Mexican general election, 2006
General elections were held in Mexico on Sunday, July 2, 2006. Voters went to the polls to elect, on the federal level: A new President of the Republic to serve a six-year term, replacing Mexican President Vicente Fox by plurality voting. 500 members to serve for a three-year term in the Chamber of Deputies. 128 members to serve six-year terms in the Senate. In each state, two seats are allocated to the party with the largest share of the vote, the remaining seat is given to the first runner-up. Several local ballots were held on the same day, most notably: The election of a new Head of Government and new Legislative Assembly of the Federal District. See: 2006 Mexican Federal District election. Gubernatorial elections in the states of Guanajuato and Morelos. Municipal and local congressional elections in those three states and in Campeche, Nuevo León, Querétaro, Sonora. San Luis Potosí elected a new local congress. There were five registered candidates for the 2006 presidential election: A non-registered candidate, Víctor González Torres made a massive marketing campaign to enter the election, in spite of not being registered as an official candidate, ran as a write-in candidate.
His franchise slogan is "The same only cheaper", but his campaign one is "To serve God and the people of Mexico". He has stressed the fact that he pays all of his own campaign expenses, thus being the "cheapest" candidate, he was not considered a formal candidate but many press sources still publish his sayings and complaints against IFE, while some sources consider him a sort of "comic relief". Opinion polls in the run-up to the election showed López Calderón neck and neck; the last polls conducted before the polling blackout that begins eight days before the election all showed López Obrador and Calderón tied with the results within the margins of error. Both Reforma and El Universal newspapers, considered by many to be Mexico City's most influential, gave López Obrador a two-point edge over Calderón; the candidates of the smaller parties gained ground at the expense of Roberto Madrazo and López Obrador. The last poll from El Universal showed Patricia Mercado of Social Democratic and Farmer Alternative had gained enough support for her party to retain its registry.
In the latest Zogby poll, however, trailed the leader Calderón by only 8 points and was only 4 points behind López Obrador. Averaging the last ten polls conducted before the polling blackout, López Obrador edged out Calderón by a razor-thin half percentage point with 35.1%. Calderón had 34.6% and Madrazo came in third with 26%. * Polls conducted by Arcop and Covarrubias are internal polls, not as reliable as the others. As of January 2005, only three candidates had made a public declaration of assets and annual expenses; these figures were given in pesos, the total value of assets of each candidate follows at an exchange rate of 10.62 pesos to one United States dollar: A first presidential debate was held on 25 April 2006 with the presence of all candidates with the notable exception of López Obrador. López Obrador had refused to participate in all debates, said he would only participate in one since long before the first debate was scheduled; the rest of the candidates agreed on leaving an empty chair to symbolize that the fifth candidate was indeed invited.
The silla vacía became the topic of the press. Excélsior called the empty chair a "double-edged sword" coinciding with other publications and TV shows that leaving the empty chair could be construed as an insult to the audience and an attack to López Obrador. However, by the date of the debates, the statistical tendency in many polls had confirmed Calderón at the second spot and López Obrador still with a single digit advantage over him. After the first debate some political commentators, media outlets, polls indicated that Calderón was seen as the winner of the debate, Mercado as the pleasant surprise of the night, and a nervous Madrazo as the worst performer of the night. However, political analysts said that the debate was unnecessarily full of promises and personal attacks. Analysts considered that López Obrador was negatively affected by his absence and polls confirmed Calderón having replaced López Obrador as the leading candidate. A second debate took place on 6 June of the same year, from 20:30 to 22:30, Central Time, with the confirmed presence of all candidates, including López Obrador.
Media outlets have given results to telephone polls applied post-debate showing a mixed tendency. Most, like Reforma and Presente, gave Felipe Calderón the lead, but a few, like Diario Monitor, gave it to Andrés Manuel López Obrador. However, the rise of López Obrador in voter preference polls since the debate seems to indicate that it was the PRD candidate who won it. One of the main causes for this victory may have been the Hildebrando accusation that López Obrador made during the debate. Before the debate, Carlos Ahumada's wife threatened to release tapes involving allies of López Obrador in suspected acts of corruption, but the release was cancelled due to an attempted murder, still under investigation.. Victor González Torres, a national pharmacy entrepreneur n
Senate of the Republic (Mexico)
The Senate of the Republic, constitutionally Chamber of Senators of the Honorable Congress of the Union, is the upper house of Mexico's bicameral Congress. After a series of reforms during the 1990s, it is now made up of 128 senators: Two for each of the 32 states elected under the principle of relative majority. In a senatorial race, each party nominates two candidates who run and are elected together by direct vote; the party of the two candidates that won the second highest vote within the state or the Federal District assigns a senator to occupy the third seat, according to the list of candidates that the party registered with the Federal Electoral Institute. Senators serve six-year terms. Special elections are rare; until 2018, the Senate was renewed every six years since senators are barred from immediate reelection. As of 2018, Senators can now serve a second term. In Spanish, it is conventional to refer to each Legislature of the Senate by the Roman numeral of its term; the current session is known as the LXIV Legislatura.
Senators are elected to serve during two legislatures of the Mexican Chamber of Deputies. Thus, current senators will serve during the 65th Legislatures of the Chamber of Deputies. According to the Constitution, senators are the representatives of the nation. To be a senator, for any of the two principles of choice, you must meet the following requirements: Being a Mexican citizen by birth, in the exercise of their rights. Be twenty-five years old on election day Being from the state in the election, or neighbor of him with an effective residence of more than six months prior to the date of the election, or in the case of candidates is made by proportional representation of any of the states that as the constituency, with the same details. Not being active duty in the military or have control of police or rural gendarmerie at least ninety days before the election. Not be a secretary or undersecretary of state unless it is definitively separated from office at least ninety days before the election.
Not be Minister of the Supreme Court unless definitively separated from office three years before the election. Not a minister of some religious cult. Senators are elected for a period of six years, corresponding to two legislatures and cannot be reelected for the immediate period, although alternately, they are elected by secret ballot in every state of the republic. Each political party registers a list with two formulas of candidates, consisting of two owners and their alternates: the number 1 of the formula First Formula is denominated to him, 2, Second Formula; the formula of candidates obtaining the highest number of votes is elected complete, becoming the first two senators of the entity. There are 32 senators elected by proportional representation. For this election, each political party registers a list of 32 candidates, these are allocated by proportional representation according to the number of votes obtained by each political party in the national election. For their internal government has two main instances, namely: Board: Composed of a Chairman, three Vice-Chairpersons and four Secretaries, elected for each regular session of the House, the chairman is the President of the Senate and is the head and representative of the Chamber.
Political Coordination Board: Considered the true governing body of the Chamber consists of a chairman and six members, which always include the Coordinators of the different parliamentary factions of political parties represented in the Senate. For the office of legislative affairs, senators integrate into Commissions that are dedicated to a particular issue; the most important committees are those of Interior, Constitutional Issues, Finance, among others. Each senator belongs to at least three different commissions, each committee shall elect a Chairman and two Secretaries 5 to coordinate their work. A senator holds office for a period of six years for which he was elected, divided into two legislatures of three years each. From 1 September 2015 is installed LXIII Legislature, which will end its term on 31 August 2018. Senators were elected to office in the 2012 elections for a period of six years and are at their posts from 1 September of that year, therefore they will hold office from the LXII Legislature to LXIII Legislature.
The two chambers of the General Congress divided its exercise into two ordinary sessions, the first from September 1 to December 15 and the second from February 1 to April 30, it should be required may convene special sessions to dispatch urgent or pertinent matters. The time between the regular sessions known as Recesses. There are two recesses that run from December 16 to January 31 and May 1 to August 31. During breaks, the Permanent Commission of the Congress is installed and serves as the depository of the legislature.
Cancún is a city in southeast Mexico on the northeast coast of the Yucatán Peninsula in the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. It is the seat of the municipality of Benito Juárez; the city is one of Mexico's easternmost points. Cancún is just north of Mexico's Caribbean coast resort band known as the Riviera Maya. In older English-language documents, the city’s name is sometimes spelled "Cancoon," an attempt to convey the sound of the name. There are two possible translations of Cancún, based on the Mayan pronunciation kaan kun; the first translation is "nest of snakes". The second version and less accepted is "place of the gold snake"; the shield of the municipality of Benito Juárez, which represents the city of Cancún, was designed by the Mexican-American artist Joe Vera. It is divided into three parts: the color blue symbolizes the Caribbean Sea, the yellow of the sand, the red of the sun with its rays; as documented in the earliest colonial sources, Cancún was known to its Maya inhabitants as Nizuc meaning either "promontory" or "point of grass".
In the years after the Conquest, much of the Maya population died off or left as a result of disease, warfare and famines, leaving only small settlements on Isla Mujeres and Cozumel Island. The name Cancún, Cancum or Cankun first appears on 18th-century maps; the meaning of Cancún is unknown, it is unknown whether the name is of Maya origin. If it is of Maya origin, possible translations include "Place/Seat/Throne of the Snake" or "Enchanted Snake". Snake iconography was prevalent at the pre-Columbian site of Nizuc; when development of the area as a resort was started on January 23, 1970, Isla Cancún had only three residents, caretakers of the coconut plantation of Don José de Jesús Lima Gutiérrez, who lived on Isla Mujeres. Some 117 people lived in a fishing village and military base. Due to the reluctance of investors to gamble on an unknown area, the Mexican federal government financed the first nine hotels; the first financed hotel was a Hyatt, Cancún Caribe, but the first hotel built was the Playa Blanca, which became a Blue Bay hotel.
It is now named Temptation Resort. At the time it was famous for its virgin white sand beaches; the city began as a tourism project in 1974 as an Integrally Planned Center, a pioneer of FONATUR known as INFRATUR. Since it has undergone a comprehensive transformation from being a fisherman's island surrounded by virgin forest and undiscovered shores to being one of the two most well-known Mexican resorts, along with Acapulco; the World Tourism Organization, through its foundation UNWTO-Themis, awarded the Best of the Best award "for excellence and good governance" to the Trust for Tourism Promotion of Cancún on February 3, 2007. This award ensured Cancún the ongoing support of the Department of Education and Knowledge Management of the WTO. Most ` Cancunenses' are from other Mexican states. A growing number are from the rest of the Europe; the municipal authorities have struggled to provide public services for the constant influx of people, as well as limiting squatters and irregular developments, which now occupy an estimated ten to fifteen percent of the mainland area on the fringes of the city.
In the 21st century, Cancún had avoided the bloodshed associated with the trade of illegal drugs, but is known for its retail drug sales to tourists as well as for being a center of money laundering. The links with Cancún date from the 1990s and early 2000s, when the area was controlled by the Juárez and Gulf drug cartels. In recent years Los Zetas, a group that broke away from the Gulf Cartel, has taken control of many smuggling routes through the Yucatán, according to the U. S. Drug Enforcement Administration; the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún from November 29 to December 10 of that year. Apart from the island tourist zone, the Mexican residential section of the city, the downtown part of, known as "El Centro," follows a master plan that consists of "supermanzanas", giant trapezoids with a central, non-residential area cut in by u-shaped residential streets; these open centers have walkways and'sidewalks' around a central garden park, or football fields, or a library, etc. which make the mainland "Mexican" Cancún bicycle-friendly.
The residential roads of central or'Mainland' Cancún, U-shaped and culs-de-sacs, insulate housing from the noise and congestion of the main flow of traffic. Mainland Cancún has a central market that resembles an outlet mall, colorful buildings on a pedestrian city block. Ave. Tulum is the main north-south artery, connecting downtown to the airport, some 30 km south of downtown. Tulum is bisected by Ave. Cobá. East of Ave. Tulum, Cobá becomes Ave. Kukulcan which serves as the primary road through the 7-shaped hotel zone. Ave. Tulum ends on the north side at Ave. Paseo José López Portillo which connects to the main highway west to Chichén Itzá and Mérida. Another major north-south road is Ave. Bonampak which runs parallel to Ave. Tulum; the main ferry to Isla Mujeres is located on Ave. Paseo José López Portillo. To save on the cost of installing sewer systems and other public services, the design of much of the rest of the city reverted to the grid plan after Hurricane Gilbert in 1988; the newest upper-middle-class residential areas reflect the original plan, but are much less intimate.
Less expensive developments are composed entirely of identical one- or tw
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo
Benito Juárez is one of the eleven municipalities of the Mexican state of Quintana Roo. Most of its population reside in the municipal seat, Cancún, it is named after statesman Benito Juárez. Benito Juárez is located in the north of the state with the Caribbean Sea as its eastern border, it borders on the municipalities of Isla Mujeres to the north, Solidaridad to the south, Lázaro Cárdenas to the west. The municipality covers an area 1,664 square kilometres, 3.72% of the territory of the state. The 2010 census enumerated 295 populated 272 unpopulated localities; the largest are as follows: Puerto Juárez, the primary location of the original population of the area before the founding of the city of Cancún, was considered a separate location from 1960 until 1990, when it was abolished as such and incorporated as one of Cancún's districts. The Mayan culture occupied the territory and they are still subsisting. In Cancún are different types of archeological monuments like "Ruinas de el Rey". At the time the town of Cancún was founded the majority of its business activity was the production and export gum and "palo de tinte".
They transported it to Puerto Morelos for the translation to Cozumel and from there it was exported to other countries. After World War II gum production dropped. In the 1960s, other commercial activities were started. In the 1960s the "island of Cancún" was only occupied at certain times of the year, however by 1974 the first hotel was opened in what is now known as the Hotel Zone; this was the year Quintana Roo, recognized as a state. At the time Benito Juarez was founded, it was part the Isla Mujeres territory. In 2016, the municipality of Puerto Morelos was split off from Benito Juárez; the principal businesses in this municipality are hotels, travel agencies and tourist transportation. Economic activities: Primary……………….3.7% Secondary…………….6.0% Tertiary……………….90.3% Mayors: Julián Javier Ricalde Magaña 2011-2013 Gregorio Sánchez Martínez 2008-2010 Media related to Benito Juárez Municipality, Quintana Roo at Wikimedia Commons Official Cancún Website
Chamber of Deputies (Mexico)
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of the Congress of the Union, the bicameral legislature of Mexico. The other chamber is the Senate; the structure and responsibilities of both chambers of Congress are defined in Articles 50 to 70 of the current constitution. The Chamber of Deputies is composed of one federal representative for every 200,000 citizens; the Chamber has 500 members, elected using the parallel voting system. Of these, 300 "majority deputies" are directly elected by plurality from single-member districts, the federal electoral districts; the remaining 200 "party deputies" are assigned through rules of proportional representation. These seats are not tied to districts; the 200 party deputies are intended to counterbalance the sectional interests of the district-based representatives. Substitutes are elected at the same time as each deputy, so special elections are rare. From 1917 to 2015, deputies were barred from serving consecutive terms in accordance with the Constitution's ban on immediate re-election to the legislature.
Thus, the Chamber of Deputies was one of the few legislative bodies in the world, renewed at an election. However, this will change at the 2018 elections. Congressional elections held halfway into the president's six-year mandate are known as mid-term elections. After being drafted, one copy of the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire was given to the Provisional Governmental Board, put on display in the Chamber of Deputies until 1909, when fire destroyed the location. President of the Chamber of Deputies Directive Board Congress of Mexico Senate of Mexico Politics of Mexico Official website