Niles Searls was an attorney and the 14th Chief Justice of California. Searls, whose last name is sometimes spelled as Searles, was born in Coeymans, New York, his father, Abraham Searls, of English descent, worked as a farmer. His mother, Lydia Niles, was of Scottish descent. Searles had three brothers, Wilson and Abraham (1844-1877/80, as well as four sisters, Alice and Lydia Jane; when the family moved to Prince Edward, Canada, Searls attended school in Wellington for five years before returning to New York to study at Rensselaerville Academy for the next three years. From here, he spent a year in the law office of O. H. Chittenden, preparing himself for the practice of law before attending John W. Fowler's newly established State and National Law School with fellow students Chancellor Hartson and Tim N. Machin, he was admitted to the New York bar May 2, 1848. Searls travelled to Kentucky and Illinois before settling for a short time in Missouri to practice law; when he decided to join the California Gold Rush, he chose the wagon train company endorsed by the Daily Missouri Republican, the Pioneer Line.
He traveled with his friend from Charles Mulford. Arriving in California in October 1849, they traded. In 1850, he settled in the town of Nevada. Two years he was elected district attorney of Nevada County. Elected on the Know Nothing ticket, from 1855 through 1862, he was a judge of the 14th judicial district. In 1864, Searls moved back to New York and became a farmer for the next six years before returning to his mountain home in California, retiring. However, in 1877, Searls was elected to represent Nevada County in the California Senate, became Chairman of the California Debris Commission. At the 1884 Democratic National Convention, Searls nominated General William Rosecrans for Vice President of the United States, but Thomas A. Hendricks went on to be selected as the running mate to Grover Cleveland. Searls was appointed California State Supreme Court Commissioner in 1885, serving in this office until April 19, 1887, when he became the 14th Chief Justice of California. Defeated for re-election in November 1888, he became a Supreme Court Commissioner for a second time during the period of 1894-1897.
Searls sat on the Board of Directors of the Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad. In 1853, Searls returned to New York to marry his first cousin, Mary Corinthia Niles of Rensselaerville, New York, brought her back to Nevada City, traveling by steamer with their friends, Charles Mulford and his new bride, Deb, they had two children, one of whom, Fred Searls engaged in the practice of law, the other was a mechanical engineer. He kept a diary about his experiences in 1869 during an arduous rail trip from New York to California and wrote a book about it, "Coast to coast by railroad: The journey of Niles Searls--May, 1869". Searls was Vice President of the Society of California Pioneers. Along with Aaron A. Sargent, Searls was a Freemason of the Nevada No. 13. He retired to Berkeley, California in 1899, died at his home eight years later, he was a Protestant. Searls' grandson, Fred Searls, Jr. and great-grandson, Carroll Searls, were all attorneys. Fred Searls, Jr. was president of the international conglomerate mining concern, Newmont Mining Corporation, which operated, among many others, the Empire-North Star mine complex in Nevada County, after 1929-1950s.
His great-grandson, Frederick Searls an attorney, was Vice President of Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Searls' first cousin, Mary's brother, Addison Niles, was an Associate Justice on the California Supreme Court during the period of 1872-1880. Burial: Find A Grave Memorial# 48970480 Built in 1872, Searls' brick, two room, single story law office on Church Street, across from the Nevada County Courthouse, was converted into the Searls Library, containing the historical documents collection of the Nevada County Historical Society. Niles Searls diary: ms. S, 1849 May 9-Oct. 1. Coast to coast by railroad: the journey of Niles Searls--May, 1869.. Worldcat.org. Niles Searls. California Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved July 18, 2017. Past & Present Justices. California State Courts. Retrieved July 19, 2017. List of Justices of the Supreme Court of California Jackson Temple Van R. Paterson Thomas Bard McFarland
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Nevada City, California
Nevada City is the county seat of Nevada County, United States, located 60 miles northeast of Sacramento, 84 miles southwest of Reno and 147 miles northeast of San Francisco. The population was 3,068 as of the 2010 Census, it was first settled during the California Gold Rush, as Nevada. The Gold Tunnel on the north side of Deer Creek was the city's first mine, being located in 1850; the first saw mill built in Nevada City was on Deer Creek, just above the town, in August, 1850, was built by Lewis & Son, with a water wheel. In 1850–51, it was the most important mining town in the state, Nevada County being the leading gold-mining county in the state. In 1851, The Nevada Journal became the first newspaper published in the county; the town of Nevada was incorporated on April 19, 1856. In 1864, the word “City” was added to the name to relieve confusion with the nearby state of Nevada, the town has been known as “Nevada City” since; the former town of Coyoteville, California became Nevada City's northwestern section.
The Nevada City Downtown Historic District covers the downtown section bounded by Spring, Commercial, Washington and Main Streets. Several historical buildings have received National Register of Historic Places or California Historical Landmark status, have been preserved; some of these include: Court house and city hall Art Moderne facades are attributable to Works Progress Administration projects. Doris Foley Library for Historical Research, 211 North Pine Street, is a Carnegie library. Miners Foundry, 325 Spring Street, was the first manufacturing location of the Pelton wheel. National Hotel, 211 Broad Street, is one of the oldest continuously operating hotels west of the Rocky Mountains. Nevada City Firehouse No. 2 Nevada Brewery, 107 Sacramento Street, was used for brewing and serving lager beer to the mining community. Nevada Theatre, 401 Broad Street, is California's oldest original-use theatre. South Yuba Canal Office, 134 Main Street, was used during the period of 1857 to 1880. Nevada City is located at 39°15′41″N 121°01′07″W at 2,500 feet above sea level.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.2 square miles, 99.83% of it land and 0.17% of it water. Nevada, Missouri, is named after Nevada City. Most of Nevada City lies on brown sandy loam soils of the Hoda series which developed on granitic rock; the 2010 United States Census reported that Nevada City had a population of 3,068. The population density was 1,399.7 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Nevada City was 2,837 White, 26 African American, 28 Native American, 46 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 40 from other races, 91 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 205 persons; the Census reported that 2,829 people lived in households, 56 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 183 were institutionalized. There were 1,356 households, out of which 317 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 510 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 155 had a female householder with no husband present, 79 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 97 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 15 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 488 households were made up of individuals and 168 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.09. There were 744 families; the population was spread out with 517 people under the age of 18, 199 people aged 18 to 24, 720 people aged 25 to 44, 1,075 people aged 45 to 64, 557 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47.5 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.8 males. There were 1,510 housing units at an average density of 688.9 per square mile, of which 786 were owner-occupied, 570 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.8%. 1,678 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,151 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,001 people, 1,313 households, 740 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,425.0 people per square mile.
There were 1,415 housing units at an average density of 671.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.3% White, 0.4% African American, 1.4% Native American, 0.7% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.5% of the population. There were 1,313 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.1% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 43.6% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.71. In the city, the population was spread out with 19.7% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 32.2% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 97
Aaron A. Sargent
Aaron Augustus Sargent was an American journalist, lawyer and diplomat. In 1878, Sargent introduced what would become the 19th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution, giving women the right to vote, he was sometimes called the "Senator for the Southern Pacific Railroad". Born in Newburyport, Massachusetts, he attended the common schools and was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. In his youth he worked as a printer in Philadelphia and in 1847, moved to Washington, D. C. where he was a secretary to a Congressman. He moved to California in 1849 and settled in Nevada City in 1850. There he was on the staff of the Nevada Daily Journal becoming that newspaper's owner, he was admitted to the California bar in 1854 and began practicing in Nevada City, becoming district attorney for Nevada County in 1856. He served in the California Senate in 1856. Sargent was elected as a Republican to the 37th Congress. In 1861 he was the author of the first Pacific Railroad Act, passed in Congress, he was elected to the United States Senate and served 1873 to 1879.
During his time in the Senate he was chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Mines and Mining during the 44th Congress and chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Naval Affairs during the 45th Congress. In January 1878, Senator Sargent introduced the 29 words that would become the 19th Amendment to the United States Constitution, allowing women the right to vote. Sargent's wife, Ellen Clark Sargent, was a leading voting rights advocate and a friend of such suffrage leaders as Susan B. Anthony; the bill calling for the amendment would be introduced unsuccessfully each year for the next forty years. Sargent returned to California in 1880. After leaving the Senate he practiced law in San Francisco for three years, leaving to become United States Ambassador to Germany for two years, held office until the action of the German authorities in excluding American pork from the empire made his incumbency distasteful, he turned down the appointment of Ambassador to Russia after William H. Hunt's death and made an unsuccessful attempt for the Republican nomination for the Senate in 1885.
He died in San Francisco in 1887. According to Sargent's descendants, A. A. Sargent's ashes were spread over the placer mine. A monument to him may be found in the old pioneer cemetery in Nevada City. Sargent was a noted proponent of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, arguing in Overland Monthly in support of exclusion and for the renewal of the 1882 Exclusion Act after its expiration in 1892; the Chinese Exclusion Act was renewed in 1892, again—indefinitely—in 1902, staying in effect until 1943. Sargent, A. (1885, The Wyoming anti-Chinese riot. Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, OL. VI. 507-507. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/137560189 Sargent, A. (1886, "The wyoming anti-chinese riot."—again. Overland Monthly and Out West Magazine, OL. VII. 54-54. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/137565135 Shepard, Christopher. "No Chinese Wanted: Aaron Sargent and Chinese Immigration, 1862-1886." Journal of the West. 51 no. 1: 50-57. United States Congress. "Aaron A. Sargent". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
San Francisco the City and County of San Francisco, is the cultural and financial center of Northern California. San Francisco is the 13th-most populous city in the United States, the fourth-most populous in California, with 884,363 residents as of 2017, it covers an area of about 46.89 square miles at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, making it the second-most densely populated large US city, the fifth-most densely populated U. S. county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. San Francisco is part of the fifth-most populous primary statistical area in the United States, the San Jose–San Francisco–Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area; as of 2017, it was the seventh-highest income county in the United States, with a per capita personal income of $119,868. As of 2015, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $154.2 billion, a GDP per capita of $177,968. The San Francisco CSA was the country's third-largest urban economy as of 2017, with a GDP of $907 billion.
Of the 500+ primary statistical areas in the US, the San Francisco CSA had among the highest GDP per capita in 2017, at $93,938. San Francisco was ranked 14th in the world and third in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of September 2018. San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain established Presidio of San Francisco at the Golden Gate and Mission San Francisco de Asís a few miles away, all named for St. Francis of Assisi; the California Gold Rush of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county in 1856. San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper. After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire, San Francisco was rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition nine years later. In World War II, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater.
It became the birthplace of the United Nations in 1945. After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration, liberalizing attitudes, along with the rise of the "hippie" counterculture, the Sexual Revolution, the Peace Movement growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War, other factors led to the Summer of Love and the gay rights movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States. Politically, the city votes along liberal Democratic Party lines. A popular tourist destination, San Francisco is known for its cool summers, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture, landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge, cable cars, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, Fisherman's Wharf, its Chinatown district. San Francisco is the headquarters of five major banking institutions and various other companies such as Levi Strauss & Co. Gap Inc. Fitbit, Salesforce.com, Reddit, Inc. Dolby, Weebly, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, Pinterest, Uber, Mozilla, Wikimedia Foundation and Weather Underground.
It is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of San Francisco, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco State University, the De Young Museum, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, the California Academy of Sciences. As of 2019, San Francisco is the highest rated American city on world liveability rankings; the earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC. The Yelamu group of the Ohlone people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party, led by Don Gaspar de Portolà, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay. Seven years on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco, followed by a mission, Mission San Francisco de Asís, established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza. Upon independence from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico. Under Mexican rule, the mission system ended, its lands became privatized.
In 1835, Englishman William Richardson erected the first independent homestead, near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square. Together with Alcalde Francisco de Haro, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, the town, named Yerba Buena, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War, Captain John B. Montgomery arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, Mexico ceded the territory to the United States at the end of the war. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography; the California Gold Rush brought a flood of treasure seekers. With their sourdough bread in tow, prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia, raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849; the promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships and hotels.
California Constitutional Conventions
The California Constitutional Conventions were two separate constitutional conventions that took place in California during the nineteenth century which led to the creation of the modern Constitution of California. The first, known as the Monterey Convention, held in September and October 1849 in advance of California attaining U. S. statehood the following year, adopted the state's original constitution. This document maintains jurisdiction along with the current constitution, ratified on May 7, 1879, following the Sacramento Convention. Article 3 Section 2 of the current Constitution references the original boundaries as stated in the 1849 Constitution at Article 7; the result of Progressive mistrust of elected officials, this constitution took a full year to finalize and is today the third longest in the world, has been described as "the perfect example of what a constitution ought not to be". Multiple calls for a third state constitutional convention have been raised during the past quarter-century, but none has thus far gained widespread political momentum.
The Monterey Convention of 1849 was the first California Constitutional Convention to take place. Bvt. Brig. Gen. Bennett C. Riley, ex officio Governor of California, issued a proclamation on 3 June 1849 calling for a convention and a special election on August 1 where delegates to the convention would be elected; the memorial presenting the proposed constitution to Congress claimed it banned slavery not because of anti-slavery sentiment, but just unanimous agreement that California's climate and soil were not suitable for slave labor. It described the proposed eastern boundary as a compromise between those who wished to include all of former Mexican Alta California and a committee-proposed eastern boundary at 116°, denied having considered north-south division at the Missouri Compromise Line, saying Southern Californians had no interest in division; the Sacramento Convention of 1878–79 amended and ratified the original 1849 constitution. It took place in Sacramento, California from March 1878 to March 1879.
The new California Constitution produced by the Convention was voted for on May 7, 1879, adopted by a vote of 77,959 to 67,134. Repair California, a group advocating for a constitutional convention California Constitutional Convention Summit Recommendations of the 1996 California Constitutional Revision Commission The California Constitution Wiki, a wiki project to re-design the state's constitution Works by California Constitutional Conventions at LibriVox Cries for reform of California government come from all sides A California constitutional convention for all Long road to a constitutional convention Be wary of constitution re-write Alameda officials back constitutional convention