Castielfabib is a municipality in the comarca of Rincón de Ademuz in the Valencian Community, Spain. Known as "the small Albarracín", Castielfabib is located on a hill near the right bank of the river Ebrón. Located in the northwest corner of Rincon de Ademuz, it is mountainous with elevation ranging between 800 and 1,550 m; the most important points of elevation are: Mill Creek, Peña de Águila and third order geodetic vertices of Cabezo, Umbria La Muela and Cross of the Three Kingdoms, so named because its summit brings together the old kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia. The river Turia enters the north, it flows on the east of Riodeva. Ebrón River crosses the territory from northwest to southeast, flowing into Turia, the boulevard of Palomarejos runs north and comes to the precipice of the Canaleja; the climate is continental, the prevailing winds are from the north and east, the latter causing the rains in April. In the municipality of Castielfabib, there are the following civil parishes: Arroyo Cerezo.
Cuesta del Rato. Mas de Jacinto. Mas de los Mudos. Los Santos; the municipality of Castielfabib shares borders with the following towns: Ademuz and Vallanca, all of them situated in the province of Valencia. Farther afield to the west the municipality borders Salvacañete in the province of Cuenca, Castilla-La Mancha. Castielfabib is, together with Ademuz, one of the two historic towns of the Rincón de Ademuz region, established through the thirteenth century Christian conquest of the Aragonese, when both towns were incorporated into the real domain and property of the Crown and had representation in parliament. In Soreico Solana, there are remnants of the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, another Iberian was established. Romans appear in the Faber Castle, west of the town. In Castillejo in the departure of the Saints, was found in 1971 a Roman tombstone fragment preserved in the Museum of Prehistoric Valencia; the population was captured in 1210 by Peter II of Aragon, was recovered by the Muslims again.
When conquered by James I it was a place of the Crown, cediéndose the tithes into the Temple. In 1304 was committed by James II Gil Ruiz de Lihori as collateral for a loan. In 1319 dissolved the Knights Templar, their rights were transferred to the Montesa, the barony of Castielfabib, consisting of the territory of Ademuz corner. In 1390, there was a dispute between the Order of Montesa and the bishopric of religious intervention in the village, requiring the intervention of the Pope to solve it; as a royal town, Castielfabib trustee periodically sent to the Generalitat Valenciana, the Valencian Parliament. The township has remained unchanged since medieval times and since has only been a municipality at the expense of the territory of Castielfabib: Torrebaja, tiny Lordship in the Middle Ages. During the War of Independence Castielfabib was occupied by the French; the Carlist entered into 1835 and rebuilt the castle demolished to be won back by government forces. The economy is traditionally based on livestock.
The banks of rivers have irrigated land and produce apples, pears and cereals. In the rain-fed area and vine are grown; the sheep are the most important, followed by goat. There are a number of hives. There is a youth hostel, with room service and swimming pool; the town entrance is from the road N-420, the Tourism Office of the Rincón de Ademuz is located at "Los Centenares" of Castielfabib, along with a rural tourism complex. From the 7th to 11th of September festivities are dedicated to Our Lady of Grace; the pattern is Castielfabib San Guillermo. Easter is the most traditional of the municipality. Events occur as the bringing of two poplars from the banks of the river to the place, it is planted in the square, the popular dance on Saturday night, the singing of the "Aurora" in the houses of the "Mayoral" and "Mayoralesas" in the early hours of Sunday and the "courtesy" of Easter morning with the traditional human Turning the Bell. Castielfabib shares with the other towns of Rincon de Ademuz several recipes such as gachas and others, in which pork and its derivatives are central.
Almond and other fruits are grown in the fertile plain of the River Ebrón and they are a key ingredient in the local bakery. In recent times other local products such as mushrooms and tomatoes are being promoted. Francisco Novella, was Professor of Rhetoric at the University of Valencia. Antonio Diaz Tortajada. Journalist and writer. Since March 2011, Castielfabib has an Astronomical Association established by amateur astronomer from the "Circolo Astrofili Bergamaschi" Carlos García Villalba, with the aim of bringing this science to the general public taking advantage of the exceptional conditions for viewing the sky
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of, 512 metres high. Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. After merging with the Kingdom of Aragon, Barcelona continued to be an important city in the Crown of Aragon as an economic and administrative centre of this Crown and the capital of the Principality of Catalonia.
Barcelona has a rich cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre and a major tourist destination. Renowned are the architectural works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner, which have been designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites; the headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean are located in Barcelona. The city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. Barcelona is one of the world's leading tourist, trade fair and cultural centres, its influence in commerce, entertainment, fashion and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities, it is a major cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world and a financial centre. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union and 35th in the world with GDP amounting to €177 billion. In 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion. In 2009 the city was ranked one of the world's most successful as a city brand.
In the same year the city was ranked Europe's fourth best city for business and fastest improving European city, with growth improved by 17% per year, the city has been experiencing strong and renewed growth for the past three years. Since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. Barcelona is a transport hub, with the Port of Barcelona being one of Europe's principal seaports and busiest European passenger port, an international airport, Barcelona–El Prat Airport, which handles over 50 million passengers per year, an extensive motorway network, a high-speed rail line with a link to France and the rest of Europe; the name Barcelona comes from the ancient Iberian Barkeno, attested in an ancient coin inscription found on the right side of the coin in Iberian script as, in ancient Greek sources as Βαρκινών, Barkinṓn. Some older sources suggest that the city may have been named after the Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca, supposed to have founded the city in the 3rd century BC, but there is no evidence that Barcelona was a Carthaginian settlement, or that its name in antiquity, had any connection with the Barcid family of Hamilcar.
During the Middle Ages, the city was variously known as Barchinona, Barçalona and Barchenona. Internationally, Barcelona's name is wrongly abbreviated to'Barça'. However, this name refers only to the football club; the common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna. Another common abbreviation is'BCN', the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport; the city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan, Ciudad Condal in Spanish, owing to its past as the seat of the Count of Barcelona. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear; the ruins of an early settlement have been found, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends; the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. The second legend attributes the foundation of the city directly to the historical Carthaginian general, Hamilcar Barca, father of Hannibal, who named the city Barcino after his family in the 3rd century BC, but there is no historical or linguistic evidence that this is true.
In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the "Mons Taber", a little hill near the contemporary city hall. Under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. Pomponius Mela mentions it among the small towns of the district as it was eclipsed by its neighbour Tarraco, but it may be gathered from writers that it grew in wealth and consequence, favoured as it was with a beautiful situation and an excellent harbour, it enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens. The city minted its own coins. Important Roman vestiges are displayed in Plaça del Rei underground, as a part of the Barcelona City History Museum; some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have been incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have been founded in 343; the city
Instituto Nacional de Estadística (Spain)
The National Statistics Institute is the official agency in Spain that collects statistics about demography and Spanish society. It is an autonomous organization in Spain responsible for overall coordination of statistical services of the General State Administration in monitoring and supervision of technical procedures; every 10 years, this organisation conducts a national census. The last census took place in 2011. Through the official website one can follow all the updates of different fields of study; the oldest statistics agency of Spain and the predecessor of the current agency was the General Statistics Commission of the Kingdom, created on November 3, 1856 during the reign of Isabella II. The so-then Prime Minister Narváez approved a decree creating this body and ordering that people with recognized ability in this matter were part of it. On May 1, 1861, the Commission change its name to General Statistics Board and their first work was to do a population census. By a decree of September 12, 1870, Prime Minister Serrano created the Geographic Institute and in 1873 this Institute change its name to Geographic and Statistic Institute assuming the competences of the General Statistics Board.
In 1890, the titularity of the agency was transferred from the Prime Minister's Office to the Ministry of Development. Between 1921 and 1939, change its name many times. In the same way, the agency was transferred from a ministry to another, passing through the Deputy Prime Minister's Office, the Ministry of the Presidency and the Ministry of Labour; the National Statistics Institute was created following the Law of December 31, 1945, published in the BOE of January 3, 1946, with a mission to develop and refine the demographic and social statistics existing, creating new statistics and coordination with the statistical offices of provincial and municipal areas. At the end of 1964 the first computer was installed at the INE, it was a first-generation IBM 1401, for which a team was formed consisting of four statistics faculty and ten technicians. In the four years following it was possible that said. INE Website
Ulmus minor 'Ademuz'
The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor'Ademuz' was cloned by root cuttings from a tree growing near the eponymous town north-west of Valencia, discovered in 1996 by the late Margarita Burón of the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, Universidad Politėcnica de Madrid. The tree is one of a number found to have a high resistance to Dutch Elm Disease, on a par with, if not greater than, the hybrid cultivar'Sapporo Autumn Gold'. In the Madrid study, the appearance of the tree was rated 4.5 / 5, the most attractive of the selected cultivars.'Ademuz' was introduced to the UK in 2014, by Hampshire & Isle of Wight Branch, Butterfly Conservation, as part of an assessment of DED-resistant cultivars as potential hosts of the endangered White-letter Hairstreak.'Ademuz' grew at 100 cm per annum, the fastest of the U. minor clones under assessment at Puerta de Hierro, Madrid. The tree is monopodial, its branches devoid of corky tissue; the leaves, on 5 mm petioles, are ovate oblique at the base and acuminate at the apex, the average length and width 54 × 34 mm, the margins doubly serrate.
Foliar density relative to'Sapporo Autumn Gold' is described as'medium'. In inoculation trials conducted in 2008,'Ademuz' sustained 10% damage against a score of c. 45% for the benchmark-resistant cultivar'Sapporo Autumn Gold'. In 2009'Ademuz' scored c. 18%, Sapporo c. 21%. Ergo,'Ademuz' would appear to have a level of resistance unprecedented in a European species; however in Italian elm trials, some Spanish U. minor clones have shewn more susceptibility to elm yellows, a phytoplasma not known to exist in the UK, than those of any other provenance. Whether'Ademuz' shares this susceptibility is not yet known; the cultivar is undergoing further trials at other locations in Spain. The parent tree grows on the outskirts of Valencia; the climate of Valencia is dry and frost-free, with an annual average rainfall total of @450 mm, the majority falling in autumn. Rainfall from January is about 30-40 mm per month until July, when it falls to @10 mm. However,'Ademuz' has thrived at four sites in Hampshire, England, as part of Butterfly Conservation's elm trials, where the rainfall is double the Valencia total, the geology ranges from chalk to impermeable clays.'Ademuz' is derived from the Arabic'Ad-damus', which appears to mean'impregnable', the origin of the English word'adamant'.
EuropeGrange Farm Arboretum, Sutton St James, Lincolnshire, UK. One small whip planted 2015. Great Fontley Farm, nr. Fareham, Hampshire, UK. Butterfly Conservation elm trial plantation. Four trees planted 2014-2016. Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, UK. Acc. no. 20180335 Sir Harold Hillier Gardens, Hampshire, UK. Ampfield Wood. Acc. no. 2017.0197
Province of Cuenca
Cuenca is one of the five provinces of the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha. It is cover over 17.141 square km. It has a population of 203.841 inhabitants- the least populated of its autonomous community. Its capital city is Cuenca and the province is compounded of 238 municipalities; the province is bordered by the provinces of Valencia, Ciudad Real, Madrid and Teruel. The northeastern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. 211,375 people live in the province. Its capital is Cuenca, some 52,980 people. There are 238 municipalities in Cuenca. Other populous towns and municipalities include Tarancón, San Clemente, Quintanar del Rey, Villanueva de la Jara, Motilla del Palancar, Mota del Cuervo, La Almarcha and Las Pedroñeras. In 1851 Cuenca lost Requena-Utiel to the neighbouring Valencia Province with which it was developing commercial ties. Requena-Utiel remained Spanish-speaking, while the loss of its most dynamic region left the province of Cuenca underdeveloped economically
The Corts Valencianes known as Les Corts, are the main legislative body of the Generalitat Valenciana and therefore of the Valencian Country. The main location of the Corts is in the Palace of the Borgias in Valencia; the Corts has its origins in bodies established in the thirteenth century by King James I of Aragon. The modern institution was established in 1982 under the Valencian statute of autonomy of 1982; the current Corts were elected in 2015. Following the conquest and reign of James I of Aragon, the economic and military needs of the Crown of Aragon justified some meetings of the king with representatives of the three social classes, to obtain military or financial services; the economic needs justified those meetings, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, a stable institution called the Corts Valencianes had been established. Among the meetings which were held during the reign of James I, the most important was that of 7 April 1261 in Valencia, during which the king promulgated the Furs of Valencia, a series of charters equivalent to a modern constitution.
Proof of the economic importance of the corts for the crown is that the king promulgated the Furs in exchange for the sum of 48,000, which were paid to him by the city of Valencia, by the cities of the Horta de València which belonged to the clergy and to the nobility, by the towns of Castelló, Vilafamés, Onda, Llíria, Corbera and Gandia. At the time of those corts, King James established a rule for his successors obliging them to organise a general cort in Valencia at the beginning of each reign, in the first month after their entry into the city; this obligation was renewed during the corts of 1271, the corts were summoned by James I and by his son Peter III of Aragon. Those Corts were the only obligatory meetings, but the king summoned the corts on other occasions when required. In 1302, James II decided. During the corts of 1336, Peter IV confirmed this triennial meeting, by specifying that the corts were to meet every three years on All Saints' Day. During the thirteenth century and at the beginning of the fourteenth, the representations of the other cities in the Kingdom of Valencia were added, until the corts of 1239, during which the representations of various territories met constituting the corts of all the Kingdom.
From that moment, the most important cities always met, while others attended depending on the relevance to them of the subjects being discussed. However, the representation was important. For example, in the Corts of Valencia of 1510, the following towns were represented: Ademús, Alcoi, Alzira, Bocairent, Cabdet, Castelló, Cullera, Llíria, Ontinyent, Penàguila, Peníscola, València, Vila Joiosa, Vila-real, Xàtiva, Xèrica and Xixona. Half of the assemblies took place in Valencia cathedral; the Valencian Corts of 1418, fixed the duration of the corts at three years. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the Valencian institutions were definitively established. With the unification of the crowns of Castille and Aragon, the Valencian corts declined in importance and were less convened during the sixteenth century, a trend that continued in the seventeenth century; the last corts met in Valencia in 1645. After the War of the Spanish Succession and the new decree of 1707, the Kingdom of Valencia and its local rights were abolished.
The Corts Valencianes were not convened again until their reestablishment under the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. As of the coming into effect of the Statute of Autonomy, the Corts have operated like a modern representative legislature. Although meeting in the provincial capital of Valencia city, they have met in various towns around the Valencian community in recent years, an initiative, developed by the most recent legislatures; the first legislature in modern times was elected in May 1983. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party won an absolute majority of votes and seats, with 51 of the 89 seats; however they lost their majority in 1987 and were forced to govern in coalition with the smaller United Left party. They won the 1991 elections with a majority of one seat. However, in the 1995 elections there was a swing to the right with the People's Party becoming the largest party with 42 seats and governing in coalition with the smaller Unió Valenciana; this lasted until the elections of 1999. Although they lost a seat in 2003, they strengthened their position in the elections of 2007 and 2011, winning a record 55 seats.
In the 2015 elections PP lost the majority, PSPV and Compromís are governing in coalition. Following the passing of the statute of autonomy of the Valencian Community, which established local government for the region, the Corts became the regional assembly, elected every four years by universal adult suffrage; the name originated in the historic Valencian Corts, however previous bodies of that name had different functions representing three institutions: the clergy, the military/nobility and the royal family. The Statute of Autonomy defines the Corts Valencianes in chapter II, title II, although there are references in other articles; the Statute indicates the composition of Corts, its functions, the basic principles of the electoral system, traces the general framework of the Statute of the Deputies. Laws which develop the Statute, the rules of the Corts Valencianes regulate t
Encomienda was a Spanish labor system. It rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people, it was first established in Spain following the Christian conquest of Muslim territories. It was applied on a much larger scale during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines. Conquered peoples were considered vassals of the Spanish monarch; the Crown awarded an encomienda as a grant to a particular individual. In the conquest era of the sixteenth century, the grants were considered to be a monopoly on the labor of particular groups of Indians, held in perpetuity by the grant holder, called the encomendero, his descendants. Encomiendas devolved from their original Iberian form into a form of "communal" slavery. In the encomienda, the Spanish Crown granted a person a specified number of natives from a specific community, but did not dictate which individuals in the community would have to provide their labor. Indigenous leaders were charged with mobilizing the assessed labor.
In turn, encomenderos were to ensure that the encomienda natives were given instruction in the Christian faith and Spanish language, protect them from warring tribes or pirates. In return, the natives would provide tributes in the form of metals, wheat, pork, or other agricultural products. With the ouster of Christopher Columbus, the Spanish crown sent a royal governor, Fray Nicolás de Ovando, who established the formal encomienda system. In many cases natives were forced to do hard labor and subjected to extreme punishment and death if they resisted. However, Queen Isabella I of Castile forbade Indian slavery and deemed the indigenous to be "free vassals of the crown". Various versions of the Leyes de Indias or Laws of the Indies from 1512 onwards attempted to regulate the interactions between the settlers and natives. Both natives and Spaniards appealed to the Real Audiencias for relief under the encomienda system. Encomiendas had been characterized by the geographical displacement of the enslaved and breakup of communities and family units, but in Mexico, the encomienda ruled the free vassals of the crown through existing community hierarchies, the natives were allowed to keep in touch with their families and homes.
The abolition of the Encomienda in 1542 marks the first major movement towards the abolition of slavery in the Western world. The heart of encomienda and encomendero lies in the Spanish verb encomendar, "to entrust"; the encomienda was based on the reconquista institution in which adelantados were given the right to extract tribute from Muslims or other peasants in areas that they had conquered and resettled. The encomienda system traveled to America as the result of the implantation of Castilian law over the territory; the system was created in the Middle Ages and was pivotal to allow for the repopulation and protection of frontier land during the reconquista. The encomienda established a relationship similar to a feudal relationship, in which military protection was traded for certain tributes or by specific work, it was prevalent among military orders that were entrusted with the protection of frontier areas. The king intervened directly or indirectly in the bond, by guaranteeing the fairness of the agreement and intervening militarily in case of abuse.
The encomienda system in Spanish America differed from the Peninsular institution. The encomenderos did not own the land; the system did not entail any direct land tenure by the encomendero. This right was formally protected by the crown of Castile because the rights of administration in the New World belonged to this crown and not to the Catholic monarchs as a whole; the first grantees of the encomienda or encomenderos were conquerors who received these grants of labor by virtue of participation in a successful conquest. Some receiving encomiendas in New Spain were not conquerors themselves but were sufficiently well connected that they received grants. In his study of the encomenderos of early colonial Mexico, Robert Himmerich y Valencia divides conquerors into those who were part of Hernán Cortés' original expedition, calling them "first conquerors", those who were members of the Narváez expedition, calling them "conquerors"; the latter were incorporated into Cortes' contingent. Himmerick designated as pobladores antiguos, a group of undetermined number of encomenderos in New Spain, men who had resided in the Caribbean region prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico.
Holders of encomiendas included women and indigenous elite. Doña Maria Jaramillo, the daughter of Doña Marina and conqueror Juan Jaramillo, received income from her deceased father's encomiendas. Two of Moctezuma's daughters, Doña Isabel Moctezuma and her younger sister, Doña Leonor Moctezuma, were granted extensive encomiendas in perpetuity by Hernan Cortes. Doña Leonor Moctezuma married in succession two Spaniards, left the encomiendas to her daughter by her second husband. Vassal Inca rulers appointed after the conquest sought and were granted encomiendas; the status of humans as wards of the trustees under the encomienda system served to "define the status of the Indian population": the natives were free men, not slaves or serfs. But some Spaniards treated them as poorly as slaves; the encomienda was essential to the Spanish crown's sustaining its control over North and South America in the first decades after the colonization. It was the first major organizational law instituted on the continent, affected by war, widespread disease epidemics caused by Eurasian diseases, resul