Adenosine is both a chemical found in many living systems and a medication. As a medication, it is used intravenously to treat certain forms of supraventricular tachycardia that do not improve with vagal maneuvers. Common side effects include chest pain, feeling faint, shortness of breath and tingling of the senses. Serious side effects include reduced blood pressure, it appears to be safe in pregnancy. It is a purine nucleoside composed of a molecule of adenine attached to a ribose sugar molecule moiety via a β-N9-glycosidic bond. Derivatives of adenosine are found in nature and play an important role in biochemical processes, such as energy transfer—as adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate —as well as in signal transduction as cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Adenosine itself is a neuromodulator, believed to play a role in promoting sleep and suppressing arousal, it plays a role in regulation of blood flow to various organs through vasodilation. In individuals with supraventricular tachycardia, adenosine is used to help identify and convert the rhythm.
Certain SVTs can be terminated with adenosine. This includes any re-entrant arrhythmias that require the AV node for the re-entry, e.g. AV reentrant tachycardia, AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. In addition, atrial tachycardia can sometimes be terminated with adenosine. Fast rhythms of the heart that are confined to the atria or ventricles and do not involve the AV node as part of the re-entrant circuit are not converted by adenosine. However, the ventricular response rate is temporarily slowed with adenosine in such cases; because of the effects of adenosine on AV node-dependent SVTs, adenosine is considered a class V antiarrhythmic agent. When adenosine is used to cardiovert an abnormal rhythm, it is normal for the heart to enter ventricular asystole for a few seconds; this can be disconcerting to a conscious patient, is associated with angina-like sensations in the chest. Adenosine is used as an adjunct to thallium or technetium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients unable to undergo adequate stress testing with exercise.
When given for the evaluation or treatment of a supraventricular tachycardia, the initial dose is 6 mg to 12 mg, depending on standing orders or provider preference, given as a rapid parenteral infusion. Due to adenosine's short half-life, the IV line is started as proximal to the heart as possible, such as the antecubital fossa; the IV push is followed with an immediate flush of 10–20 ccs of saline. If this has no effect, a dose of 12 mg can be given 1–2 minutes after the first dose; when given to dilate the arteries, such as in a "stress test", the dosage is 0.14 mg/kg/min, administered for 4 or 6 minutes, depending on the protocol. The recommended dose may be increased in patients on theophylline, since methylxanthines prevent binding of adenosine at receptor sites; the dose is decreased in patients on dipyridamole and diazepam because adenosine potentiates the effects of these drugs. The recommended dose is reduced by half in patients presenting congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypoxia, and/or chronic liver disease or chronic kidney disease, in elderly patients.
Dipyridamole potentiates the action of adenosine. Methylxanthines competitively antagonize adenosine's effects. By nature of caffeine's purine structure, it binds to some of the same receptors as adenosine; the pharmacological effects of adenosine may be blunted in individuals taking large quantities of methylxanthines. Common contraindications for adenosine include Asthma, traditionally considered an absolute contraindication; this is being contended and it is now considered a relative contraindication Decompensated heart failure Long QT syndrome Poison/drug-induced tachycardia Second- or third-degree heart block Severe hypotension Sick sinus syndrome When administered via a central lumen catheter, adenosine has been shown to initiate atrial fibrillation because of its effect on atrial tissue. In individuals with accessory pathways, the onset of atrial fibrillation can lead to a life-threatening ventricular fibrillation. However, adenosine may be administered if equipment for cardioversion is available as a backup.
Many individuals experience facial flushing, a temporary rash on the chest, diaphoresis, or nausea after administration of adenosine due to its vasodilatory effects. Metallic taste is a hallmark side-effect of adenosine administration; these symptoms are transitory lasting less than one minute. It is classically associated with a sense of "impending doom", more prosaically described as apprehension; this lasts a few seconds after administration of a bolus dose, during transient asystole induced by intravenous administration. In some cases, adenosine can make patients' limbs feel numb for about 2–5 minutes after administration intravenously depending on the dosage. Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside. Cellular signaling by adenosine occurs through four known adenosine receptor subtypes. Extracellular adenosine concentrations from normal cells are 300 nM.
The BZ20 Tour was a tour by Irish boy band Boyzone, celebrating the band's 20 years of existence. It included dates in England, Singapore, Indonesia and the Philippines. A huge contribution to the background and lead vocals came from backing vocalist Jo Garland, who has sung with Ronan Keating in his solo ventures since 2001 and with Boyzone since 2008, her vocals have taken the place of vocals that band member Stephen Gately sang before his death. Keith Duffy said that the group were planning another trek, as well as an album, in recognition of their 20 years in the spotlight. "We've plans in place for a tour and an album next year for the 20th anniversary – that's if people want to come and see us, We've a loyal fan base that always come in their thousands. It's a nice set-up. We never broke up, so we can take time out to do our own thing, get back together when it suits". On 14 February, tickets were made available, it was announced that the tour had more demand than The Wanted. In January 2014, it was announced that Boyzone would make their Forest Live debut that summer, in a continuation of the celebration of the BZ20 Tour.
Giovanni Battista Ciolina was an Italian neo-impressionist and divisionist painter. Born into a family of Valle Vigezzo farmers in 1870, he attended the Rossetti Valentini Art School in Santa Maria Maggiore - where he became close friends with other future painters such as Carlo Fornara, Gian Maria Rastellini and Lorenzo Peretti Junior - for five years, beginning in 1882, absorbing the teachings of Enrico Cavalli, a great connoisseur of the French art of the era and the historic innovator of painting in Valle Vigezzo. In the late 1880s, he received a two-year scholarship to attend the Scuola libera del nudo at the Accademia di Belle Arti in Venice. A talented and precocious artist, he demonstrated the level of excellence he had achieved with the works Ritratto della madre and L'ombrellino rosso. In the company of his friend and fellow painter Carlo Fornara, he spent a long period in Lyon between 1895 and 1896 studying the great masters and learning about the new painting on the other side of the Alps.
On his return to Italy he turned to Divisionism, applying the new technique according to the example of Giovanni Segantini. After his first showing, at the Third Triennale of Brera in 1897 with the painting Il filo spezzato, he opened a studio in Milan, where he produced numerous paintings in the divisionist style, including La lavandaia, Fanciulla che guarda dalla finestra and Mestizia crepuscolare, he took part in numerous exhibitions in Italy and abroad, after abandoning Divisionism, arrived at the Venice International Art Exhibition of 1907 with the painting Preludio di primavera, making extensive use of impasto and retaining the luminosity of his earliest works, but with the addition of a melancholy lyricism typical of Neo-impressionism entrusted to compositions of broad and powerful scope as in paintings Ritorno all’alpe and Toceno al tramonto. At the outbreak of the Great War, Ciolina left Milan and retired to Valle Vigezzo, where he continued to paint landscapes, still lifes and religious frescoes until his death.
"Giovanni Battista Ciolina – Umanità e paesaggi della Val Vigezzo": Museo del Paesaggio, Pallanza, 1986 "Una scuola di pittura in Val Vigezzo: 1881-1919": Turin/Novara, 1990 "Carlo Fornara. Un maestro del divisionismo": Trento, 1998 "Carlo Fornara. Il colore della valle": Acqui Terme, 2007 "Paesaggi dell'Ottocento. Verso la luce": Riva del Garda, 2010 "Le soglie della natura": Arco di Trento, 2010 "Alessandro Poscio, collezionista appassionato": Domodossola, 2014 "Carlo Fornara e il ritratto vigezzino": Domodossola, 2015 Thieme-Becker: "Allgemeines Lexikon der Bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart", Leipzig, 1907-1950 Guido Cesura: "Enrico Cavalli e la pittura vigezzina", Milan, 1974 Davide Ramoni: "Scuola di belle arti Rossetti Valentini in Santa Maria Maggiore. Vicende e contributi alla pittura vigezzina nel centenario della fondazione", tip. S. Gaudenzio, Novara, 1978 Aurora Scotti: "Giovanni Battista Ciolina, umanità e paesaggi della valle Vigezzo", Verbania, 1986 Dario Gnemmi: "Una scuola di pittura in Val Vigezzo: 1881-1919.
Carlo Giuseppe ed Enrico Cavalli, Giovanni Battista Ciolina, Carlo Fornara", Il Quadrante, Turin, 1990 Guido Cesura: "Enrico Cavalli pittore", Domodossola, 1993 Dario Gnemmi: "Retour à la ferme", Biglia Club, Domodossola, 1993 Annie-Paule Quinsac: "Carlo Fornara. Un maestro del Divisionismo", Milan, 1998 Francesco Ferrari: "La scuola di belle arti Rossetti Valentini in Santa Maria Maggiore", Domodossola, 1999 Dario Gnemmi: "Monticelli e la scuola di Enrico Cavalli", Madame Webb, Domodossola, 2006 Dario Gnemmi: "Vigezzini di Francia. Pittura d'alpe e d'Oltralpe tra Otto e Novecento in Valle Vigezzo", Milan, 2007 Giovanna Nicoletti: "Paesaggi dell'Ottocento. Verso la luce", Trento, 2009 Giovanna Nicoletti/Dario Gnemmi: "Le soglie della natura", Grafica 5, Arco di Trento, 2010 Davide Brullo: "Appassionata incompetenza. I primi cinquant'anni della collezione Poscio", Madame Webb, Domodossola, 2011 A gallery of Ciolina's paintings in Collezione Poscio, Domodossola Archives of Museo del Paesaggio exhibitions Archives of exhibitions at Collezione Poscio
Argentina v England, played on 22 June 1986, was a football match between Argentina and England in the quarter-finals of the 1986 FIFA World Cup at the Estadio Azteca in Mexico City. The game was held four years after the Falklands War between Argentina and the United Kingdom, was a key part in the intense Argentina–England football rivalry, it was a match which included two of the most famous goals in football history, both scored by Diego Maradona. The first goal, after 51 minutes, was to become known as the "Hand of God goal", which Maradona scored by using his hand, his second, four minutes after his first, saw him dribble past five England players, Reid, Fenwick and goalkeeper Peter Shilton, became known as the "Goal of the Century". Argentina won the game 2–1 and went on to win the 1986 World Cup with a victory over West Germany in the final match. Maradona won the golden ball for player of the tournament. British expatriates brought football to Argentina in the 19th century; the rivalry between the England and Argentina national football teams is traced back to the 1966 FIFA World Cup.
During the quarter-final game at Wembley Stadium, the home of the England national team, Argentine captain Antonio Rattin was sent off as Argentina lost in a game which contained excessive foul play. Rattin was angered at the sending-off, feeling that the German referee Rudolf Kreitlein, who did not speak Spanish, had been biased towards the English, a fellow European nation, in front of their home fans, stamped over the royal carpet in the stadium; this led England manager Alf Ramsey to describe the Argentines as "animals", comments that were viewed as racist by the Argentines. Despite the popularity of Osvaldo Ardiles and Ricardo Villa, Argentines who played with Tottenham Hotspur in England in an era before it was commonplace for clubs to have non-British players, the rivalry remained strong. Outside football, the Falklands War in 1982 increased the mistrust between Argentina. Britain administrates the Falkland Islands, a small archipelago in the South Atlantic, as a British overseas territory.
On 2 April 1982, Argentina's forces invaded the islands. Britain considered this an invasion of its territory and sent a naval task force that recaptured the Islands on 14 June 1982. Though the two nations were never at war, the conflict resulted in 258 British and 655 Argentine deaths; as a result, the match taking place four years after the war was charged. Following the game, Maradona stated: "Although we had said before the game that football had nothing to do with the Malvinas war, we knew they had killed a lot of Argentine boys there, killed them like little birds, and this was revenge." The 1986 FIFA World Cup was held in Mexico after the original hosts, were unable to host the tournament. England qualified for the finals undefeated. In the early stages of the tournament, Argentina had been comfortable, winning two and drawing one in the group stage. England had qualified more narrowly, with a 3–0 win over Poland in the final match putting them into the round of 16. Both teams won comfortably against South American opposition in that round, Argentina against Uruguay and England against Paraguay.
Although neither team began the tournaments as favourites, England's form had been improving throughout the World Cup and Argentina were buoyed by the skill of Maradona. Argentina beat Uruguay 1–0 in the round of 16 wearing blue cotton shirts that coach Carlos Bilardo believed would prove too uncomfortable in the searing Mexico City heat. Bilardo asked Argentina's kit manufacturer to come up with lighter blue shirts for the quarter-final, an impossible request given the short deadline. With three days to go before the match, he sent out Ruben Moschella, a member of his coaching staff, to scour the shops of the Mexican capital for a suitable kit, he returned with two different blue shirts, which they subsequently weighed but were unable to choose between. It was that Diego Maradona appeared and said: "That’s a nice jersey. We’ll beat England in that." Moschella bought 38 of the shirts for the side to wear against England. A designer fashioned some makeshift Argentine Football Association badges, which were sewn on to each jersey opposite the logo of Le Coq Sportif, which provided kits for Argentina at the time, with silvery American football shirt numbers hurriedly ironed on to the backs.
Before the 1986 game fans from both countries had a fight in Mexico City streets and into the stadium too. As a result, several English fans were hospitalised while some of their flags were stolen by Argentine barrabravas; those flags would be exhibited by Boca Juniors's supporters during some Argentine league matches. The game started with both teams exchanging chances. Argentina began to dominate, with England's goalkeeper Peter Shilton saving several good chances, many created by Maradona. Peter Beardsley had England's best chance after 13 minutes, following a slip from Nery Pumpido in Argentina's goal, but failed to take it. At half time, the score was 0–0, Argentina having had much more of the possession and territory – and done a great deal more of the running – but having failed to get through England's defence, it was the second half of the match, to see the two incidents for which the game was to become both famous and infamous. Six minutes into the second half, Maradona cut inside from the left and played a diagonal low pass to the edge of the area to teammate Jorge Valdano and continued his ru
IBM Netezza is a subsidiary of American technology company IBM that designs and markets high-performance data warehouse appliances and advanced analytics applications for uses including enterprise data warehousing, business intelligence, predictive analytics and business continuity planning. Netezza was acquired by IBM on September 20, 2010. Netezza was founded in 1999 by Foster Hinshaw. In 2000 Jit Saxena joined Hinshaw as co-founder; the company was incorporated in Delaware on December 30, 1999 as Intelligent Data Engines, Inc. and changed its name to Netezza Corporation in November 2000. Netezza announced the industry's first "data warehouse appliance" in 2003 to meet the industry's need to make use of the increasing ability to collect consumer data. In July 2007, Netezza Corporation had its initial public offering under the ticker “NZ” on NYSE Arca. Hinshaw coined the term "data warehouse appliance" to describe a product of shared nothing parallel nodes targeted for high data volumes for modern data analytics.
He left Netezza to found Dataupia in 2005. Netezza software did not maintain compatibility. Jim Baum was appointed CEO of Netezza in January, 2008 after co-founder Jit Saxena announced his retirement. Baum started at Netezza as chief operating officer in 2006. Prior to joining Netezza, Baum was CEO of Endeca in Boston for five years. IBM and Netezza on September 20, 2010 announced they entered into a definitive agreement for IBM to acquire Netezza in a cash transaction at a price of $27 per share or at a net price of $1.7 billion, after adjusting for cash. TwinFin, Netezza’s primary product, is designed for rapid analysis of data volumes scaling into petabytes; the company introduced the fourth generation of the TwinFin product in August 2009. Netezza introduced a scaled-down version of this appliance under the Skimmer brand in January 2010. In February 2010, Netezza announced that it had opened up its systems to support major programming models, including Hadoop, MapReduce, Java, C++, Python models.
Netezza's partners predicted to leverage this analytic application support are Tibco Spotfire, MicroStrategy, DemandTec and QuantiSense. The company markets specialized appliances for retail, complex analytics and regulatory compliance needs. Netezza sells software-based products for migrating from Oracle Exadata and for implementing data virtualization and federation schemes; the Netezza appliance was the foundation of IBM DB2 Analytics Accelerator. In 2012 the products were re-branded as IBM PureData for Analytics. Netezza’s proprietary AMPP architecture is a two-tiered system designed to handle large queries from multiple users; the first tier is a high-performance Linux SMP host that compiles data query tasks received from business intelligence applications, generates query execution plans. It divides a query into a sequence of sub-tasks, or snippets that can be executed in parallel, distributes the snippets to the second tier for execution; the second tier consists of one to hundreds of snippet processing blades, or S-Blades, where all the primary processing work of the appliance is executed.
The S-Blades are intelligent processing nodes that make up the massively parallel processing engine of the appliance. Each S-Blade is an independent server that contains multi-core Intel-based CPUs and Netezza’s proprietary multi-engine, high-throughput FPGAs; the S-Blade is composed of a standard blade-server combined with a special Netezza Database Accelerator card that snaps alongside the blade. Each S-Blade is, in turn, connected to multiple disk drives processing multiple data streams in parallel in TwinFin or Skimmer. AMPP employs industry-standard interfaces and provides load times in excess of 2 TB/hour and backup/restore data rates of more than 4 TB/hour. In 2009, the company transitioned from PowerPC processors to Intel CPUs. In August, 2009, with the introduction of the 4th generation TwinFin product, Netezza moved from proprietary blades to IBM blades. Netezza was added to Gartner’s Magic Quadrant for DBMS in January, 2009. Netezza was mentioned in "The Spy Files", released by the controversial whistleblower organization WikiLeaks.
The file claims Netezza bought a copy of The Geospatial Toolkit, a location-based analytic software from The Intelligent Integration Systems, Inc. "allegedly reverse engineered the code and sold a hacked version to the Central Intelligence Agency for use in remotely piloted drone aircraft". It goes on to state, "IISI, which says that the software could be wrong by a distance of up to 40 feet, sued Netezza to prevent the use of this software. Company founder Rich Zimmerman stated in court that his'reaction was one of stun, amazement that they want to kill people with my software that doesn’t work.'" Official Home Page
Valdemar Poulsen was a Danish engineer who made significant contributions to early radio technology. He developed a magnetic wire recorder called the telegraphone in 1898 and the first continuous wave radio transmitter, the Poulsen arc transmitter, in 1903, used in some of the first broadcasting stations until the early 1920s. Poulsen was born on 23 November 1869 in Copenhagen, he was the son of the Supreme Court judge Jonas Nicolai Johannes Rebekka Magdalene. The magnetic recording was demonstrated in principle as early as 1898 by Poulsen in his telegraphone. Magnetic wire recording, its successor, magnetic tape recording, involve the use of a magnetizable medium which moves past a recording head. An electrical signal, analogous to the sound, to be recorded, is fed to the recording head, inducing a pattern of magnetization similar to the signal. A playback head can pick up the changes in the magnetic field from the tape and convert them into an electrical signal. Poulsen obtained a Telegraphone patent in 1898, with his assistant, Peder Oluf Pedersen developed other magnetic recorders that recorded on steel wire, tape, or disks.
None of these devices had electronic amplification, but the recorded signal was strong enough to be heard through a headset or transmitted on telephone wires. At the 1900 World's Fair in Paris, Poulsen had the chance to record the voice of Emperor Franz Josef of Austria, believed to be the oldest surviving magnetic audio recording today. Poulsen developed an arc converter in 1908, referred to as the "Poulsen Arc Transmitter", used in radio before the advent of vacuum tube technology; the system was able to communicate between Newcastle with a 100-foot mast. He died on 23 July 1942. A stamp was issued in honour of Poulsen in 1969; the Valdemar Poulsen Gold Medal was awarded each year for outstanding research in the field of radio techniques and related fields by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences. The award was presented on November 23, the anniversary of his birth, Poulsen himself received the inaugural award in 1939; the award was discontinued in 1993. On 23 November 2018 he was honoured with a Google Doodle for his 149th birthday.
"1898 – 1998 Poulsen's patent". 100 years of magnetic recording. Ten-second video of the 1900 recording of the Austro-Hungarian emperor Franz Joseph on YouTube. Katz, Eugenii, "Valdemar Poulsen" at the Wayback Machine. Biosensors & Bioelectronics. Poulsen, Valdemar, "US PAT No. 661,619 Method of Recordings and Reproducing Sounds or Signals". Magnetic Tape Recorder. 1900 World Exposition recording of Emperor Franz Joseph of Austria at the Wayback Machine by means of Poulsen's telegraphone