The rosids are members of a large clade of flowering plants, containing about 70,000 species, more than a quarter of all angiosperms. The clade is divided into 16 to 20 orders, depending upon circumscription and classification; these orders, in turn, together comprise about 140 families. Fossil rosids are known from the Cretaceous period. Molecular clock estimates indicate that the rosids originated in the Aptian or Albian stages of the Cretaceous, between 125 and 99.6 million years ago. The name is based upon the name "Rosidae", understood to be a subclass. In 1967, Armen Takhtajan showed that the correct basis for the name "Rosidae" is a description of a group of plants published in 1830 by Friedrich Gottlieb Bartling; the clade was renamed "Rosidae" and has been variously delimited by different authors. The name "rosids" is informal and not assumed to have any particular taxonomic rank like the names authorized by the ICBN; the rosids are monophyletic based upon evidence found by molecular phylogenetic analysis.
Three different definitions of the rosids were used. Some authors included the orders Vitales in the rosids. Others excluded both of these orders; the circumscription used in this article is that of the APG IV classification, which includes Vitales, but excludes Saxifragales. The rosids and Saxifragales form the superrosids clade; this is one of three groups that compose the Pentapetalae, the others being Dilleniales and the superasterids. The rosids consist of two groups: the eurosids; the eurosids, in turn, are divided into two groups: malvids. The rosids consist of 17 orders. In addition to Vitales, there are 8 orders in malvids; some of the orders have only been recognized. These are Vitales, Crossosomatales and Huerteales; the phylogeny of Rosids shown below is adapted from the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group website. The nitrogen-fixing clade contains a high number of actinorhizal plants. Not all plants in this clade are actinorhizal, however. Media related to Rosids at Wikimedia Commons
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Carl Ludwig Willdenow
Carl Ludwig Willdenow was a German botanist and plant taxonomist. He is considered one of the founders of phytogeography, the study of the geographic distribution of plants. Willdenow was a mentor of Alexander von Humboldt, one of the earliest and best known phytogeographers, he influenced Christian Konrad Sprengel, who pioneered the study of plant pollination and floral biology. Willdenow was studied medicine and botany at the University of Halle. After studying pharmaceutics at Wieglieb College, Langensalza and in medicine at Halle, he returned to Berlin to work at his father's pharmacy located in the Unter den Linden, his early interest in botany was kindled by his uncle J. G. Gleditsch and he started a herbarium collection in his teenage years. In 1794 he became a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, he was a director of the Botanical garden of Berlin from 1801 until his death. In 1807 Alexander von Humboldt helped to expand the garden. There he studied many South American plants, brought back by Humboldt.
He was interested in the adaptation of plants to climate, showing that the same climate had plants having common characteristics. His herbarium, containing more than 20,000 species, is still preserved in the Botanical Garden in Berlin; some of the specimens include those collected by Humboldt. Humboldt notes that as a young man he was unable to identify plants using Willdenow's Flora Berolinensis, he subsequently visited Willdenow without an appointment and found him to be a kindred soul only four years older and in three weeks he became an enthusiastic botanist. In his 1792 book, Grundriss der Kräuterkunde or Geschichte der Pflanzen Willdenow came up with an idea to explain restricted plant distributions. Willdenow suggested that it was based on past history with mountains surrounded by seas with different sets of plants restricted to the peaks which spread downward and out with receding sea levels; this would fit with the Biblical notion of floods. This was contrary to earlier assertions by Eberhard August Wilhelm von Zimmermann that plants were distributed as they had been in the past and that there had been no changes.
Florae Berolinensis prodromus Grundriß der Kräuterkunde Linnaei species plantarum Botanicus Anleitung zum Selbststudium der Botanik Historia Amaranthorum Phytographia Enumeratio plantarum horti regii botanici Berolinensis Berlinische Baumzucht Abbildung der deutschen Holzarten für Forstmänner und Liebhaber der Botanik Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Hortus Berolinensis Grundriss der Kräuterkunde zu Vorlesungen Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
In botany, sessility is a characteristic of plant parts that have no stalk. Flowers or leaves are borne directly from the stem or peduncle, thus lack a petiole or pedicel; the leaves of most monocotyledons lack petioles. The term sessility is used in mycology to describe a fungal fruit body, attached to or seated directly on the surface of the substrate, lacking a supporting stipe or pedicel. Other examples of sessile flowers include Achyranthus, etc. Plant parts can be described as subsessile, not sessile. Pedicellate
Sapindales is an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; the APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids with the following nine families: Anacardiaceae Biebersteiniaceae Burseraceae Kirkiaceae Meliaceae Nitrariaceae Rutaceae Sapindaceae SimaroubaceaeThe APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rutaceae were placed in the order Rutales, in the superorder Rutiflorae; the Cronquist system of 1981 used a somewhat different circumscription, including the following families: Staphyleaceae Melianthaceae Bretschneideraceae Akaniaceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Aceraceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Julianiaceae Simaroubaceae Cneoraceae Meliaceae Rutaceae ZygophyllaceaeThe difference from the APG III system is not as large as may appear, as the plants in the families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae stay in this order at APG III. The species now composing the family Nitrariaceae in APG III belonged to this order in the Cronquist system as part of the family Zygophyllaceae, while those now in the family Kirkiaceae were present as part of the family Simaroubaceae.
Pell, Susan Katherine. Molecular systematics of the cashew family. Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21
The Rutaceae are a family known as the rue or citrus family, of flowering plants placed in the order Sapindales. Species of the family have flowers that divide into four or five parts with strong scents, they range in size from herbs to shrubs and large trees. The most economically important genus in the family is Citrus, which includes the orange, lemon and lime. Boronia is a large Australian genus, some members of which are plants with fragrant flowers and are used in commercial oil production. Other large genera include Zanthoxylum and Agathosma. About 160 genera are in the family Rutaceae. Most species are trees or shrubs, a few are herbs aromatic with glands on the leaves, sometimes with thorns; the leaves are opposed and compound, without stipules. Pellucid glands, a type of oil gland, are found in the leaves responsible for the aromatic smell of the family's members. Flowers are bractless, solitary or in cyme in raceme, pollinated by insects, they are radially or laterally symmetric, hermaphroditic.
They have four or five petals and sepals, sometimes three separate, eight to ten stamen separate or in several groups. A single stigma with 2 to 5 united carpels, sometimes ovaries separate but styles combined; the fruit of the Rutaceae are variable: berries, hesperidia, samaras and follicles all occur. Seed number varies widely; the family is related to the Sapindaceae and Meliaceae, all are placed into the same order, although some systems separate that order into Rutales and Sapindales. The families Flindersiaceae and Ptaeroxylaceae are sometimes kept separate, but nowadays are placed in the Rutaceae, as are the former Cneoraceae; the subfamilial organization has not been resolved, but the subfamily Aurantioideae is well supported. The family is of great economic importance in warm temperate and subtropical climates for its numerous edible fruits of the genus Citrus, such as the orange, calamansi, kumquat and grapefruit. Non-citrus fruits include the White sapote, Clymenia and the Bael. Other plants are grown in horticulture: Murraya and Skimmia species, for example.
Ruta and Casimiroa species are medicinals. Several plants are used by the perfume industry, such as the Western Australian Boronia megastigma; the genus Pilocarpus has species from which the medicine pilocarpine, used to treat glaucoma, is extracted. Spices are made from a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum, notably Sichuan pepper. Chase, Mark W.. "Phylogenetic relationships of Rutaceae: a cladistic analysis of the subfamilies using evidence from RBC and ATP sequence variation". American Journal of Botany. Botanical Society of America. 86: 1191–1199. Doi:10.2307/2656983. JSTOR 2656983. PMID 10449399. Retrieved 2007-08-30. Singh, Gurjaran. Plant Systematics: An Integrated Approach. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers. Pp. 438–440. ISBN 1-57808-342-7. Media related to Rutaceae at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Rutaceae at Wikispecies
A gardener is someone who practices gardening, either professionally or as a hobby. A gardener is any person involved in gardening, arguably the oldest occupation, from the hobbyist in a residential garden, the homeowner supplementing the family food with a small vegetable garden or orchard, to an employee in a plant nursery or the head gardener in a large estate; the garden designer is someone who will design the garden, the gardener is the person who will undertake the work to produce the desired outcome. The term gardener is used to describe garden designers and landscape gardeners, who are involved chiefly in the design of gardens, rather than the practical aspects of horticulture. Garden design is considered to be an art in most cultures, distinguished from gardening, which means garden maintenance. Vita Sackville-West, Gertrude Jekyll and William Robinson were garden designers as well as gardeners. Garden design is the creation of a plan for the construction of a garden, in a design process.
The product is the garden, the garden designers attempt to optimize the given general conditions of the soil and climate, geological conditions and processes to choose the right plants in corresponding conditions. The design can include different themes such as perennial, wildlife, water, tropical, or shade gardens. In 18th-century Europe, country estates were refashioned by landscape gardeners into formal gardens or landscaped park lands, such as at Versailles, France, or Stowe, England. Today, landscape architects and garden designers continue to design both private garden spaces, residential estates and parkland, public parks and parkways to site planning for campuses and corporate office parks. Professional landscape designers are certified by the Association of Professional Landscape Designers; the designer provides directions and supervision during construction, the management of establishment and maintenance once the garden has been created. The gardener is the person; the gardener's labor during the year include planting flowers and other plants, pruning, removal of dead flowers and preparation of insecticides and other products for treating pests, tending garden compost.
Weeds tend to thrive at the expense of ornamental plants. Gardeners need to control weeds using physical or chemical methods to stop weeds from reaching a mature stage of growth when they could be harmful to domesticated plants. Early activities, such as starting young plants from seeds for transplantation, are performed in early spring