Fossilworks is a portal which provides query and analysis tools to facilitate access to the Paleobiology Database, a large relational database assembled by hundreds of paleontologists from around the world. Fossilworks is housed at Macquarie University, it includes many analysis and data visualization tools included in the Paleobiology Database. "Fossilworks". Retrieved 2010-04-08
Bryozoa are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. About 0.5 millimetres long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia. Most marine species live in tropical waters, but a few occur in oceanic trenches, others are found in polar waters. One class lives only in a variety of freshwater environments, a few members of a marine class prefer brackish water. Over 4,000 living species are known. One genus is solitary and the rest are colonial; the phylum was called "Polyzoa", but this term was superseded by "Bryozoa" in 1831. Another group of animals discovered subsequently, whose filtering mechanism looked similar, was included in "Bryozoa" until 1869, when the two groups were noted to be different internally; the more discovered group was given the name Entoprocta, while the original "Bryozoa" were called "Ectoprocta". However, "Bryozoa" has remained the more used term for the latter group. Individuals in bryozoan colonies are called zooids, since they are not independent animals.
All colonies contain autozooids, which are responsible for excretion. Colonies of some classes have various types of non-feeding specialist zooids, some of which are hatcheries for fertilized eggs, some classes have special zooids for defense of the colony; the class Cheilostomata have the largest number of species because they have the widest range of specialist zooids. A few species can creep slowly by using spiny defensive zooids as legs. Autozooids supply nutrients to non-feeding zooids by channels. All zooids, including those of the solitary species, consist of a cystid that provides the body wall and produces the exoskeleton and a polypide that contains the internal organs and the lophophore or other specialist extensions. Zooids have no special excretory organs, the polypides of autozooids are scrapped when the polypides become overloaded by waste products. In autozooids the gut is U-shaped, with the mouth inside the "crown" of tentacles and the anus outside it. Colonies take a variety of forms, including fans and sheets.
The Cheilostomata produce mineralized exoskeletons and form single-layered sheets which encrust over surfaces. Zooids of all the freshwater species are simultaneous hermaphrodites. Although those of many marine species function first as males and as females, their colonies always contain a combination of zooids that are in their male and female stages. All species emit sperm into the water; some release ova into the water, while others capture sperm via their tentacles to fertilize their ova internally. In some species the larvae have large yolks, go to feed, settle on a surface. Others feed for a few days before settling. After settling, all larvae undergo a radical metamorphosis that destroys and rebuilds all the internal tissues. Freshwater species produce statoblasts that lie dormant until conditions are favorable, which enables a colony's lineage to survive if severe conditions kill the mother colony. Predators of marine bryozoans include nudibranchs, sea urchins, crustaceans and starfish.
Freshwater bryozoans are preyed on by snails and fish. In Thailand, many populations of one freshwater species have been wiped out by an introduced species of snail. A fast-growing invasive bryozoan off the northeast and northwest coasts of the US has reduced kelp forests so much that it has affected local fish and invertebrate populations. Bryozoans have spread diseases to fish fishermen. Chemicals extracted from a marine bryozoan species have been investigated for treatment of cancer and Alzheimer's disease, but analyses have not been encouraging. Mineralized skeletons of bryozoans first appear in rocks from the Early Ordovician period, making it the last major phylum to appear in the fossil record; this has led researchers to suspect that bryozoans arose earlier but were unmineralized, may have differed from fossilized and modern forms. Early fossils are of erect forms, but encrusting forms became dominant, it is uncertain. Bryozoans' evolutionary relationships to other phyla are unclear because scientists' view of the family tree of animals is influenced by better-known phyla.
Both morphological and molecular phylogeny analyses disagree over bryozoans' relationships with entoprocts, about whether bryozoans should be grouped with brachiopods and phoronids in Lophophorata, whether bryozoans should be considered protostomes or deuterostomes. Bryozoans and brachiopods strain food out of the water by means of a lophophore, a "crown" of hollow tentacles. Bryozoans form colonies consisting of clones called zooids that are about 0.5 millimetres long. Phoronids resemble bryozoan zooids but are 2 to 20 centimetres long and, although they grow in clumps, do not form colonies consisting of clones. Brachiopods thought to be related to bryozoans and phoronids, are distinguished by having shells rather like those of bivalves. All three of these phyla have a coelom, an internal cavity lined by mesothelium; some encrusting bryozoan colonies with mineralized exoskeletons look like small corals. However, bryozoan colonies are founded by an ancestrula, round rather than shaped like a normal zooid of that species.
On the other hand, the founding
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque
Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, as he is known in Europe, was a nineteenth-century polymath born near Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and self-educated in France. He traveled as a young man in the United States settling in Ohio in 1815, where he made notable contributions to botany and the study of prehistoric earthworks in North America, he contributed to the study of ancient Mesoamerican linguistics, in addition to work he had completed in Europe. Rafinesque was eccentric, is portrayed as an erratic genius, he was an autodidact who excelled in various fields of knowledge, as a zoologist, botanist and polyglot. He wrote prolifically on such diverse topics as anthropology, biology and linguistics, but was honored in none of these fields during his lifetime. Among his theories were that ancestors of Native Americans had migrated by the Bering Sea from Asia to North America, that the Americas were populated by numerous black indigenous peoples at the time of European contact. Rafinesque was born on October 1783 in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople.
His father F. G. Rafinesque was a French merchant from Marseilles, his father died in Philadelphia about 1793. Rafinesque spent his youth in Marseilles, was self-educated. By the age of twelve, he had begun collecting plants for a herbarium. By fourteen, he taught himself perfect Greek and Latin because he needed to follow footnotes in the books he was reading in his paternal grandmother's libraries. In 1802, at the age of nineteen, Rafinesque sailed to Philadelphia in the United States with his younger brother, they traveled through Pennsylvania and Delaware, where he made the acquaintance of most of the young nation's few botanists. In 1805 Rafinesque returned to Europe with his collection of botanical specimens, settled in Palermo, where he learned Italian, he became so successful in trade that he retired by age twenty-five and devoted his time to natural history. For a time Rafinesque worked as secretary to the American consul. During his stay in Sicily, he studied fishes, naming many new discovered species of each.
He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1808. Rafinesque had a common-law wife. After their son died in 1815, he returned to the United States; when his ship Union foundered near the coast of Connecticut, he lost all his books and all his specimens. Settling in New York, Rafinesque became a founding member of the newly established "Lyceum of Natural History." In 1817 his book Florula Ludoviciana or A Flora of the State of Louisiana was criticized by fellow botanists, which caused his writings to be ignored. By 1818, he had named more than 250 new species of plants and animals, he was rebuilding his collection of objects from nature. In the summer of 1818, in Henderson, Rafinesque made the acquaintance of fellow naturalist John James Audubon, in fact stayed in Audubon's home for some three weeks. Audubon, although enjoying Rafinesque's company, took advantage of him in practical jokes involving fantastic, made-up species. In 1819 Rafinesque became professor of botany at Transylvania University in Lexington, where he gave private lessons in French and Spanish.
He was loosely associated with John D. Clifford, a merchant, interested in the ancient earthworks which remained throughout the Ohio Valley. Clifford conducted archival research, seeking the origins of these mounds, Rafinesque measured and mapped them; some had been lost to American development. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1820. Rafinesque started recording all the new species of plants and animals he encountered in travels throughout the state, he was considered an erratic student of higher plants. In the spring of 1826, he left the university after quarreling with its president, he traveled and lectured in various places, endeavored to establish a magazine and a botanic garden, but without success. He moved to a center of publishing and research, without employment, he published The Atlantic Journal and Friend of Knowledge, a Cyclopædic Journal and Review, of which only eight issues were printed. He gave public lectures and continued publishing at his own expense.
Rafinesque died of stomach and liver cancer in Philadelphia on September 18, 1840. It has been speculated that the cancer may have been induced by Rafinesque's self-medication years before with a mixture containing maidenhair fern, he was buried in a plot in. In March 1924 what were thought to be his remains were transported to Transylvania University and reinterred in a tomb under a stone inscribed, "Honor to whom honor is overdue." Rafinesque published 6,700 binomial names of plants, many of which have priority over more familiar names. The quantity of new taxa he produced, both plants and animals, has made Rafinesque memorable or notorious among biologists. Rafinesque applied to join the Lewis and Clark Expedition, but was twice turned down by Thomas Jefferson. After studying the specimens collected by the expedition, he assigned scientific names to the black-tailed prairie dog, the white-footed mouse and the mule deer. Rafinesque was one of the first to use the term "evolution" in the context of biological speciation.
Rafinesque proposed a theory of evolution before Charles Darwin. In a letter in 1832, Rafinesque wrote: The truth is that Species and Genera are forming i
Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux
Jean Vincent Félix Lamouroux was a French biologist and naturalist, noted for his seminal work with algae. Lamouroux was born in Agen in the Aquitaine of southwestern France, the son of Claude Lamouroux, an intellectual who made his livelihood in manufacturing, but, a musician, a one-term mayor of Agen, a co-founder of the Academic Society of Agen. Jean Vincent Lamouroux studied botany at the Boudon de Saint-Amans school in Agen. Lamouroux was interested in marine organisms such as algae and hydrozoans. In 1805 he published a dissertation on several species of Fucus before settling in Paris in 1807, after his father went into bankruptcy. In 1807, Lamouroux was appointed to the French Academy of Sciences and in 1808 he became assistant professor of natural history at the University of Caen, rising to full professorship by 1811, he joined the Linnean Society of Calvados and contributed to its publications, collaborating with his friend Jean Baptiste Bory de Saint-Vincent. About this time he became director of the Caen Botanical Gardens.
He contributed articles to the journal Annales générales des sciences physiques and to the Dictionnaire classique d'histoire naturelle. Lamouroux was the first to make the distinction between brown algae and red algae. In 1813, Dawson Turner adopted Lamouroux's classification system for algae, providing it with international credence. Lamouroux was interested in other classification systems in marine biology. On which he published two notable works: Histoire des Polypiers coralligènes flexibles, vulgairement nommés Zoophytes Caen Exposition méthodique des genres de l'ordre des polypiers Paris. In 1821 he published a "Résumé d’un cours élémentaire de géographie physique" exploring the foundations of atmospheric science, hydrography and geology. Lamouroux's interest in fossils was quite broad, he collected reptilian fossils in the Jurassic of Normandy and communicated some of them to Georges Cuvier. In 1825, Lamouroux died in Caen, he was most influential on his student Arcisse de Caumont, who succeeded him in his chair at the University of Caen.
Among the species that Lamouroux identified and described are: He described genera such as Desmarestia. Brignon, Arnaud "The first discoveries of fossil crocodilians in the “Pierre de Caen” through the archives of Georges Cuvier", Revue de Paléobiologie, 33:379-418 Ferrière, Hervé "Bory de Saint-Vincent: l'évolution d'un voyageur naturaliste" Syllepse, France, ISBN 978-2-84950-243-3 Lauzun, Philippe "Une famille agenaise: Les Lamouroux" de Vve Lamy, France, OCLC 123524904 "A propos d'un portrait du naturaliste normand J.-V.-F. Lamouroux"
The Adeonidae is a family within the bryozoan order Cheilostomata. Colonies are upright bilaminar branches or sheets, perforated by large holes in some species; the zooids have one or more adventitious avicularia on their frontal wall. Instead of ovicells the adeonids possess enlarged polymorphs which brood the larvae internally. Family Adeonidae Genus Adeona Genus Adeonellopsis Genus Anarthropora Genus Bracebridgia Genus Dimorphocella Genus Kubaninella Genus Meniscopora Genus Ovaticella Genus Poristoma Genus Reptadeonella Genus Schizostomella Genus Smittistoma Genus Teichopora Genus Triporula Genus Trypocella
Galleria mellonella, the greater wax moth or honeycomb moth, is a moth of the family Pyralidae. G. mellonella is found throughout the world. It is one of two species of wax moths, with the other being the lesser wax moth. G. mellonella eggs are laid in the spring, they have four life stages. Males are able to generate ultrasonic sound pulses, along with pheromones, are used in mating; the larvae of G. mellonella are often used as a model organism in research. The greater wax moth is well known for its parasitization of their hives; because of the economic loss caused by this species, several control methods including heat treatment and chemical fumigants such as carbon dioxide have been used. G. mellonella was first reported as a pest in Asia, but spread to northern Africa, Great Britain, some parts of Europe, northern America, New Zealand. The species is now distributed throughout the globe, it has been reported in twenty-seven African countries, nine Asian countries, five North American countries, three Latin American countries, ten European countries, five island countries.
It is projected that the pest may spread further due to climate change. G. mellonella can be found. G. mellonella larvae parasitize the honeybee. Eggs are laid in the crevices inside the hive, which minimizes egg detection. Once eggs hatch, they feed on the midrib of the wax comb, the cast skins of bee larvae and small quantities of propolis and honey. Live larvae are never eaten. Shortly after emergence, G. mellonella females lay their eggs in the small cracks and crevices inside a beehive. Females prefer to lay their eggs in strong, healthy bee colonies over weaker colonies, but weaker colonies have a higher rate of G. mellonella infestation. Eggs are laid in clusters of varying number depending on the region. Clusters of 50-150 eggs have been reported in the United States, whereas clusters of 300-600 eggs have been reported in India. Up to 1800 eggs have been deposited by a single female; the life cycle of G. mellonella proceeds through four stages: egg, larvae and adult. Eggs are laid in the early spring and the moth undergoes four to six generations annually.
By December, the eggs and pupae enter diapause in wait for warmer weather. The effects of temperature and humidity on life stages have been most studied. Temperatures around 29–33 °C and humidity levels around 29-33% are optimal for development, though studies in Kansas have shown normal larval development at temperatures as high as 37 °C. Average temperatures higher than 45 °C have been shown to be lethal for larva. Lower temperatures at 23 °C, resulted in only part of the life cycle being completed. At temperatures below 0 °C short exposures kill larva and adults. Intraspecific factors affect life stages: cannibalism of instars in the process of moulting has been seen, though only in situations where food is scarce. Diet quality can affect larva development. Eggs are smooth and spherical in appearance, with a size ranging from 0.4 to 0.5 mm. Coloring ranges from pink to cream to white, they are laid in clusters in small cracks and crevices in the hive, can take anytime from 7.2 to 21.8 days to hatch.
Larva range in size from 3 to 30 mm long, are white or dirty gray color. They feed on honey, cast off skin of honeybee larvae, the midrib of the wax comb. Less they are found in bumblebee and wasp nests, or feeding on dried figs. Feeding is more intense during earlier instars compared to instars, they can remain in the larval stage anywhere between 28 days to 6 months, during which they undergo eight to ten molting stages. While silk is spun during all stages. At the last instar, the larvae spins a cocoon of silk for itself, enters the pupal stage. Pupae are immobile, do not feed, remain housed in their cocoon for 1 to 9 weeks until emerging as adults. Size ranges from 14 to 16 mm. Pupae start off as a brownish white, but darken to a dark brown color just before adults are ready to emerge. Adult moths range from 10 to 18 mm in length; the adults' wingspan is 30 to 41 mm. This moth flies from May to October in the temperate parts of its range, such as Belgium and the Netherlands. Females are larger and heavier than males, possess a characteristic beaklike head.
The outer margin of the forewing is smooth and the labial palp is extended forwards. Males are identified by the semilunar notch. Females live for an average of 12 days. G. mellonella larvae parasitize wild honeybees. Eggs are laid within the hive, the larva that hatch tunnel through the honeycombs that contain honeybee larva and their honey stores; the tunnels they create are lined with silk, which entangles and starves emerging bees, a phenomenon known as galleriasis. Tunnels result in massive destruction of the combs; as a result, honey is wasted. Both G. mellonella adults and larvae can be vectors for pathogens that can infect honeybees, including the Israeli acute paralysis virus and the black queen cell virus. Apanteles galleriae parasitizes G. mellonella larva inside the beehive. 1-2 eggs are laid by the adult Apanteles galleriae on each larva, though only one succeeds in parasitizing the host and surviving. The parasite emerges and ruptures the host body, pupates into a small cocoon. Parasitism increases starting in February, reaching its peak in May declining until July.
However, it is unlikely that this parasite will ta
Cheilostomata, an order of Bryozoa in the class Gymnolaemata, are marine, colonial invertebrate animals. Cheilostome colonies are composed of calcium carbonate and grow on a variety of surfaces, including rocks, shells and kelps; the colony shapes range from simple encrusting sheets to erect branching and unattached forms. As in other bryozoan groups, each colony is composed of a few to thousands of individual polypides; each individual has a U-shaped gut, no respiratory, circulatory, or nerve system. Unique among bryozoans, cheilostome polypides are housed in a box-shaped zooids, which do not grow larger once the zooid is mature; the opening of through which the polypide protrudes is protected by a calcareous or chitinous lidlike structure, an operculum. Cheilostomes possess avicularia, which have modified the operculum into a range of mandibles or hair-like setae; the cheilostomes are the most varied of modern bryozoans. The classification in suborders is based upon frontal calcification and the mechanism of lophophore protrusion.
Cheilostomes first appeared in the Late Jurassic but diversified slowly during the Early Cretaceous, with only 1 family known up to the Albian. During the Late Cretaceous, cheilostomes diversified to reach a level of more than 20 families in the Maastrichtian; this diversification is thought to be a consequence of the evolution of a new larval type. Though the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event had some impact on genetic diversity, the rapid diversification continued into the Eocene apparently reaching a plateau of about 50 families up to the Recent