Hippoboscoidea is a superfamily of the Calyptratae. The flies in this superfamily are blood-feeding obligate parasites of their hosts. Four families are placed here: Glossinidae - Tsetse flies Hippoboscidae - Ked flies Nycteribiidae - Bat flies Streblidae - Bat flies; the Hippoboscidae are called louse flies or ked flies. The bat flies are Streblidae; the family Glossinidae, monotypic as to genus, contains the tsetse flies, economically important as the vectors of trypanosomiasis. The enigmatic Mormotomyiidae are monotypic at present, with the single species Mormotomyia hirsuta known from one locality in Kenya. Most the Mormotomyiidae belong to the Ephydroidea and not to Hippoboscoidea as constructed. In older literature, this group is referred to as the Pupipara, unlike all other insects, most of the larval development takes place inside the mother's body, pupation occurs immediately after "birth" – in essence, instead of laying eggs, a female lays full-sized pupae one at a time. In the strict sense, the Pupipara only encompass the Hippoboscidae, "Streblidae", which in older works were all included in the Hippoboscidae.
Species of the Hippoboscoidea do not lay eggs. Instead, the larvae hatch in utero, are fed internally by'milk glands', pass through three morphological stages before being deposited to pupate; this type of reproduction is termed as Adenotrophic viviparity. Borror, Donald J.. Saunders College Pub. Philadelphia. ISBN 0-03-025397-7 Petersen, Frederik Torp. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 45: 111–122. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.04.023
A pupa is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages. The pupal stage is found only in holometabolous insects, those that undergo a complete metamorphosis, with four life stages: egg, larva and imago; the processes of entering and completing the pupal stage are controlled by the insect's hormones juvenile hormone, prothoracicotropic hormone, ecdysone. The pupae of different groups of insects have different names such as chrysalis for the pupae of butterflies and tumbler for those of the mosquito family. Pupae may further be enclosed in other structures such as nests, or shells; the pupal stage follows the larval stage and precedes adulthood in insects with complete metamorphosis. The pupa is a non-feeding sessile stage, or active as in mosquitoes, it is during pupation that the adult structures of the insect are formed while the larval structures are broken down. The adult structures grow from imaginal discs. Pupation may last weeks, months, or years, depending on temperature and the species of insect.
For example, pupation lasts eight to fifteen days in monarch butterflies. The pupa may diapause until the appropriate season to emerge as an adult insect. In temperate climates pupae stay dormant during winter, while in the tropics pupae do so during the dry season. Insects emerge from pupae by splitting the pupal case. Most butterflies emerge in the morning. In mosquitoes the emergence is in the night. In fleas the process is triggered by vibrations that indicate the possible presence of a suitable host. Prior to emergence, the adult inside the pupal exoskeleton is termed pharate. Once the pharate adult has eclosed from the pupa, the empty pupal exoskeleton is called an exuvia. In a few taxa of the Lepidoptera Heliconius, pupal mating is an extreme form of reproductive strategy in which the adult male mates with a female pupa about to emerge, or with the newly moulted female. Pupae are immobile and are defenseless. To overcome this, a common strategy is concealed placement. There are some species of Lycaenid butterflies.
Another means of defense by pupae of other species is the capability of making sounds or vibrations to scare potential predators. A few species use chemical defenses including toxic secretions; the pupae of social hymenopterans are protected by adult members of the hive. Based on the presence or absence of articulated mandibles that are employed in emerging from a cocoon or pupal case, the pupae can be classified in to two types: Decticous pupa – pupae with articulated mandibles. Examples are pupae of the orders Neuroptera, Mecoptera and few Lepidoptera families. Adecticous pupa – pupae without articulated mandibles. Examples include orders Strepsiptera, Hymenoptera and Siphonaptera. Based on whether the pupal appendages are free or attached to the body, the pupae can be classified in three types: Exarate pupa – appendages are free and are not encapsulated within a cocoon. All decticous pupa and some adecticous pupa are always exarate.. Obtect pupa – appendages are attached to the body and are encapsulated within a cocoon.
Some adecticous pupa are obtect forms. Coarctate pupa – enclosed in a hardened cuticle of the penultimate larval instar called puparium. However, the pupa itself is of exarate adecticous pupa forms.. A chrysalis or nympha is the pupal stage of butterflies; the term is derived from the metallic gold-coloration found in the pupae of many butterflies, referred to by the Greek term χρυσός for gold. When the caterpillar is grown, it makes a button of silk which it uses to fasten its body to a leaf or a twig; the caterpillar's skin comes off for the final time. Under this old skin is a hard skin called a chrysalis; because chrysalises are showy and are formed in the open, they are the most familiar examples of pupae. Most chrysalides are attached to a surface by a Velcro-like arrangement of a silken pad spun by the caterpillar cemented to the underside of a perch, the cremastral hook or hooks protruding from the rear of the chrysalis or cremaster at the tip of the pupal abdomen by which the caterpillar fixes itself to the pad of silk.
Like other types of pupae, the chrysalis stage in most butterflies is one in which there is little movement. However, some butterfly pupae are capable of moving the abdominal segments to produce sounds or to scare away potential predators. Within the chrysalis and differentiation occur; the adult butterfly emerges from this and expands its wings by pumping haemolymph into the wing veins. Although this sudden and rapid change from pupa to imago is called metamorphosis, metamorphosis is the whole series of changes that an insect undergoes from egg to adult; when emerging, the butterfly uses a liquid, sometimes called cocoonase, which softens the shell of the chrysalis. Additionally, it uses two sharp claws located on the th
Nycteribiidae of the true fly superfamily Hippoboscoidea are known as "bat flies", together with their close relatives the Streblidae. As the latter do not seem to be a monophyletic group, it is conceivable not to unite all bat flies in a single family, they are flattened, spiderlike flies without eyes or wings, are encountered by general collectors, as they never leave the bodies of their hosts. Both males and females take blood meals, thus they qualify as real parasites. Most species are host-specific; the family is found in the Old World tropics. Subfamily Archinycteribiinae Maa, 1975Archinycteribia Speiser, 1901Subfamily Cyclopodiinae Maa, 1965Cyclopodia Kolenati, 1863 Dipseliopoda Theodor, 1955 Eucampsipoda Kolenati, 1857 Leptocyclopodia Theodor, 1959Subfamily Nycteribiinae Westwood, 1835Basilia Miranda Ribeiro, 1903 Hershkovitzia Guimarães & d'Andretta, 1956 Nycteribia Latreille, 1796 Penicillidia Kolenati, 1863 Phthiridium Hermann, 1804 Stereomyia Theodor, 1967 Stylidia Westwood, 1840 One of the key morphological feature of Nycteribiidae is their reduced compound eyes.
Many species of Nycteribiidae contain only rudimentary eye spots. None of the species contain wings, they have backward folded legs that resemble a dorsally inserted head. Data related to Nycteribiidae at Wikispecies Media related to Nycteribiidae at Wikimedia Commons Diptera.info Images Nycteribiidae page at British Insects: Diptera Families
Among animals, viviparity is development of the embryo inside the body of the parent leading to live birth, as opposed to reproduction by laying eggs that complete their incubation outside the parental body. Viviparity and the adjective viviparous derive from Latin vivus and parire. Five modes of reproduction have been differentiated in animals based on relations between zygote and parents; the five include two nonviviparous modes: ovuliparity, with external fertilisation, oviparity, with internal fertilisation. In the latter, the female lays zygotes as eggs with a large yolk; these modes are distinguished from viviparity, which covers all the modes that result in live birth: Histotrophic viviparity: the zygotes develop in the female's oviducts, but find their nutriments by oophagy or adelphophagy. Hemotrophic viviparity: nutrients are provided by the female through some form of placenta. In the frog Gastrotheca ovifera, embryos are fed by the mother through specialized gills; the skink Pseudemoia entrecasteauxii and most mammals exhibit a hemotrophic viviparity.
Placental viviparity is arguably the most developed form of viviparity. Placental mammals, including humans, are the best-known example, but adaptations in some other animals have incorporated this principle or close analogies. Other examples include some species of scorpions and cockroaches, certain genera of sharks and snakes, velvet worms. Ovoviviparity, a less developed form of viviparity, occurs in most vipers, in most live-bearing bony fishes. However, the term is poorly and inconsistently defined, may be obsolete. At least some transport of nutrients from mother to embryo appears to be common to all viviparous species, but those with developed placentas such as found in the Theria, some skinks, some fish can rely on the placenta for transfer of all necessary nutrients to the offspring and for removal of all the metabolic wastes as well once it has been established during the early phases of a pregnancy. In such species, there is direct, intimate contact between maternal and embryonic tissue, though there is a placental barrier to control or prevent uncontrolled exchange and the transfer of pathogens.
In at least one species of skink in the large genus Trachylepis, placental transport accounts for nearly all of the provisioning of nutrients to the embryos before birth. In the uterus, the eggs are small, about 1mm in diameter, with little yolk and thin shells; the shell membrane is transient. The embryo produces invasive chorionic tissues that grow between the cells of the uterine lining till they can absorb nutrients from maternal blood vessels; as it penetrates the lining, the embryonic tissue grows aggressively till it forms sheets of tissue beneath the uterine epithelium. They strip it away and replace it, making direct contact with maternal capillaries. In several respects, the phenomenon is of considerable importance in theoretical zoology; the authors remark that such an endotheliochorial placenta is fundamentally different from that of any known viviparous reptile. There is no relationship between sex-determining mechanisms and whether a species bears live young or lays eggs. Temperature-dependent sex determination, which cannot function in an aquatic environment, is seen only in terrestrial viviparous reptiles.
Therefore, marine viviparous species, including sea snakes and, it now appears, the mosasaurs and plesiosaurs of the Cretaceous, use genotypic sex determination, much as birds and mammals do. Genotypic sex determination is found in most reptiles, including many viviparous ones, whilst temperature dependent sex determination is found in some viviparous species, such as the montane water skink. In general and matrotrophy are believed to have evolved from an ancestral condition of oviparity and lecithotrophy. One traditional hypothesis concerning the sequence of evolutionary steps leading to viviparity is a linear model. According to such a model, provided that fertilization was internal, the egg might have been retained for progressively longer periods in the reproductive tract of the mother. Through continued generations of egg retention, viviparous lecithotrophy may have developed; the next evolutionary development would be incipient matrotrophy, in which yolk supplies are reduced and are supplemented with nutrients from the mother's reproductive tract.
In many ways, depending on the ecology and life strategy of the species, viviparity may be more strenuous and more physically and energetically taxing on the mother than oviparity. However, its numerous evolutionary origins imply that in some scenarios there must be worthwhile benefits to viviparous modes of reproduction. There is no one mode of reproduction, universally superior in selective terms, but in many circumstances viviparity of various forms offers good protection from parasites and predators and permits flexibility in dealing with problems of reliability and economy in adverse circumstances. Variations on the theme in biology are enormous, ranging from trophic eggs to
Insects or Insecta are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum. Definitions and circumscriptions vary; as used here, the term Insecta is synonymous with Ectognatha. Insects have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body, three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes and one pair of antennae. Insects are the most diverse group of animals; the total number of extant species is estimated at between ten million. Insects may be found in nearly all environments, although only a small number of species reside in the oceans, which are dominated by another arthropod group, crustaceans. Nearly all insects hatch from eggs. Insect growth is constrained by the inelastic exoskeleton and development involves a series of molts; the immature stages differ from the adults in structure and habitat, can include a passive pupal stage in those groups that undergo four-stage metamorphosis. Insects that undergo three-stage metamorphosis lack a pupal stage and adults develop through a series of nymphal stages.
The higher level relationship of the insects is unclear. Fossilized insects of enormous size have been found from the Paleozoic Era, including giant dragonflies with wingspans of 55 to 70 cm; the most diverse insect groups appear to have coevolved with flowering plants. Adult insects move about by walking, flying, or sometimes swimming; as it allows for rapid yet stable movement, many insects adopt a tripedal gait in which they walk with their legs touching the ground in alternating triangles, composed of the front & rear on one side with the middle on the other side. Insects are the only invertebrates to have evolved flight, all flying insects derive from one common ancestor. Many insects spend at least part of their lives under water, with larval adaptations that include gills, some adult insects are aquatic and have adaptations for swimming; some species, such as water striders, are capable of walking on the surface of water. Insects are solitary, but some, such as certain bees and termites, are social and live in large, well-organized colonies.
Some insects, such as earwigs, show maternal care, guarding their eggs and young. Insects can communicate with each other in a variety of ways. Male moths can sense the pheromones of female moths over great distances. Other species communicate with sounds: crickets stridulate, or rub their wings together, to attract a mate and repel other males. Lampyrid beetles communicate with light. Humans regard certain insects as pests, attempt to control them using insecticides, a host of other techniques; some insects damage crops by feeding on sap, fruits, or wood. Some species are parasitic, may vector diseases; some insects perform complex ecological roles. Insect pollinators are essential to the life cycle of many flowering plant species on which most organisms, including humans, are at least dependent. Many insects are considered ecologically beneficial as predators and a few provide direct economic benefit. Silkworms produce silk and honey bees produce honey and both have been domesticated by humans.
Insects are consumed as food in 80% of the world's nations, by people in 3000 ethnic groups. Human activities have effects on insect biodiversity; the word "insect" comes from the Latin word insectum, meaning "with a notched or divided body", or "cut into", from the neuter singular perfect passive participle of insectare, "to cut into, to cut up", from in- "into" and secare "to cut". A calque of Greek ἔντομον, "cut into sections", Pliny the Elder introduced the Latin designation as a loan-translation of the Greek word ἔντομος or "insect", Aristotle's term for this class of life in reference to their "notched" bodies. "Insect" first appears documented in English in 1601 in Holland's translation of Pliny. Translations of Aristotle's term form the usual word for "insect" in Welsh, Serbo-Croatian, etc; the precise definition of the taxon Insecta and the equivalent English name "insect" varies. In the broadest circumscription, Insecta sensu lato consists of all hexapods. Traditionally, insects defined in this way were divided into "Apterygota" —the wingless insects—and Pterygota—the winged insects.
However, modern phylogenetic studies have shown that "Apterygota" is not monophyletic, so does not form a good taxon. A narrower circumscription restricts insects to those hexapods with external mouthparts, comprises only the last three groups in the table. In this sense, Insecta sensu stricto is equivalent to Ectognatha. In the narrowest circumscription, insects are restricted to hexapods that are either winged or descended from winged ancestors. Insecta sensu strictissimo is equivalent to Pterygota. For the purposes of this article, the middle definition is used; the evolutionary relationship of insects to other animal groups remains unclear. Although traditionally grouped with millipedes and centiped
The Streblidae are flies in the superfamily Hippoboscoidea, together with their relatives the Nycteribiidae, are known as bat flies. They are winged or wingless ectoparasites of bats, have long legs, they appear to be host-specific, with different species of bat flies occurring only on particular species of bat hosts, sometimes with multiple species of flies sharing a host bat. The 237 or so species are divided among 33 genera and five subfamilies; the monophyly of this family has not been supported. The streblid subfamily Trichobiinae may be more related to the Nycteriboscinae and other lineages in the Nycteribiidae. Several authors favor splitting the family into an Old World lineage consisting of the Ascodipterinae and Nycteriboscinae and a New World lineage containing all other subfamilies; the former would be named Ascodipterinae and the latter would retain the name Streblidae. Alternatively, the Streblidae and Nycteribiidae might be united as a monophyletic family containing all bat flies.
Subfamilies are here listed in presumed order of most ancient to most evolved. Selected genera are given, sorted alphabetically, as too little is known about their interrelationships. Subfamily Brachytarsininae Speiser 1900 Genus Brachytarsina Macquart, 1851 Genus Megastrebla Maa, 1971Subgenus Aoroura Subgenus Megastrebla Maa, 1971Genus Raymondia Frauenfeld, 1855 Genus Raymondiodes Jobling, 1954Subfamily Ascodipterinae Monticelli 1898Genus Ascodipteron Adensamer, 1896 Genus Maabella Hastriter & Bush, 2006 Genus Paraascodipteron Advani & Vazirani, 1981Subfamily Nycterophiliinae Wenzel, 1966Genus Nycterophilia Ferris, 1916 Genus Phalconomus Wenzel, 1984Subfamily Streblinae Speiser, 1900Genus Anastrebla Wenzel, 1966 Genus Metelasmus Coquillett, 1907 Genus Paraeuctenodes Pessôa & Guimarães, 1937 Genus Strebla Wiedemann, 1824Subfamily Trichobiinae Jobling, 1936Genus Anatrichobius Wenzel, 1966 Genus Aspidoptera Coquillett, 1899 Genus Eldunnia Curran, 1934 Genus Exastinion Wenzel, 1966 Genus Joblingia Dybas & Wenzel, 1947 Genus Mastoptera Wenzel, 1966 Genus Megistopoda Macquart, 1852 Genus Megistapophysis Dick & Wenzel, 2006 Genus Neotrichobius Wenzel & Aitken, 1966 Genus Noctiliostrebla Wenzel, 1966 Genus Paradyschiria Speiser, 1900 Genus Parastrebla Wenzel, 1966 Genus Paratrichobius Costa Lima, 1921 Genus Pseudostrebla Costa Lima, 1921 Genus Speiseria Kessel, 1925 Genus Stizostrebla Jobling, 1939 Genus Synthesiostrebla Townsend, 1913 Genus Trichobioides Wenzel, 1966 Genus Trichobius Gervais, 1844 Genus Xenotrichobius Wenzel, 1976 One of the characteristic feature of streblid bat flies is their variable degree of eye reduction.
The compound eyes are but variably reduced, with some species containing only rudimentary eye spots. Ocelli are absent in all species. Wing morphology significantly varies within the family with some species containing functional wings, while others contain either reduced wings or no wings at all. Streblid bat flies, which are parasites, are themselves infested by fungi of the order Laboulbeniales. Dick, C. W. & Gettinger, D.: A faunal survey of streblid flies associated with bats in Paraguay. Journal of Parasitology 91: 1015-1024. Doi:10.1645/GE-536R.1 PDF fulltext Fritz, G. N.: Biology and ecology of bat flies on bats in the genus Carollia. Journal of Medical Entomology 20: 1-10. PMID 6827567 Gannon, M. R. & Willig, M. R.: Ecology of ectoparasites from tropical bats. Environmental Entomology 24: 1495−1503. PDF fulltext Komeno, C. A. & Linhares, A. X.: Batflies parasitic on some phyllostomid bats in southeastern Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite relationships. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 94: 151-156.
Doi:10.1590/S0074-02761999000200004 PDF fulltext Patterson, B. D.. W. & Wenzel, R. L.: Distributional evidence for cospeciation between Neotropical bats and their bat fly ectoparasites. Studies of Neotropical Fauna and Environment 33: 76−84. Doi:10.1076/snfe.126.96.36.1992 PDF fulltext Wenzel, R. L.: The Streblid batflies of Venezuela. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 20: 1−177. Wenzel, R. L. & Tipton, V. J.: Ectoparasites of Panama. Field Museum of Natural History, Illinois, USA
Hippoboscidae, the louse flies or keds, are obligate parasites of mammals and birds. In this family, the winged species can fly at least reasonably well, though others with vestigial or no wings are flightless and apomorphic; as usual in their superfamily Hippoboscoidea, most of the larval development takes place within the mother's body, pupation occurs immediately. The sheep ked, Melophagus ovinus, is a reddish-brown fly that parasitizes sheep; the Neotropical deer ked, Lipoptena mazamae, is a common ectoparasite of white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States. Both winged and wingless forms may be seen. A common winged species is Hippobosca equina, called "the louse fly" among riders. Species in other genera are found on birds. Two species of the Hippoboscidae – Ornithoica podargi and Ornithomya fuscipennis are common parasites of the tawny frogmouth of Australia. Pseudolynchia canariensis is found on pigeons and doves, can serve as the vector of "pigeon malaria". Louse flies of birds may transmit other parasites such as those in the genus Plasmodium or other Haemoproteus parasites.
Some evidence indicates. For example, a louse fly of the species Icosta americana was found with West Nile Virus infection from an American Kestrel In some obsolete taxonomies, the name Hippoboscidae is applied to the group properly known as Pupipara, i.e. the present family plus the bat flies. They are called pupipara because the females birth live young, one at a time, that are deposited as late stage larvae called a prepuparium that pupate at birth. For the species Pseudolynchia canariensis, as well as other louse flies, reproduction is energetically expensive. Larvae feed on milk glands within the female fly prior to being deposited. Single offspring can weigh more than an unfed emerged adult fly since the pupal casing is included in the pupal weight and teneral flies put on mass after their first few blood meals. Two of the three traditional subfamilies have been shown to be good monophyletic groups at least overall. According to cladistic analysis of several DNA sequences, to make the Ornithomyinae monophyletic, their tribe Olfersini deserves to be recognized as a full family, too.
Subfamily Ornithomyinae Bigot, 1853Genus Allobosca Speiser, 1899 Genus Austrolfersia Bequaert, 1953 Genus Crataerina von Olfers, 1816 Genus Icosta Speiser, 1905 Genus Microlynchia Lutz, 1915 Genus Myophthiria Róndani, 1875 Genus Olfersia Leach, 1817 Genus Ornithoctona Speiser, 1902 Genus Ornithoica Róndani, 1878 Genus Ornithomya Latreille, 1802 Genus Ornithophila Róndani, 1879 Genus Ortholfersia Speiser, 1902 Genus Phthona Maa, 1969 Genus Proparabosca Theodor & Oldroyd 1965 Genus Pseudolynchia Bequaert, 1926 Genus Stilbometopa Coquillett, 1899 Subfamily HippoboscinaeGenus Hippobosca Linnaeus, 1758 Genus Struthibosca Maa, 1963 Subfamily LipopteninaeGenus Lipoptena Nitzsch, 1818 Genus Melophagus Latreille, 1802 Genus Neolipoptena Bequaert, 1942 Ked itch Use of DNA in forensic entomology [Jackson S. Whitman. "Incidence of Louse-flies in Some Alaskan Birds". North American Bird Bander. 17: 65–8. Sheep Ked Pigeon Louse Fly Pseudolychia canariensis as Vector of Pigeon Malaria Halos L, Jamal T, Maillard R, et al..
"Role of Hippoboscidae flies as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. infecting wild and domestic ruminants". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70: 6302–5. Doi:10.1128/AEM.70.10.6302-6305.2004. PMC 522062. PMID 15466580. Photograph of A Louse Fly Images from Diptera.info. Images from BugGuide Pseudolychia canariensis, pigeon louse fly on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site Lipoptena mazamae, Neotropical deer ked on the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site