Newce, named for a person with the name Newce and the town's place as a new seaport; the namesake, Sir William Newce, was an English soldier and settled in Ireland. There he had established Newcestown near County Cork, he was granted 2,500 acres of land. He died two days later, his brother, Capt. Thomas Newce, was given "600 acres at Kequatan, now called Elizabeth Cittie." A partner Daniel Gookin completed founding the settlement. In his 1897 two-volume work Old Virginia and her Neighbors, American historian John Fiske writes:... several old maps where the name is given as Newport Ness, being the mariner's way of saying Newport Point. The fact that the name appeared as "Newport's News" is verified by numerous early documents and maps, by local tradition.
The change to Newport News came about through usage. In 1866 it approved the current form. During the 17th century, shortly after founding of Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, English settlers explored and began settling the areas adjacent to Hampton Roads. In 1610, Sir Thomas Gates "took possession" of a nearby Native American village, which became known as Kecoughtan. At that time, settlers began clearing land along the James River for plantations, including the present area of Newport News. In 1619, the area of Newport News was included in one of four huge corporations of the Virginia Company of London, it extended west all the way to Skiffe's Creek. Elizabeth Cittie included all of present-day South Hampton Roads. By 1634, the English colony of Virginia consisted of a population of 5,000 inhabitants, it was divided into eight shires of Virginia. The area of Newport News bec