Lille is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders. On the Deûle River, near France's border with Belgium, it is the capital of the Hauts-de-France region, the prefecture of the Nord department, the main city of the European Metropolis of Lille; as of 2015, Lille had a population of 232,741 within its administrative limits. Lille is the first city of the Métropole Européenne de Lille with a population of 1,182,127, making it the fourth largest urban area in France after Paris and Marseille. Archeological digs seem to show the area as inhabited by as early as 2000 BC, most notably in the modern-day quartiers of Fives and Vieux Lille; the original inhabitants of this region were the Gauls, such as the Menapians, the Morins, the Atrebates, the Nervians, who were followed by Germanic peoples: the Saxons, the Frisians and the Franks. The legend of "Lydéric and Phinaert" puts the foundation of the city of Lille at 640. In the 8th century, the language of Old Low Franconian was spoken here, as attested by toponymic research.
Lille's Dutch name is Rijsel. The French equivalent has the same meaning: Lille comes from l'île. From 830 until around 910, the Vikings invaded Flanders. After the destruction caused by Norman and Magyar invasion, the eastern part of the region was ruled by various local princes; the first mention of the town dates from 1066: apud Insulam. At the time, it was controlled by the County of Flanders; the County of Flanders thus extended to the left bank of the Scheldt, one of the richest and most prosperous regions of Europe. A notable local in this period was Évrard, who lived in the 9th century and participated in many of the day's political and military affairs. There was an important Battle of Lille in 1054. From the 12th century, the fame of the Lille cloth fair began to grow. In 1144 Saint-Sauveur parish was formed, which would give its name to the modern-day quartier Saint-Sauveur; the counts of Flanders and Hainaut came together with England and East Frankia and tried to regain territory taken by Philip II of France following Henry II of England's death, a war that ended with the French victory at Bouvines in 1214.
Infante Ferdinand, Count of Flanders was imprisoned and the county fell into dispute: it would be his wife, Countess of Flanders and Constantinople, who ruled the city. She was said to be well loved by the residents of Lille, who by that time numbered 10,000. In 1225, the street performer and juggler Bertrand Cordel, doubtlessly encouraged by local lords, tried to pass himself off as Baldwin I of Constantinople, who had disappeared at the battle of Adrianople, he pushed the counties of Flanders and Hainaut towards sedition against Jeanne in order to recover his land. She called her cousin, Louis VIII, he unmasked the imposter, whom Countess Jeanne had hanged. In 1226 the King agreed to free Infante Count of Flanders. Count Ferrand died in 1233, his daughter Marie soon after. In 1235, Jeanne granted a city charter by which city governors would be chosen each All Saint's Day by four commissioners chosen by the ruler. On 6 February 1236, she founded the Countess's Hospital, which remains one of the most beautiful buildings in Old Lille.
It was in her honour that the hospital of the Regional Medical University of Lille was named "Jeanne of Flanders Hospital" in the 20th century. The Countess died in 1244 in the Abbey of Marquette; the rule of Flanders and Hainaut thus fell to her sister, Margaret II, Countess of Flanders to Margaret's son, Guy of Dampierre. Lille fell under the rule of France after the Franco-Flemish War; the county of Flanders fell to the Duchy of Burgundy next, after the 1369 marriage of Margaret III, Countess of Flanders, Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy. Lille thus became one of the three capitals of said along with Brussels and Dijon. By 1445, Lille counted some 25,000 residents. Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, was more powerful than the King of France, made Lille an administrative and financial capital. On 17 February 1454, one year after the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, Philip the Good organised a Pantagruelian banquet at his Lille palace, the still-celebrated "Feast of the Pheasant". There the Duke and his court undertook an oath to Christianity.
In 1477, at the death of the last duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold, Mary of Burgundy married Maximilian of Austria, who thus became Count of Flanders. The 16th and 17th centuries were marked by a boom in the regional textile industry, the Protestant revolts, outbreaks of the Plague. Lille came under the rule of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1519; the Low Countries fell to his eldest son Philip II of Spain in 1555. The city remained under Spanish Habsburg rule until 1668. Calvinism first appeared in the area in 1542. In 1566 the countryside around Lille was affected by the Iconoclastic Fury. In 1578, the Hurlus, a group of Protestant rebels, stormed the castle of the Counts of Mouscron, they were removed four months by a Catholic Wallon regiment, after which they tried several times between 1581 and 1582 to take the city of Lille, all in vain. The Hurlus were notably held back by the legendary Jeanne Maillotte. At the same time, at the call of Elizabeth I of England, the north of the Seventeen Provinces, having gained a Protestant majority, su
Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry III, called the Black or the Pious, was a member of the Salian Dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. He was the eldest son of Conrad II of Gisela of Swabia, his father made him Duke of Bavaria in 1026, after the death of Duke Henry V. On Easter Day 1028, after his father had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor, Henry was elected and crowned King of Germany in the cathedral of Aachen by Pilgrim. After the death of Herman IV, Duke of Swabia in 1038, his father gave him that duchy, as well as the kingdom of Burgundy, which Conrad had inherited in 1033. Upon the death of his father on 4 June 1039, he became sole ruler of the kingdom and was crowned emperor by Pope Clement II in Rome. Henry's first tutor was Bishop of Augsburg. On Bruno's death in 1029, Bishop of Freising, was appointed to take his place. In 1033, at the age of sixteen, Henry came of age and Egilbert was compensated for his services. In 1035, Duke of Carinthia, was deposed by Conrad, but Egilbert convinced Henry to refuse this injustice and the princes of Germany, having elected Henry, would not recognise the deposition unless their king did also.
Henry, in accordance with his promise to Egilbert, did not consent to his father's act and Conrad, fell unconscious after many attempts to turn Henry. Upon recovering, Conrad knelt before his son and exacted the desired consent. Egilbert was penalised dearly by the emperor. In 1036, Henry was married to Gunhilda of Denmark, the daughter of Canute the Great, King of Denmark and Norway, by his wife Emma of Normandy. Early on, Henry's father had arranged with Canute to have him rule over some parts of northern Germany and in turn to have their children married; the marriage took place in Nijmegen at pentecost. In 1038, Henry was called to aid his father in Italy, Gunhilda died on the Adriatic Coast during the return trip. In 1039, his father died, Henry became sole ruler and imperator in spe. Henry spent his first year in power on a tour of his domains, he visited the Low Countries to receive the homage of Duke of Upper and Lower Lorraine. In Cologne, he was joined by Herman II, Archbishop of Cologne, who accompanied him and his mother to Saxony, where he was to build the town of Goslar up from obscurity to stately imperial grandeur.
He had an armed force when he entered Thuringia to meet with Eckard II, Margrave of Meissen, whose advice and counsel he desired on the recent successes of Duke Bretislaus I of Bohemia in Poland. Only a Bohemian embassy bearing hostages appeased Henry and he disbanded his army and continued his tour, he passed through Bavaria, upon his departure, King Peter Urseolo of Hungary sent raiding parties into Swabia. There, at Ulm, he convened a Council of Princes at which he received his first recognition from Italy, he returned to Ingelheim and was recognised by a Burgundian embassy and Aribert, Archbishop of Milan, whom he had supported against his father. This peace with Aribert healed the only open wound in the Empire. Meanwhile, in 1039, while he was touring his dominions, Adalbero's successor in Carinthia and Henry's cousin, died childless. Henry being his nearest kin automatically inherited that duchy as well, he was now a triple-king. Henry's first military campaign as sole ruler was in 1040 in Bohemia, where Bretislaus was still a threat via raids by his Hungarian ally.
At Stablo, after attending to the reform of some monasteries, Henry summoned his army. In July, he joined together his whole force at Regensburg, he set out on 13 August. Only by releasing many Bohemian hostages, including Bretislaus' son, did the Germans procure the release of many of their comrades and the establishment of a peace. Henry retreated hastily and with little fanfare. On his return to Germany, he appointed Suidger bishop of Bamberg, who would be Pope Clement II. In 1040, Peter of Hungary was overthrown by Samuel Aba and fled to Germany, where Henry received him well despite the enmity between them. Bretislaus was thus deprived of an ally, Henry renewed preparations for a campaign in Bohemia. On 15 August, he and Eckard set out once more exactly a year after his last expedition; this time he was victorious, Bretislaus signed a peace treaty at Regensburg. Henry spent Christmas 1041 at Strasbourg, he dispensed justice as needed. On his return, he heard, at Basel, of the raids into Bavaria by the king of Hungary.
He thus granted his own duchy of Bavaria to one Henry, a relative of the last independent duke. At Cologne, he called together all his great princes, including Eckard, they unanimously declared war on Hungary, it wasn't until September 1042 that he set out, after having dispatched men to seek out Agnes de Poitou to be his new bride. The expedition into Hungary subdued the west of that nation, but Aba fled to eastern fortresses, Henry's installed candidate, an unknown cousin of his, was removed when the emperor turned his back. After Christmas at Goslar, his intended capital, he entertained several embassies: Bretislaus came in person, a Kievan embassy was rejected because Henry was not seeking a Rus' bride, the ambassadors of Casimir I of Poland were rejected because the duke came not in person. Gisela, Henry's mother, died at this juncture, Henry went to the French borders near Ivois, to meet King Henry I of France ove
Dower is a provision accorded by law, but traditionally by a husband or his family, to a wife for her support in the event that she should become widowed. It was settled on the bride by agreement at the time of or as provided by law; the dower grew out of the Germanic practice of bride price, given over to a bride's family well in advance for arranging the marriage, but during the early Middle Ages, was given directly to the bride instead. However, in popular parlance, the term may be used for a life interest in property settled by a husband on his wife at any time, not just at the wedding; the verb to dower is sometimes used. In popular usage, the term dower may be confused with: A dowager is a widow; the term is used of a noble or royal widow who no longer occupies the position she held during the marriage. For example, Queen Elizabeth was technically the dowager queen after the death of George VI, Princess Lilian was the Dowager Duchess of Halland in heraldic parlance; such a dowager will receive the income from her dower property.
Property brought to the marriage by the bride is called a dowry. But the word dower has been used since Chaucer in the sense of dowry, is recognized as a definition of dower in the Oxford English Dictionary. Property made over to the bride's family at the time of the wedding is a bride price; this property does not pass to the bride herself. Being for the widow and being accorded by law, dower differs from a conventional marriage portion such as the English dowry; the bride received a right to certain property from his family. It was intended to ensure her livelihood in widowhood, it was to be kept separate and in the wife's possession. Dower is the gift given by the groom to the bride, customarily on the morning after the wedding, though all dowerings from the man to his fiancée, either during the betrothal period, or wedding, or afterwards as late as in the testamentary dowering, are understood as dowers if intended for the maintenance of the widow. Dower was a property arrangement for marriage first used in early medieval German cultures, the Catholic Church drove its adoption into other countries, in order to improve the wife's security by this additional benefit.
The practice of dower was prevalent in those parts of Europe influenced by Germanic Scandinavian culture, such as Sweden, Germany and successor states of the Langobardian kingdom. The husband was prevented from using the wife's dower — as contrasted with her dowry, brought to the marriage by the bride and used by both spouses; this meant that the woman's legal representative a male relative, became guardian or executor of the dower, to ensure that it was not squandered. The wife was free from kin limitations to use her dower to whatever and whomever she pleased, it may have become the property of her next marriage, been given to an ecclesiastical institution, or been inherited by her children from other relationships than that from which she received it. In English legal history, there were five kinds of dower: ad ostium ecclesiae, or at the church porch. Dower ad ostium ecclesiae, was the closest to modern meaning of dower, it was the property secured in bride's name at the church porch. This was optional.
Dower wasn't the same as bride price. Dower de la plus belle was a hereditary conveyance of tenure by knight service, it was abolished by the act which did away with old tenures. Dower ex assensu patris, was the dower given to the bride by the father of the bridegroom; this became obsolete. At common law, dower was of a different nature, it was a legal declaration of a wife's right to property, while the husband lived, which he would manage. A dower at common law was not liable for the husband's debts — which became controversial after many tried to use it to shield their property from the collection of debts; the Dower Acts of 19th century abolished this. Dower by custom was an attempt to recognize the rules of dower customary at each manor and in each region. Customary dowers were abolished in the 19th century, replaced with uniform inheritance laws. Dower is thought to have been suggested by the bride price which Tacitus found to be usual among the Germans; this bride price he terms dos, but contrasts it with the dos of the Roman law, a gift on the part of the wife to the husband, while in Germany the gift was made by the husband to the wife.
There was indeed in the Roman law what was termed donatio propter nuptias, a gift from the family of the husband, but this was only required if the dos were brought on the part of the wife. So too in the special instance of a widow of a husband rich at the time of his death, an ordinance of the Christian Emperor Justinian secured her the right to a part of her husband's property, of which no disposition of his could deprive her; the general establishment of the principle of dower in the customary law of Western Europe, according to Maine, is to be traced t
Consanguinity is the property of being from the same kinship as another person. In that aspect, consanguinity is the quality of being descended from the same ancestor as another person; the laws of many jurisdictions set out degrees of consanguinity in relation to prohibited sexual relations and marriage parties. Such rules are used to determine heirs of an estate according to statutes that govern intestate succession, which vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In some places and times, cousin marriage is expected. For most of European history, cousin marriage was quite common, but in modern, Western Europe, it is illegal and practiced at a marginal rate. The degree of relative consanguinity can be illustrated with a consanguinity table in which each level of lineal consanguinity appears as a row, individuals with a collaterally consanguineous relationship share the same row; the Knot System is a numerical notation. Issues of consanguinity arise in several aspects of the law. Laws prohibiting incest govern the degree of kinship within which marriage or sexual intercourse is permitted.
These are universally prohibited within the second degree of consanguinity. Some jurisdictions forbid marriage between first cousins. Marriage with aunts and uncles is legal in several countries. Consanguinity is relevant to inheritance with regard to intestate succession. In general, the law favors inheritance by persons related to the deceased; some jurisdictions ban citizens from service on a jury on the basis of consanguinity with persons involved in the case. In many countries, laws prohibiting nepotism ban employment of, or certain kinds of contracts with, the near relations of public officers or employees. Under Roman civil law, which early canon law of the Catholic Church followed, couples were forbidden to marry if they were within four degrees of consanguinity. In the ninth century the church raised the number of prohibited degrees to seven and changed the method by which they were calculated; the nobility became too interrelated to marry as the pool of non-related prospective spouses became smaller.
They had to either look elsewhere for eligible marriage candidates. In 1215 the Fourth Lateran Council made what they believed was a necessary change to canon law reducing the number of prohibited degrees of consanguinity from seven back to four; the method of calculating prohibited degrees was changed also: Instead of the former practice of counting up to the common ancestor down to the proposed spouse, the new law computed consanguinity by counting back to the common ancestor. In the Roman Catholic Church, unknowingly marrying a consanguineous blood relative was grounds for a declaration of nullity, but during the eleventh and twelfth centuries dispensations were granted with increasing frequency due to the thousands of persons encompassed in the prohibition at seven degrees and the hardships this posed for finding potential spouses. After 1215, the general rule was that while fourth cousins could marry without dispensation the need for dispensations was reduced. In fourteenth century England, for example, papal dispensations for annulments due to consanguinity were few.
The connotations of degree of consanguinity varies by context, though most cultures define a degree of consanguinity within which sexual interrelationships are regarded as incestuous or the "prohibited degree of kinship". Among the Christian Habesha highlanders of Ethiopia and Eritrea, it is a tradition to be able to recount one's paternal ancestors at least seven generations away starting from early childhood, because "those with a common patrilineal ancestor less than seven generations away are considered'brother and sister' and may not marry." The rule is less strict on the mother's side, where the limit is about four generations back, but still determined patrilinearly. This rule does not apply to other ethnic groups; the Quran at 4:22-24 states. "Forbidden to you in marriage are: your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters." Therefore, the list of forbidden marriage partners, as read in the Qur'an, Surah 4:23, does not include first cousins.
Muhammad himself married his first cousin Zaynab bint Jahsh. Financial incentives to discourage consangineous marriages exist in some countries: mandatory premarital screening for inherited blood disorders exist in the UAE since 2004, Qatar in 2009, where couples with positive results will not receive their marriage grant. In the Manusmriti blood relation marriage is prohibited for 7 generations. Ayurveda states that marriage within the Gotra is a consanguineous marriage which can lead to many gestational and genetic problems in the fetus. So it has become a common practice in the Hindu households during pre-marriage discussions to ask the couples' Gotra. Couples of the same Gotra are advised not to marry; the advisers of this system say that this practice helps in reducing the gestational problems and ensures a healthy progeny. Genetically, consanguinity derives from the reduction in variation due to meiosis that occurs because of the smaller number of near ancestors. Since all humans share between 99.6% and 99.9% of their genome, consanguinity only affects a small part of the sequence.
If two siblings have a child, the child only has two rather than four grandparents. In these circumstances the probability that the child inher
Aumale known as Albemarle, is a commune in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region in north-western France. It lies on the river Bresle; the town's Latin name was Alba Marla. It was raised by William the Bastard into a county, held by the houses of Castile, Dammartin and Lorraine. In 1547, it was raised to the status of a duchy for Francis of Lorraine, it passed to the house of Savoy, from whom Louis XIV purchased the title in 1675 in order to bestow it upon one of his bastards as an appanage. In 1769, it passed to the house of Orleans; the British Earls of Albemarle, meanwhile derive their name from the area. A village of farming and associated light industry, situated in the valley of the Bresle River of the Norman Pays de Bray in Normandy on the border with Picardie, it is around 34 miles southeast of Dieppe at the junction of the D 916, D 920, D D 49 roads. The A29 autoroute passes through the commune’s northern sector. SNCF, the French railway has a TER station here, on the Beauvais – Le Tréport-Mers line.
The church of St. Pierre & St. Paul, dating from the sixteenth century; the sixteenth-century Hôtel de ville. A seventeenth-century Hospital; the chapel of Notre-Dame du Cardonnoy, from the thirteenth century. The seventeenth-century château buildings of the 16th-century abbey. Csurgó, Hungary since 1991 Cuckfield, England since 1991 Communes of the Seine-Maritime department Counts and Dukes of Aumale Seine-Maritime Normandy INSEE Aumale official website Aumale on the Quid website "Aumale". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. 1911. P. 921
Baldwin V, Count of Flanders
Baldwin V of Flanders was Count of Flanders from 1035 until his death. He was the son of Baldwin IV, Count of Flanders, who died in 1035. In 1028 Baldwin married Adèle of France in daughter of King Robert II of France. During a long war as an ally of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lorraine, against the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III, he lost Valenciennes to Herman, Count of Mons. However, when the latter died in 1049 Baldwin married his son Baldwin VI to Herman's widow Richilde and arranged that the children of her first marriage were disinherited, thus de facto uniting the County of Hainaut with Flanders. Upon the death of Henry III this marriage was acknowledged by treaty by Agnes de Poitou and regent of Henry IV. Baldwin V played host to a grateful dowager queen Emma of England, during her enforced exile, at Bruges, he supplied armed security guards, comprising a band of minstrels. Bruges was a bustling commercial centre, Emma fittingly grateful to the citizens, she dispensed generously to the poor, making contact with the monastery of Saint Bertin at St Omer, received her son, King Harthacnut of England at Bruges in 1039.
From 1060 to 1067 Baldwin was the co-Regent with Anne of Kiev for his nephew-by-marriage Philip I of France, indicating the importance he had acquired in international politics. As Count of Maine, Baldwin supported the King of France in most affairs, but he was father-in-law to William of Normandy, who had married his daughter Matilda. Flanders played a pivotal role in Edward the Confessor's foreign policy; as the King of England was struggling to find an heir: historians have argued that he may have sent Harold Godwinsson to negotiate the return of Edward the Atheling from Hungary, passed through Flanders, on his way to Germany. Baldwin's half-sister had married Tostig; the half-Viking Godwinsons had spent their exile in Dublin, at a time William of Normandy was fiercely defending his duchy. It is unlikely however that Baldwin intervened to prevent the duke's invasion plans of England, after the Count had lost the conquered province of Ponthieu. Baldwin died 1 September 1067. Baldwin and Adèle had: Baldwin VI, 1030–1070 Matilda, c.
1031–1083 who married William the Conqueror Robert I of Flanders, c. 1033–1093 Frans J. Van Droogenbroeck, De markenruil Ename – Valenciennes en de investituur van de graaf van Vlaanderen in de mark Ename, Handelingen van de Geschied- en Oudheidkundige Kring van Oudenaarde 55 S. 47-127 Oksanen, Eljas. Flanders and the Anglo-Norman World, 1066-1216. Cambridge University Press
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states: Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Gloucester with his council.... After this had the king a large meeting, deep consultation with his council, about this land. Sent he his men over all England into each shire, it was written in Medieval Latin, was abbreviated, included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The survey's main purpose was to determine what taxes had been owed during the reign of King Edward the Confessor, which allowed William to reassert the rights of the Crown and assess where power lay after a wholesale redistribution of land following the Norman conquest; the assessors' reckoning of a man's holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive and without appeal. The name "Domesday Book" came into use in the 12th century; as Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario: for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to... its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity.
That is why we have called the book "the Book of Judgement"... because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable. The manuscript is held at The National Archives at London. In 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online; the book is an invaluable primary source for historical economists. No survey approaching the scope and extent of Domesday Book was attempted again in Britain until the 1873 Return of Owners of Land which presented the first complete, post-Domesday picture of the distribution of landed property in the British Isles. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works; these were "Little Domesday", "Great Domesday" No surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing. County Durham is missing; the omission of the other counties and towns is not explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be conquered. "Little Domesday" – so named because its format is physically smaller than its companion's – is the more detailed survey, down to numbers of livestock.
It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in "Great Domesday". Both volumes are organised into a series of chapters listing the fees, held by a named tenant-in-chief of the king, namely religious institutions, Norman warrior magnates and a few Saxon thegns who had made peace with the Norman regime; some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him. Only a few of the holdings of the large magnates were held in demesne, most having been subinfeudated to knights military followers of the tenant-in-chief which latter thus became their overlord; the fees listed within the chapter concerning a particular tenant-in-chief were ordered, but not in a systematic or rigorous fashion, by the Hundred Court under the jurisdiction of which they were situated, not by geographic location.
As a review of taxes owed, it was unpopular. Each county's list opened with the king's demesne lands, it should be borne in mind that under the feudal system the king was the only true "owner" of land in England, under his allodial title. He was thus the ultimate overlord and the greatest magnate could do no more than "hold" land from him as a tenant under one of the various contracts of feudal land tenure. Holdings of Bishops followed of the abbeys and religious houses of lay tenants-in-chief and lastly the king's serjeants, Saxon thegns who had survived the Conquest, all in hierarchical order. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section: in some the clamores were treated separately; this principle applies more to the larger volume: in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places. Apart from the wholly rural portions, which constitute its bulk, Domesday contains entries of interest concerning most of t