Royal Society of Arts
The Royal Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce is a London-based, British organisation committed to finding practical solutions to social challenges. Founded in 1754 by William Shipley as the Society for the Encouragement of Arts and Commerce, it was granted a Royal Charter in 1847, the right to use the term Royal in its name by King Edward VII in 1908; the shorter version, The Royal Society of Arts and the related RSA acronym, are used more than the full name. Notable past fellows include Charles Dickens, Benjamin Franklin, Stephen Hawking, Karl Marx, Adam Smith, Nelson Mandela, David Attenborough, William Hogarth, John Diefenbaker, Tim Berners-Lee. Today, the RSA has Fellows elected from 80 countries worldwide; the RSA award three medals, the Albert Medal, the Benjamin Franklin Medal and the Bicentenary Medal. Medal winners include Nelson Mandela, Sir Frank Whittle, Professor Stephen Hawking; the RSA members are innovative contributors to the human knowledge, as shown by the Oxford English Dictionary, which records the first use of the term "sustainability" in an environmental sense of the word in the RSA Journal in 1980.
On the RSA building's frieze The Royal Society of Arts words are engraved, although its full name is Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts and Commerce. The short name and the related R S of A abbreviation is used more than the full name; the RSA's mission expressed in the founding charter was to "embolden enterprise, enlarge science, refine art, improve our manufacturers and extend our commerce", but of the need to alleviate poverty and secure full employment. On its website, the RSA characterises itself as "an enlightenment organisation committed to finding innovative practical solutions to today’s social challenges"; the RSA's Patron is HM Elizabeth II, the RSA's President is HRH The Princess Royal, its Chairman is Vikki Heywood, its Chief Executive is Matthew Taylor. 1755–1761: The Viscount Folkestone 1761–1793: The Lord Romney 1794–1815: The Duke of Norfolk 1816–1843: HRH The Duke of Sussex 1843–1861: HRH The Prince Consort 1862–1862: William Tooke 1863–1901: HRH The Prince of Wales 1901–1901: Sir Frederick Bramwell 1901–1910: HRH The Prince of Wales 1910–1910: The Lord Alverstone 1911–1942: HRH The Duke of Connaught 1942–1943: Sir Edward Crowe 1943–1945: E. F. Armstrong 1945–1947: The Viscount Bennett 1947–1952: The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh 1952–2011: HRH The Duke of Edinburgh 2011–present: HRH The Princess Royal Prospective fellows can apply for membership.
There have been nearly 28,000 Fellows since 1754. Fellows must have demonstrated a high level of achievement related to the arts and commerce and more "share the values" of the RSA and be "committed to supporting the mission of the RSA"; this change coincided with a rebranding of the RSA mission as a "21st century enlightenment" and its approach as "The Power to Create", which aims at broadening the RSA's impact through increasing its Fellowship. Life Fellows must have demonstrated exceptionally high achievement; the RSA says: "The RSA Fellowship is an international community achievers and influencers from a wide array of backgrounds and professions, distinguished by the title'FRSA'. Fellows are social entrepreneurs to scientists, community leaders to commercial innovators and journalists to architects and engineers, many more." Fellows of the RSA are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSA. Fellowship is regarded as an honour and privilege. Modelled on the Dublin Society for improving Husbandry and other Useful Arts, the RSA, from its foundation, offered prizes through a Premium Award Scheme that continued for 100 years.
Medals and, in some cases, money were awarded to individuals who achieved success in published challenges within the categories of Agriculture, Polite Arts, Manufacture and Trade, Chemistry and Mechanics. Successful submission included agricultural improvements in the cultivation of crops and reforestation, devising new forms of machinery, including an extendable ladder to aid firefighting that has remained in use unchanged, artistic skill, through submissions by young students, many of whom developed into famous artists i.e. Edwin Landseer who at the age of 10 was awarded a silver medal for his drawing of a dog; the RSA specifically precluded premiums for patented solutions. Today the RSA continues to offer premiums. In 1936, the RSA awarded the first distinctions of Royal Designers for Industry, reserved for "those few who in the judgment of their peers have achieved'sustained excellence in aesthetic and efficient design for industry'". In 1937 "The Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry" was established as an association with the object of "furthering excellence in design and its application to industrial purposes": membership of the Faculty is automatic for all RDIs and HonRDIs.
The Faculty has 120 Royal Designers and 45 Honorary Royal Designers: the number of designers who may hold the distinction of RDI at any one time is limited. The Faculty consists of the world’s leading practitioners from fields as disparate as engineering, furniture and textiles, graphics and film design. Early members include Eric Gill, Enid Marx, Sir Frank Whittle and numerous ot
University of Buenos Aires
The University of Buenos Aires is the largest university in Argentina and the largest university by enrollment in Latin America. Founded on August 12, 1821 in the city of Buenos Aires, it consists of 13 departments, 6 hospitals, 10 museums and is linked to 4 high schools: Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria. Entry to any of the available programmes of study in the university is open to anyone with a secondary school degree. Only upon completion of this first year may the student enter the chosen school; each subject is of one semester duration. If someone passes all 6 subjects in their respective semester, the CBC will take only one year. Potential students of economics, take a 2-year common cycle, the "CBG", comprising 12 subjects; the UBA has no central campus. A centralized Ciudad Universitaria was started in the 1960s, but contains only two schools, with the others at different locations in Buenos Aires.
Access to the university is free of charge including foreigners. However, the postgraduate programs charge tuition fees that can be covered with research scholarships for those students with outstanding academic performance; the university has produced four Nobel Prize laureates, one of the most prolific institutions in the Spanish-speaking world. According to the QS World University Rankings the University of Buenos Aires ranked number 75 in the world, making it the highest ranked university in Ibero-America; the schools that comprise the university are: Ciclo Básico Común Facultad de Psicología Facultad de Ingeniería Facultad de Odontología Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica Facultad de Filosofía y Letras Facultad de Derecho Facultad de Medicina Facultad de Ciencias Sociales Facultad de Veterinaria Facultad de Agronomía Facultad de Ciencias Económicas Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales Facultad de Arquitectura, Diseño y Urbanismo Of these, only the last two have their buildings located in Ciudad Universitaria, a campus-like location in Núñez, in northern Buenos Aires along the banks of the Río de la Plata.
The others are scattered around the city in buildings of various sizes, with some having more than one building. There are projects to move more schools to Ciudad Universitaria, the first one in order of importance is the School of Psychology, whose building is designed to be placed on this Campus. There are no existing Argentinian or Latin-American university ranking systems, but several international rankings have ranked the University of Buenos Aires; the reputed Academic Ranking of World Universities known as the Shanghai Ranking ranked UBA not only above all other Argentinian universities but all other Latin-American ones. The QS World University Rankings ranks UBA in the 75th place, above all other Spanish or Portuguese speaking universities in its worldwide ranking but relegates it to the 11th place in its Latin-American ranking. Luis Agote, physician Diana Agrest, Argentine born American architect and theorist Viviana Alder, marine microbiologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Teodosio Cesar Brea and founder of Allende & Brea Alejandro Bulgheroni, oil billionaire Juan Cabral, film director Luis Caffarelli, mathematician Alberto Calderón, mathematician Primarosa Chieri, geneticist Julio Cortázar, writer Augusto Claudio Cuello and Charles E. Frosst/Merck Chair in Pharmacology and Therapeutics at McGill University Che Guevara, revolutionary leader and physician Esther Hermitte, anthropologist Salvador Maciá, physician and politician Jose Pedro Montero De Candia, 27th President of Paraguay Luis Moreno-Ocampo, lawyer and Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court Patricio Pouchulu and educator Alberto Prebisch, architect Raul Prebisch, economist Teresa Ratto, physician Juan Rosai, Italian-born American surgical pathologist José Luis Murature, foreign minister of Argentina Irene Schloss, plankton biologist, Argentine Antarctic researcher Clorindo Testa and painter Richard Tomlinson, former British spy Claudio Vekstein, architect specialized in public architecture Rafael Viñoly, Uruguayan architect Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca, former Judge at the International Criminal Tribunal for RwandaThe following former students and professors of the university have received the Nobel Prize: Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Peace, 1936.
Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Peace, 1980. Bernardo Houssay, Physiology, 1947. Luis Federico Leloir, Chemistry, 1970. César Milstein, Medicine, 1984; the following Presidents of Argentina have earned their degrees at the university: Carlos Pellegrini, lawyer. Luis Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Manuel Quintana, lawyer. Roque Sáenz Peña, lawyer. Victorino de la Plaza, lawyer. Hipólito Yrigoyen (1916–1922 and 1928–1930, Radical Civic U
Carlos Javier Correa Oppenheimer is a Puerto Rican professional baseball shortstop for the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball. The Astros selected Correa with first overall selection of the 2012 MLB draft. Correa made his MLB debut in 2015 and he won the American League Rookie of the Year Award. In 2017, Correa appeared in the World Baseball Classic, won the AL Player of the Month Award for May, was named an MLB All-Star, won the 2017 World Series with the Astros. Correa was born to Carlos Sr. and Sandybel Oppenheimer. Although the family's income was low, they had enough money to build a small house in Barrio Velázquez, a fishing village where Correa was raised. From an early age, Correa played catch in an alley adjacent to his home, which prompted a neighbor to suggest enrolling him in a youth league, the parent-pitch category, when he was five years old. Correa was assigned to play as a first baseman due to his hitting ability, while his father continued training him every day during their free time.
In 1998, Hurricane Georges caused heavy damage to the family's house. This forced his father to take several odd jobs, but he continued training Correa Jr. on a daily basis. Three years after the hurricane, Correa was performing solidly in Santa Isabel's Playita Cortada American Baseball Congress affiliate, hitting up to 150 home runs; when the team was eliminated, the league's champion, Rio Grande, recruited Correa to play in the championship series held in Atlanta. However, the distance between Santa Isabel and the municipality of Rio Grande made this difficult for the family, his mother worked as well. The citizens of Santa Isabel began helping them organize charity games and his original team donated their sales income to help pay for the travel. Correa was Rio Grande's pitcher and was named the tournament's Most Valuable Player after striking out eight batters in a team comeback. By the time that he was 11 years old, the family was traveling to the municipality of Caguas to have him practice with higher-level teams.
Correa was an honor student and received a scholarship to attend Raham Baptist Academy. Three years the family moved from Barrio Velázquez due to recurrent floods, but kept close ties with those who stayed behind. Joined by his brother, Jean Carlos, in baseball practices, the family once again was forced to work more odd jobs. Soon after, the Puerto Rico Baseball Academy and High School brought Correa in as a scholarship student, his discipline and talent prompted his coaches to work extra hours to improve his bat and they helped by offering transportation when the family's car was totaled in an accident. In 2010, Correa participated in the Perfect Game BCS Finals and the WWBA PG Underclassman World Championships. After attending one of these Perfect Game events, Correa made adjustments to his batting swing with his hitting coach, José Rivera; the following year he appeared at the 2011 PG BCS Under-18 Finals and East Coast Professional Showcase. However, it was Correa's performance at the 2011 PG World and National Showcases that promoted him to the top of his class, earning him a spot in the Aflac-PG All-American Game, where he was named Rawlings' Defensive Player of the Year.
He closed the year with an appearance in the PG WBAA World Championships. Correa opened 2012 by being selected the MVP in the Víctor Pellot Excellence Tournament, following an extraordinary performance for a shortstop that included a two-home run game. At the 2012 PG World Showcase, he established a PG record with a 97-miles per hour throw across the infield. After graduating from the PRBAHS with a 4.00 average as the class valedictorian and scoring 1560 on the SAT, Correa signed a letter of commitment with the University of Miami. Besides competing for the PRBAHS, Correa was a member of Team Mizuno and the Puerto Rico National Baseball Team that participated in the youth Panamerican tournament. Despite being the youngest high-profile player to enter the 2012 Major League Baseball draft, in the months leading to the event the 17-year-old Correa was projected as a top-ten pick by several major sources, including Sports Illustrated and ESPN, his stock rose during the month before the draft, with outstanding performances in team workouts, including one that left the Houston Astros' scouts "blown away".
On June 4, 2012, the Astros selected him as the first overall pick, outranking the projected top pick, Mark Appel. Correa was incredulous, only stating that he must have been dreaming, after entering the stage while hoisting the Flag of Puerto Rico. With this selection, Correa became the highest-selected player to be drafted directly from a Puerto Rican high school, besting Ramón Castro's 17th pick in 1994, while joining several other Top-10 Puerto Rican picks such as Francisco Lindor, Javier Báez, all of whom had moved to the United States to complete their high school or college education after developing in the local youth leagues. Correa became the third Latino to be the first overall selection in the MLB Draft, after Alex Rodriguez and Adrian González, as well as the first Puerto Rican and Latin American-born player to do so. During the ceremony, he was congratulated by Iván Rodríguez. Upon returning to Puerto Rico the following day, Correa was greeted by a victory parade in his native Santa Isabel, attended by hundreds of people.
Correa signed with the Astros on June 2012, agreeing to a $4.8 million signing bonus. Correa chose to wear the number 12 in his introduction to the media, donning it in homage to Hall of Famer Roberto Alomar, but abandoned it afterwards; the organization assigned him to their extended spring training team in Florida. He began his professional career with
The Open University is a public distance learning and research university, the biggest university in the UK for undergraduate education. The majority of the OU's undergraduate students are based in the United Kingdom and principally study off-campus. There are a number of full-time postgraduate research students based on the 48-hectare university campus where they use the OU facilities for research, as well as more than 1,000 members of academic and research staff and over 2,500 administrative and support staff; the OU was established in 1969 and the first students enrolled in January 1971. The university administration is based at Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, in Buckinghamshire, but has administration centres in other parts of the United Kingdom, it has a presence in other European countries. The university awards undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, as well as non-degree qualifications such as diplomas and certificates or continuing education units. With more than 174,000 students enrolled, including around 31% of new undergraduates aged under 25 and more than 7,400 overseas students, it is the largest academic institution in the United Kingdom by student number, qualifies as one of the world's largest universities.
Since it was founded, more than 2 million students have studied its courses. It was rated top university in England and Wales for student satisfaction in the 2005, 2006 and 2012 United Kingdom government national student satisfaction survey, second in the 2007 survey. Out of 132 universities and colleges, the OU was ranked 43rd in the Times Higher Education Table of Excellence in 2008, between the University of Reading and University of the Arts London, it was ranked 36th in the country and 498th in the world by the Center for World University Rankings in 2018. The Open University is one of only three United Kingdom higher education institutions to gain accreditation in the United States of America by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, an institutional accrediting agency, recognized by the United States Secretary of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation; the BSc Computing and IT course is accredited by BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT and quality assured by the European Quality Assurance Network for Informatics Education.
The OU won the Teaching Excellence and Digital Innovation categories in The Guardian University Awards 2018. The Open University was founded by the Labour government under Prime Minister Harold Wilson. Wilson was a strong advocate. Planning commenced in 1965 under Minister of State for Education Jennie Lee, who established a model for the OU as one of widening access to the highest standards of scholarship in higher education, set up a planning committee consisting of university vice-chancellors and television broadcasters, chaired by Sir Peter Venables; the British Broadcasting Corporation Assistant Director of Engineering at the time James Redmond, had obtained most of his qualifications at night school, his natural enthusiasm for the project did much to overcome the technical difficulties of using television to broadcast teaching programmes. Wilson envisioned The Open University as a major marker in the Labour Party's commitment to modernising British society, he believed that it would help build a more competitive economy while promoting greater equality of opportunity and social mobility.
The planned utilisation of television and radio to broadcast its courses was supposed to link The Open University to the technological revolution underway, which Wilson saw as a major ally of his modernization schemes. However, from the start Lee encountered widespread scepticism and opposition from within and without the Labour Party, including senior officials in the DES; the Open University was realized due to Lee's unflagging determination and tenacity in 1965–67, the steadfast support from Wilson, the fact that the anticipated costs, as reported to Lee and Wilson by Arnold Goodman, seemed modest. By the time the actual, much higher costs became apparent, it was too late to scrap the fledgling open university; the university was granted a Royal Charter by the Privy Council on 23 April 1969. The majority of staff are part-time Associate Lecturers and, as of the 2009–10 academic year 8,000 work for the OU. There are 1,286 salaried academic employees who are research active and responsible for the production and presentation of teaching materials, 1,931 who are academic-related and 1,902 support staff.
Salaries are the OU's main cost—over £275 million for the 2009–2010 academic year. In 2010 the OU became one of the Sunday Times' Best Places to Work in the Public Sector. Open University Employees Credit Union Limited is a savings and loans co-operative established by the University for staff in 1994. A member of the Association of British Credit Unions Limited, it is authorised by the Prudential Regulation Authority and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority and the PRA. Like the banks and building societies, members’ savings are protected against business failure by the Financial Services Compensation Scheme. In 2016, the university reorga
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Sir John Edward Sulston was a British biologist and academic who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his work on the cell lineage and genome of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans in 2002 with his colleagues Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz. He was a leader in human genome research and Chair of the Institute for Science and Innovation at the University of Manchester. Sulston was in favour of science in the public interest, such as free public access of scientific information and against the patenting of genes and the privatisation of genetic technologies. Sulston was born in Fulmer, England to Arthur Edward Aubrey Sulston and Josephine Muriel Frearson, née Blocksidge, his father was an Anglican priest and administrator of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. His mother quit her job as an English teacher at Watford Grammar School, to care for him and his sister Madeleine. and home-tutored them until he was five. At age five he entered the local preparatory school, York House School, where he soon developed an aversion to games.
He developed an early interest in science, having fun with dissecting animals and sectioning plants to observe their structure and function. Sulston won a scholarship to Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood and to Pembroke College, Cambridge graduating in 1963 with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Natural Sciences, he joined the Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, after being interviewed by Alexander Todd and was awarded his PhD in 1966 for research in nucleotide chemistry. Between 1966 and 1969 he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, his academic advisor Colin Reese had arranged for him to work with Leslie Orgel, who would turn his scientific career onto a different pathway. Orgel introduced him to Francis Sydney Brenner, who worked in Cambridge, he became inclined to biological research. Although Orgel wanted Sulston to remain with him, Sydney Brenner persuaded Sulston to return to Cambridge to work on the neurobiology of Caenorhabditis elegans at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology.
Sulston soon produced the complete map of the worm's neurons. He continued work on its DNA and subsequently the whole genome sequencing. In 1998, the whole genome sequence was published in collaboration with the Genome Institute at Washington University in St. Louis, so that C. elegans became the first animal to have its complete genome sequenced. Sulston played a central role in human genome sequencing projects, he had argued for the sequencing of C. elegans to show that large-scale genome sequencing projects were feasible. As sequencing of the worm genome proceeded, the Human Genome Project began. At this point he was made director of the newly established Sanger Centre, located in Cambridgeshire, England. In 2000, after the'working draft' of the human genome sequence was completed, Sulston retired from directing the Sanger Centre. With Georgina Ferry, he narrated his research career leading to the human genome sequence in The Common Thread: A Story of Science, Politics and the Human Genome.
Sulston was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1986. His certificate of election reads: John Sulston is distinguished for his work on the molecular and developmental genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans, his initial research was in the field of chemical synthesis of oligonucleotides. Sulston began his work on C. elegans in 1974 characterising its DNA. Since he has carried out a wide range of genetical and developmental studies on the nematode but his major research has been on the developmental lineage and mutations that affect it. In a series of studies, culminating in a paper published in 1983, Sulston has analysed and described the total cell lineage of the nematode making it the first organism for which the origin of every cell is known; this work is the basis for the study of mutations affecting lineages and is the foundation on which detailed studies of development in this organism will be based. Sulston has now turned his attention to an analysis of the genome of C. elegans and was constructing a total physical map using a novel method of analysing cloned DNA fragments.
He was elected an EMBO Member in 1989 and awarded the George W. Beadle Award in 2000. In 2001 Sulston gave the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on The Secrets of Life. In 2002, he won the Robert Burns Humanitarian Award, he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Sydney Brenner and Robert Horvitz, both of whom he had collaborated with at the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, for their discoveries concerning'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'. One of Sulston's most important contributions during his research years at the LMB was to elucidate the precise order in which cells in C. elegans divide. In fact, he and his team succeeded in tracing the nematode's entire embryonic cell lineage. In 2006, he was awarded the George Dawson Prize in Genetics by Trinity College Dublin. In 2013, Sulston was awarded the Royal Society of New Zealand's Rutherford Memorial Lecture, which he gave on the subject of population pressure, he was appointed a Member of the Order of the Companions of Honour in the 2017 Birthday Honours for services to science and society.
On 23 October 2017 he was awarded the Cambridge Chemistry Alumni Medal. Sulston was a leading campaigner against the patenting of human genetic information. John Sulston met a research assistant in Cambridge, they got married in 1966. Together they had two children, their first child, was born in La Jo
Cory Efram Doctorow is a Canadian-British blogger and science fiction author who serves as co-editor of the blog Boing Boing. He is an activist in favour of liberalising copyright laws and a proponent of the Creative Commons organization, using some of their licences for his books; some common themes of his work include digital rights management, file sharing, post-scarcity economics. Doctorow was born in Ontario, his father was born in a refugee camp in Azerbaijan. Although he is an admirer of acclaimed novelist E. L. Doctorow, the two are of no known relation, contrary to popular belief. In elementary school, Doctorow befriended Tim Wu, he received his high school diploma from the SEED School, attended four universities without attaining a degree. He served on the board of directors for the Grindstone Island Co-operative in Big Rideau Lake in Ontario. In June 1999, he co-founded the free software P2P company Opencola with Grad Conn.. The company was sold to the Open Text Corporation of Waterloo, during the summer of 2003.
The company used. Doctorow relocated to London and worked as European Affairs Coordinator for the Electronic Frontier Foundation for four years, helping to establish the Open Rights Group, before leaving the EFF to pursue writing full-time in January 2006. Upon his departure, Doctorow was named a Fellow of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, he was named the 2006–2007 Canadian Fulbright Chair for Public Diplomacy at the USC Center on Public Diplomacy, sponsored jointly by the Royal Fulbright Commission, the Integrated Media Systems Center, the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. The professorship included a one-year writing and teaching residency at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles, United States, he returned to London, but remained a frequent public speaker on copyright issues. In 2009, Doctorow became the first Independent Studies Scholar in Virtual Residence at the University of Waterloo in Ontario, he was a student in the program during 1993–94, but left without completing a thesis.
Doctorow is a Visiting Professor at the Open University in the United Kingdom. In 2012 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from The Open University. Doctorow married Alice Taylor in October 2008, together they have one daughter named Poesy Emmeline Fibonacci Nautilus Taylor Doctorow, born in 2008. Doctorow became a British citizen by naturalisation on 12 August 2011. In 2015, Doctorow decided to leave London and move to Los Angeles, feeling disappointed by London's "death" from Britain's choice of Conservative government, he claims on his blog, "But London is a city whose two priorities are being a playground for corrupt global elites who turn neighbourhoods into soulless collections of empty safe-deposit boxes in the sky, encouraging the feckless criminality of the finance industry. These two facts are not unrelated." He rejoined the EFF in January 2015 to campaign for the eradication of digital rights management. He served as Canadian Regional Director of the Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America in 1999.
Together with Austrian art group monochrom, he initiated the Instant Blitz Copy Fight project, which asks people from all over the world to take flash pictures of copyright warnings in movie theaters. On October 31, 2005, Doctorow was involved in a controversy concerning digital rights management with Sony-BMG, as told in Wikinomics; as a user of the Tor anonymity network for more than a decade during his global travels, Doctorow publicly supports the network. Doctorow began selling fiction when he was 17 years old and sold several stories followed by publication of his story "Craphound" in 1998. Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom, Doctorow's first novel, was published in January 2003, was the first novel released under one of the Creative Commons licences, allowing readers to circulate the electronic edition as long as they neither made money from it nor used it to create derived works; the electronic edition was released with the print edition. In March 2003, it was re-released with a different Creative Commons licence that allowed derivative works such as fan fiction, but still prohibited commercial usage.
It was nominated for a Nebula Award, won the Locus Award for Best First Novel in 2004. A semi-sequel short story named Truncat was published on Salon.com in August 2003. His novel Someone Comes to Town, Someone Leaves Town, published in June 2005, was chosen to launch the Sci-Fi Channel's book club, Sci-Fi Essentials. Doctorow's other novels have been released with Creative Commons licences that allow derived works and prohibit commercial usage, he has used the model of making digital versions available, without charge, at the same time that print versions are published, his Sunburst Award-winning short story collectionA Place So Foreign and Eight More was published in 2004: "0wnz0red" from this collection was nominated for the 2004 Nebula Award for Best Novelette. Doctorow released the bestselling novel Little Brother in 2008 with a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike licence, it was nominated for a Hugo Award for Best Novel in 2009. and won the 2009 Prometheus Award, Sunburst Award, the 2009 John W. Campbell Memorial Award.
His novel Makers was released in October 2009, was serialised for free on the Tor Books website. Doctorow released another young adult novel, For the Win, in May 2010; the novel is available free on the author's website as a Creative Commons