Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games and does not utilize a standardized playing area, coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game; the game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller having 9 holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, a putting green containing the actual hole or cup 4 1⁄4 inches in diameter. There are other standard forms of terrain in between, such as the fairway, rough and various hazards but each hole on a course is unique in its specific layout and arrangement. Golf is played for the lowest number of strokes by an individual, known as stroke play, or the lowest score on the most individual holes in a complete round by an individual or team, known as match play. Stroke play is the most seen format at all levels, but most at the elite level.
The modern game of golf originated in 15th century Scotland. The 18-hole round was created at the Old Course at St Andrews in 1764. Golf's first major, the world's oldest tournament in existence, is The Open Championship known as the British Open, first played in 1860 in Ayrshire, Scotland; this is one of the four major championships in men's professional golf, the other three being played in the United States: The Masters, the U. S. Open, the PGA Championship. While the modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland, the game's ancient origins are unclear and much debated; some historians trace the sport back to the Roman game of paganica, in which participants used a bent stick to hit a stuffed leather ball. One theory asserts that paganica spread throughout Europe as the Romans conquered most of the continent, during the first century BC, evolved into the modern game. Others cite chuiwan as the progenitor, a Chinese game played between the eighth and fourteenth centuries. A Ming Dynasty scroll dating back to 1368 entitled "The Autumn Banquet" shows a member of the Chinese Imperial court swinging what appears to be a golf club at a small ball with the aim of sinking it into a hole.
The game is thought to have been introduced into Europe during the Middle Ages. Another early game that resembled modern golf was known as chambot in France; the Persian game chaugán is another possible ancient origin. In addition, kolven was played annually in Loenen, beginning in 1297, to commemorate the capture of the assassin of Floris V, a year earlier; the modern game originated in Scotland, where the first written record of golf is James II's banning of the game in 1457, as an unwelcome distraction to learning archery. James IV lifted the ban in 1502 when he became a golfer himself, with golf clubs first recorded in 1503–1504: "For golf clubbes and balles to the King that he playit with". To many golfers, the Old Course at St Andrews, a links course dating to before 1574, is considered to be a site of pilgrimage. In 1764, the standard 18-hole golf course was created at St Andrews when members modified the course from 22 to 18 holes. Golf is documented as being played on Musselburgh Links, East Lothian, Scotland as early as 2 March 1672, certified as the oldest golf course in the world by Guinness World Records.
The oldest surviving rules of golf were compiled in March 1744 for the Company of Gentlemen Golfers renamed The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers, played at Leith, Scotland. The world's oldest golf tournament in existence, golf's first major, is The Open Championship, first played on 17 October 1860 at Prestwick Golf Club, in Ayrshire, with Scottish golfers winning the earliest majors. Two Scotsmen from Dunfermline, John Reid and Robert Lockhart, first demonstrated golf in the U. S. by setting up a hole in an orchard in 1888, with Reid setting up America's first golf club the same year, Saint Andrew's Golf Club in Yonkers, New York. A golf course consists of either 9 or 18 holes, each with a teeing ground, set off by two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area, fairway and other hazards, the putting green surrounded by the fringe with the pin and cup; the levels of grass are varied to increase difficulty, or to allow for putting in the case of the green. While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the teeing area to the green, some holes may bend either to the left or to the right.
This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards and "dogleg right" if it bends right. Sometimes, a hole's direction may bend twice. A regular golf course consists of 18 holes, but nine-hole courses are common and can be played twice through for a full round of 18 holes. Early Scottish golf courses were laid out on links land, soil-covered sand dunes directly inland from beaches; this gave rise to the term "golf links" applied to seaside courses and those built on sandy soil inland. The first 18-hole golf course in the United States was on a sheep farm in Downers Grove, Illinois, in 1892; the course is still there today. Every round of golf is based on playing a number of holes in a given order. A "round" consists of 18 holes that are played in the order determined by the course layout; each hole is played once in the round on a standard course of 18 holes. The game can be played by any number of people, although a typ
A media access control address of a device is a unique identifier assigned to a network interface controller. For communications within a network segment, it is used as a network address for most IEEE 802 network technologies, including Ethernet, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth. Within the Open Systems Interconnection model, MAC addresses are used in the medium access control protocol sublayer of the data link layer; as represented, MAC addresses are recognizable as six groups of two hexadecimal digits, separated by hyphens, colons, or no separator. A MAC address may be referred to as the burned-in address, is known as an Ethernet hardware address, hardware address, physical address. A network node with multiple NICs must have a unique MAC address for each. Sophisticated network equipment such as a multilayer switch or router may require one or more permanently assigned MAC addresses. MAC addresses are most assigned by the manufacturer of network interface cards; each is stored by a firmware mechanism. A MAC address includes the manufacturer's organizationally unique identifier.
MAC addresses are formed according to the principles of two numbering spaces based on Extended Unique Identifiers managed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers: EUI-48, which replaces the obsolete term MAC-48, EUI-64. The original IEEE 802 MAC address comes from the original Xerox Network Systems Ethernet addressing scheme; this 48-bit address space contains 248 or 281,474,976,710,656 possible MAC addresses. The IEEE manages allocation of MAC addresses known as MAC-48 and which it now refers to as EUI-48 identifiers; the IEEE has a target lifetime of 100 years for applications using EUI-48 space and restricts applications accordingly. The IEEE encourages adoption of the more plentiful EUI-64 for non-Ethernet applications; the distinction between EUI-48 and MAC-48 identifiers is in application only. MAC-48 was used to address hardware interfaces within existing 802-based networking applications; the IEEE now considers MAC-48 to be an obsolete term. EUI-48 is now used in all cases.
In addition, the EUI-64 numbering system encompassed both MAC-48 and EUI-48 identifiers by a simple translation mechanism. These translations have since been deprecated. IPv6 — one of the most prominent standards that uses a Modified EUI-64 — treats MAC-48 as EUI-48 instead and toggles the U/L bit; this results in extending MAC addresses to Modified EUI-64 using only FF-FE and with the U/L bit inverted. An Individual Address Block is an inactive registry activity, replaced by the MA-S registry product as of January 1, 2014; the IAB uses a OUI from MA-L belonging to the IEEE Registration Authority, concatenated with 12 additional IEEE-provided bits, leaving only 12 bits for the IAB owner to assign to their individual devices. An IAB is ideal for organizations requiring not more than 4096 unique 48-bit numbers. Unlike an OUI, which allows the assignee to assign values in various different number spaces, the Individual Address Block could only be used to assign EUI-48 identifiers. All other potential uses based on the OUI from which the IABs are allocated are reserved, remain the property of the IEEE Registration Authority.
It should be noted that, between 2007 and September 2012, the OUI value 00:50:C2 was used for IAB assignments. After September 2012, the value 40:D8:55 was used; the owners of an assigned IAB may continue to use the assignment. There is another registry, called MA-M; the MA-M assignment block provides 236 EUI-64 identifiers. The first 24-bits of the assigned MA-M block are an OUI assigned to IEEE that will not be reassigned. Addresses can either be locally administered addresses. A universally administered address is uniquely assigned to a device by its manufacturer; the first three octets identify the organization that issued the identifier and are known as the organizationally unique identifier. The remainder of the address are assigned by that organization in nearly any manner they please, subject to the constraint of uniqueness. A locally administered address is assigned to a device by a network administrator, overriding the burned-in address. Universally administered and locally administered addresses are distinguished by setting the second-least-significant bit of the first octet of the address.
This bit is referred to as the U/L bit, short for Universal/Local, which identifies how the address is administered. If the bit is 0, the address is universally administered. If it is 1, the address is locally administered. In the example address 06-00-00-00-00-00 the first octet is 06, the binary form of, 00000110, where the second-least-significant bit is 1. Therefore, it is a locally administered address. Another example that uses locally administered addresses is the DECnet protocol; the MAC address of the Ethernet interface is changed by the DE
In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity. For software programs to save and retrieve stored data, each unit of data must have an address where it can be individually located or else the program will be unable to find and manipulate the data; the number of address spaces available will depend on the underlying address structure and these will be limited by the computer architecture being used. Address spaces are created by combining enough uniquely identified qualifiers to make an address unambiguous within the address space. For a person's physical address, the address space would be a combination of locations, such as a neighborhood, city, or country; some elements of an address space may be the same, but if any element in the address is different addresses in said space will reference different entities. An example could be that there are multiple buildings at the same address of "32 Main Street" but in different towns, demonstrating that different towns have different, although arranged, street address spaces.
An address space provides a partitioning to several regions according to the mathematical structure it has. In the case of total order, as for memory addresses, these are chunks; some nested domain hierarchies appear in the case of directed ordered tree as for the Domain Name System or a directory structure. In the Internet, for example, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority allocates ranges of IP addresses to various registries in order to enable them to each manage their parts of the global Internet address space. Uses of addresses include, but are not limited to the following: Memory addresses for main memory, memory-mapped I/O, as well as for virtual memory. Another common feature of address spaces are mappings and translations forming numerous layers; this means that some higher-level address must be translated to lower-level ones in some way. For example, file system on a logical disk operates linear sector numbers, which have to be translated to absolute LBA sector addresses, in simple cases, via addition of the partition's first sector address.
For a disk drive connected via Parallel ATA, each of them must be converted to logical cylinder-head-sector address due to the interface historical shortcomings. It is converted back to LBA by the disk controller and finally, to physical cylinder and sector numbers; the Domain Name System maps its names to network-specific addresses, which in turn may be mapped to link layer network addresses via Address Resolution Protocol. Network address translation may occur on the edge of different IP spaces, such as a local area network and the Internet. An iconic example of virtual-to-physical address translation is virtual memory, where different pages of virtual address space map either to page file or to main memory physical address space, it is possible that several numerically different virtual addresses all refer to one physical address and hence to the same physical byte of RAM. It is possible that a single virtual address maps to zero, one, or more than one physical address. Linear address space Name space Virtualization
The Address Downtown The Address Downtown Dubai, is a 63-story, 302.2 m supertall hotel and residential skyscraper in the Burj Dubai Development Area of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It was built by Emaar Properties Group; the tower is the twenty-second tallest building in Dubai. It is a tall structure within the massive development named Downtown Dubai, which includes the centerpiece super-tall building, the Burj Khalifa; the tower was topped out in April 2008, was the sixth tallest building in Dubai. The AED845 million tower was completed in September 2008; the five-star hotel and residential compound features 626 serviced apartments. Around 21:00 GST on 31 December 2015, a fire broke out on the 20th floor of the building; the floor where the fire is thought to have begun hosts residential suites. The nearby Dubai Mall was evacuated as a precaution. Dubai's Media Office said. Explosions of unknown origin were heard as the fire spread to other parts of the building. Debris fell from the building and dark plumes of smoke were seen emanating from the skyscraper.
Commenting on the speed with which the fire spread, Jonathan Gilliam, a CNN law-enforcement analyst, said, "This is looking horrific. This is spreading rapidly."A representative of Dubai Civil Defence said four separate teams of firefighters had fought the blaze. Once the fire was contained, the plan was to ensure that the fire did not spread by implementing cooling procedures, to search for any stranded individuals, according to Dubai Police Chief, Major-General Khamis Mattar Al Mazeina. According to the Dubai Media Office, 14 people were injured and one was moderately injured. One person had a heart attack during the evacuation; the Times of India reported that a photographer, who asked not to be named, was setting up to photograph the Dubai fireworks when he became trapped on a balcony on the 48th floor of the hotel, 10 meters away from the blaze. He sent text messages alerting the authorities to his emergency, he tied a rope around himself to a nearby window-cleaning platform and hung off a balcony before being rescued.
Those who sustained smoke inhalation and minor injuries were treated by 20 doctors and 50 nurses from the Dubai Health Authority at the site, according to Al Mazeina. Director-General of Dubai Civil Defence, Major General Rashid Thani Rashid Al Matroushi, said that all of the hotel residents were evacuated, none of the injured were children, that fire "broke out only in the external interface and the majority of the fire did not make it to the inside." Several people at the site complained that neither the fire alarm nor the sprinkler system activated during the fire. Hotel guests and residents were able to enter the burnt building the next day to retrieve and salvage belongings. Dubai Police did not allow filming as sources claim there was no evidence of fire sprinklers operated. Candid videos shows; this can be found via a search engine. It was reported that the hotel was packed with guests due to its clear view of the New Year's fireworks display at Jumeirah Beach and Burj Khalifa; the show still went on as planned.
The following day, smoke continued to rise from the building. Criticism was leveled towards the high amount of cladding—layers of material that are fixed to the outside of buildings for insulation—implemented into the building's design. On 20 January 2016, Dubai Police held a news conference to confirm that the fire was caused by an electrical short circuit; the forensic investigation has identified that the short circuit was caused by electrical wires of the spotlight used to illuminate the building between the 14th and the 15th floor. After the onsite investigation, experts identified that the fire broke out in the duct between flat numbers 1401 and 1504. Experts have conducted further investigation in flat number 1504 and have drawn conclusion that the fire spread to the unit from the side of the window, connected to the ledge and the falling debris caused the fire in flat number 1401; the police released photographs during the news conference which show the exposed unconnected wire in the duct between the two apartments.
The fire was first reported by a guest, residing on the 18th floor of the building where he called the reception to inform that he could smell something burning and visited the reception minutes after he began to notice the smoke. Emaar provided housing for those whose apartments were affected by the fire, but some residents complained that the housing was inferior to that they had lost. Hotel guests are still waiting to be compensated for the lost items and trauma suffered as a result of the fire, they cannot obtain a precise update from the hotel group nearly 2 years after the fire. List of buildings in Dubai List of tallest buildings in Dubai SkyscraperPage.com forum Official Website
An address is a collection of information, presented in a fixed format, used to give the location of a building, apartment, or other structure or a plot of land using political boundaries and street names as references, along with other identifiers such as house or apartment numbers and organization name. Some addresses contain special codes, such as a postal code, to make identification easier and aid in the routing of mail. Addresses have several functions: providing a means of physically locating a building in a city where there are many buildings and streets. Addresses may have drawbacks: Their standard formats are different in different places; until the 18th and 19th centuries, most houses and buildings were not numbered. Street naming and numbering began under the age of Enlightenment as part of campaigns for census and military conscription, such as in the dominions of Maria Theresa in the mid 18th century. Numbering allowed everyone to efficiently receive mail, as the postal system evolved in the 18th and 19th century to reach widespread usage.
Comprehensive addressing of all buildings is still not complete in developed countries. For example, the Navajo Nation in the United States was still assigning rural addresses as of 2015 and the lack of addresses can be used for voter disenfranchisement in USA. In many cities in Asia, most minor streets were never named, this is still the case today in much of Japan. A third of houses in Ireland lacked unique numbers until the introduction of Eircode in 2014. In most English-speaking countries, the usual method of house numbering is an alternating numbering scheme progressing in each direction along a street, with odd numbers on one side and numbers on the other side, although there is significant variation on this basic pattern. Many older towns and cities in the UK have "up and down" numbering where the numbers progress sequentially along one side of the road, sequentially back down the other side. Cities in North America those planned on a grid plan incorporate block numbers and cardinal directions into their street numbers, so that in many such cities, addresses follow a Cartesian coordinate system.
Some other cities around the world have their own schemes. Although house numbering is the principal identification scheme in many parts of the world, it is common for houses in the United Kingdom and Ireland to be identified by name, rather than number in villages. In these cases, the street name will follow the house name; such an address might read: "Smith Cottage, Frog Lane, Barsetshire, BZ9 9BA" or "Dunroamin, Emo, Co. Laois, Ireland". In cities with Cartesian-coordinate-based addressing systems, the streets that form the north-south and east-west dividing lines constitute the x and y axes of a Cartesian coordinate plane and thus divide the city into quadrants; the quadrants are identified in the street names, although the manner of doing so varies from city to city. For example, in one city, all streets in the northeast quadrant may have "NE" prefixed or suffixed to their street names, while in another, the intersection of North Calvert Street and East 27th Street can be only in the northeast quadrant.
Street names may follow a variety of themes. In many North American cities, such as, San Francisco USA, Edmonton, Canada, streets are numbered sequentially across the street grid. Washington, D. C. has its numbered streets running north-south and lettered or alphabetically named streets running east-west, while diagonal avenues are named after states. In Salt Lake City, many other Utah cities, streets are in a large grid and are numbered in increments of 100 based on their location relative to the center of the city in blocks. A similar system is in use in Detroit with the Mile Road System. In some housing developments in North America and elsewhere, street names may all follow the same theme, or start with the same letter. Streets in Continental Europe, the Middle East, Latin America are named after famous people or significant dates. Postal codes are a recent development in addressing, designed to speed the sorting and processing of mail by assigning unique numeric or alphanumeric codes to each geographical locality.
For privacy and other purposes, postal services have made it possible to receive mail without revealing one's physical address or having a fixed physical address. Examples are service addresses and poste restante. In most of the world, addresses are written in order from most specific to general, i.e. finest to coarsest information, starting with the addressee and ending with the largest geographical unit. For example: In English-speaking countries, the postal code comes last. In much of Europe, the code precedes the town name, thus: "1010 Lausanne". Sometimes, the country code is placed in front of the postal code: "CH-1010 Lausanne". If a house number is provided, it is written on the same line as the street name; when addresses are written inline, line breaks are replaced by commas. Conventions on the placing of house numbers differ: either after the street name. There are differences in the placement of postal codes: in the UK, they are
Address Boulevard is a 73-storey 368 m hotel in Downtown Dubai in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. It has 523 serviced residences; the hotel opened in March 2017. The Address Downtown Dubai Downtown Dubai List of tallest buildings in Dubai
Public speaking is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience. Public speaking is understood as formal, face-to-face speaking of a single person to a group of listeners. Traditionally, public speaking is considered to be apart of the art of persuasion; the act can accomplish particular purposes including to inform, to persuade, to entertain. Additionally, differing methods and rules can be utilized according to the speaking situation. Public speaking developed in Rome and Latin America. Prominent thinkers in these countries influenced the development and evolutionary history of public speaking; this art form has been impacted by the contributions of women. Technology continues to transform the art of public speaking through new available technology such as videoconferencing, multimedia presentations, other nontraditional forms. Public speaking can serve the purpose of transmitting information, telling a story, motivating people to act or some combination of those; this type of speech is deliberately structured with three general purposes: to inform, to persuade and to entertain.
Knowing when public speaking is most effective and how it is done properly is a key part in understanding the importance of it. Public speaking for business and commercial events is done by professionals; these speakers can be contracted independently, through representation by a speakers bureau, or by other means. Public speaking plays a large role in the professional world. Although there is evidence of public speech training in ancient Egypt, the first known piece on oratory, written over 2,000 years ago, came from ancient Greece; this work elaborated on principles drawn from the practices and experiences of ancient Greek orators. Aristotle was one of the first recorded teachers of oratory to use definitive models, his emphasis on oratory led to oration becoming an essential part of a liberal arts education during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The classical antiquity works written by the ancient Greeks capture the ways they taught and developed the art of public speaking thousands of years ago.
In classical Greece and Rome, rhetoric was the main component of composition and speech delivery, both of which were critical skills for citizens to use in public and private life. In ancient Greece, citizens spoke on their own behalf rather than having professionals, like modern lawyers, speak for them. Any citizen who wished to succeed in court, in politics or in social life had to learn techniques of public speaking. Rhetorical tools were first taught by a group of rhetoric teachers called Sophists who are notable for teaching paying students how to speak using the methods they developed. Separately from the Sophists, Socrates and Aristotle all developed their own theories of public speaking and taught these principles to students who wanted to learn skills in rhetoric. Plato and Aristotle taught these principles in schools that they founded, The Academy and The Lyceum, respectively. Although Greece lost political sovereignty, the Greek culture of training in public speaking was adopted identically by the Romans.
In the political rise of the Roman Republic, Roman orators copied and modified the ancient Greek techniques of public speaking. Instruction in rhetoric developed into a full curriculum, including instruction in grammar, preliminary exercises, preparation of public speeches in both forensic and deliberative genres; the Latin style of rhetoric was influenced by Cicero and involved a strong emphasis on a broad education in all areas of humanistic study in the liberal arts, including philosophy. Other areas of study included the use of wit and humor, the appeal to the listener's emotions, the use of digressions. Oratory in the Roman empire, though less central to political life than in the days of the Republic, remained significant in law and became a big form of entertainment. Famous orators became like celebrities in ancient Rome—very wealthy and prominent members of society; the Latin style was the primary form of oration until the beginning of the 20th century. After World War II, the Latin style of oration began to grow out of style as the trend of ornate speaking became seen as impractical.
This cultural change had to do with the rise of the scientific method and the emphasis on a "plain" style of speaking and writing. Formal oratory is much less ornate today than it was in the Classical Era. Despite the shift in style, the best-known examples of strong public speaking are still studied years after their delivery. Among these examples are: Pericles' Funeral Oration in 427 BCE addressing those who died during the Peloponnesian War Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address in 1863 Sojourner Truth's identification of racial issues in "Ain't I a Woman? Mahatma Gandhi's message of nonviolent resistance in India, which in turn inspired Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech at the Washington Monument in 1963. Throughout the 18th and 19th century, women were banned to speak publicly in the courtroom, the senate floor, the pulpit, it was improper for women to be heard in a public setting. An exception to this custom was the Quaker religion that allowed women to public speak in meetings of the church.
Frances Wright was known as one of the first female public speakers of the united states. She advocated for equal education for women and men through the press. African American Maria Stewart said to be the second female speaker of the United States, lectured in Boston in front of both men and women just 4 years after Wri