click links in text for more info

Adessive case

An adessive case is a grammatical case denoting location at, upon, or adjacent to the referent of the noun. In Uralic languages, such as Finnish and Hungarian is the fourth of the locative cases with the basic meaning of "on". For example, Estonian laud and laual, Hungarian asztal and asztalnál, it is used as an instrumental case in Finnish. In Finnish, the suffix is -lla/-llä, e.g. pöytä and pöydällä. In addition, it can specify "being around the place", as in koululla, as contrasted with the inessive koulussa. In Estonian, the ending -l is added to the genitive case, e.g. laud - laual. Besides the meaning "on", this case is used to indicate ownership. For example, "mehel on auto" means "the man owns a car"; as the Uralic languages don't possess the verb "to have", it is the subject in the adessive case + on. The other locative cases in Finnish and Hungarian are: Inessive case Elative case Illative case Allative case Ablative case Superessive case The Finnish adessive has the word ending -lla or -llä.

It is added to nouns and associated adjectives. It is used in the following ways. Expressing the static state of being on the surface of something. Possible English meanings of on, on top of, atop kynä on pöydällä the pen is on the tableAs an existential clause with the verb olla to express possessionThis is the Finnish way to express the English verb to have Meillä on koira we have a dog Expressing the instrumentive use of somethingPossible English meanings of with, by, using Hän meni Helsinkiin junalla he went to Helsinki by train Hän osti sen eurolla he bought it for a euroIn certain time expressions expressing the time at which things take placePossible English meanings of during in over aamulla in the morning keväällä in the springExpressing the general proximity in space or time at which something takes place Possible English meaning of at poikani on koululla my son is at school hän on ruokatunnilla he is at lunch - on the lunch hour In certain expressions expressing moodJanne oli huonolla tuulella Janne was in a bad mood Other languages which employ an adessive case or case function include archaic varieties of Lithuanian, some Northeast Caucasian languages such as Lezgian and Hunzib, the Ossetic languages, both ancient and modern.

Karlsson, Fred. Finnish - A Comprehensive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-138-82104-0. Anhava, Jaakko. "Criteria For Case Forms in Finnish and Hungarian Grammars". Helsinki: Finnish Scholarly Journals Online

Pietro Aron

Pietro Aron known as Pietro Aaron, was an Italian music theorist and composer. He was born in Florence and died in Bergamo. Little is known about Aron's early life but at least one source claims he may have been Jewish, he was educated in Italy. Aron was a self-taught musician, he claimed in his Toscanello in musica that he had been friends with Obrecht and Heinrich Isaac in Florence. If true, the time frame would have been most in 1487. Between 1515 and 1522, he was Church Cantor at the Cathedral of Imola. In 1516 he became a priest there. In February 1523 Aron went to Venice and became cantor of Rimini Cathedral, where he worked for Sebastiano Michiel, Grand Prior of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. In 1525, he was "maestro di casa" in a Venetian house. In 1536, after the death of Michiel, he joined a monastery in Bergamo where he remained until his death. Aron is known for his treatises on the contrapuntal practice of the period, his earliest treatise, De institutione harmonica, on counterpoint, is written in Italian though most scholarly writings of the time are in Latin.

In Thoscanello de la musica, he was the first to observe the change from linear writing to vertical: this was the first period in music history where composers began to become conscious of chords and the flow of harmony. Aron included tables of four-voice chords, the beginning of the trend, to result in functional tonality in the early 17th century, he discusses tuning, the book is the first to describe quarter-comma meantone. Other topics covered by Aron include the use of the eight modes, four-voice cadences, notation of accidentals. Aron was a friend and frequent correspondent of music theorist Giovanni Spataro. Only Spataro's letters to Aron have survived. Topics discussed by the two include contemporary composers and composition and the use of accidentals. While Aron was known as a composer and refers to his own works in his writings, only one possible composition of his survives, the doubtfully attributed four-voice frottola, "Io non posso piu durare", from Petrucci's Fifth Book of Frottole.

Lost works include a Credo setting in six voices, a five-voice Mass, settings of In illo tempore loquente Jesu, Letatus sum, Da pacem, other motets and madrigals. Libri tres de institutione harmonica Thoscanello de la musica Trattato della natura et cognitione di tutti gli tuoni di canto figurato Lucidario in musica di alcune opinione antiche e moderne Compendiolo di molti dubbi, segreti, et sentenze intorno al canto fermo et figurato Bergquist, Ed Peter, Jr. 1964. "The Theoretical Writings of Pietro Aaron". PhD diss. New York: Columbia University. Blackburn, Bonnie. 2001. "Aaron, Pietro ". The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. London: Macmillan Publishers. Walsh, Michael J.. 2001. Dictionary of Christian Biography. Collegeville, MN: Liturgical Press. ISBN 9780826452634. Bent, Margaret. 1994. "Accidentals and Notation in Aaron's Aggiunta to the Toscanello". Journal of Musicology 12:306–44. Bergquist, Peter. 1967. "Mode and Polyphony around 1500: Theory and Practice".

Music Forum 1:99–161. Link, John W. Jr. 1963. Theory and Tuning: Aron's Mean Tone Temperament and Marpurg's Temperament "I". Boston: Tuners Supply Company. Powers, Harold. 1992. "Is Mode Real? Pietro Aron, the Octenary System and Polyphony". Basler Jahrbuch für historische Musikpraxis 16:9–52. Reese, Gustave. 1954. Music in the Renaissance. New York: W. W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-393-09530-4 Slonimsky, Nicolas. 1984. Baker's Biographical Dictionary of seventh edition. New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-870270-0

German submarine U-706

U-706, a type VIIC U-boat, was laid down on 22 November 1940. She was launched on 24 November 1941 and commissioned on 16 March 1942. German Type VIIC submarines were preceded by the shorter Type VIIB submarines. U-706 had a displacement of 769 tonnes when at the 871 tonnes while submerged, she had a total length of 67.10 m, a pressure hull length of 50.50 m, a beam of 6.20 m, a height of 9.60 m, a draught of 4.74 m. The submarine was powered by two Germaniawerft F46 four-stroke, six-cylinder supercharged diesel engines producing a total of 2,800 to 3,200 metric horsepower for use while surfaced, two Garbe, Lahmeyer & Co. RP 137/c double-acting electric motors producing a total of 750 metric horsepower for use while submerged, she had two 1.23 m propellers. The boat was capable of operating at depths of up to 230 metres; the submarine had a maximum submerged speed of 7.6 knots. When submerged, the boat could operate for 80 nautical miles at 4 knots. U-706 was fitted with five 53.3 cm torpedo tubes, fourteen torpedoes, one 8.8 cm SK C/35 naval gun, 220 rounds, a 2 cm C/30 anti-aircraft gun.

The boat had a complement of between sixty. U-706 was commanded by Korvettenkapitän Alexander von Zitzewitz, she was attached to the 5th Flotilla from 16 March to 30 September 1942. On 1 October 1942, she was transferred to the 6th Flotilla and made four patrols during the war, sinking three ships with a total tonnage of 18,650 GRT. On 3 August 1943, while in Bay of Biscay, she was disabled by depth charges from a Canadian Hampden aircraft finished off by a US Liberator aircraft from A/S Sqdn. 4. She sank at position 46°15′N 10°25′W. U-706 took part in ten wolfpacks, namely. Luchs Panther Südwärts Falke Jaguar Seeteufel Löwenherz Lerche Meise Specht Helgason, Guðmundur. "The Type VIIC boat U-706". German U-boats of WWII - Retrieved 29 December 2014

Leanita McClain

Leanita McClain was an American journalist and commentator, best known for her observations of race and politics in Chicago and the U. S. in the early 1980s. Her writings in the Chicago Tribune and in opinion pieces published in Newsweek gave broad exposure to her thoughts on race and class in the United States, her work addressed both local topics, such as the election of Harold Washington as mayor in 1983, as well as topics of more national interest, including the challenges facing the growing black middle class. McClain was born in Chicago in 1951, grew up in the Ida B. Wells housing projects, she graduated from the Medill School of Journalism. Upon graduating, McClain joined the staff of the Chicago Tribune in 1973 and the editorial board in 1983, she was married to fellow journalist Clarence Page. A posthumous collection of her essays, edited by Clarence Page, was published in 1986. One reviewer wrote: McClain tackles subjects well known to all Chicagoans, from a "corner tavern brawl" in Chicago's divided City Council to the decline of a black private school on the city`s West Side.

But the book is far from parochial. McClain suffered from depression through much of her life, died by suicide in Chicago in 1984

List of CenturyLink operating companies

The CenturyLink Operating Companies are local exchange carriers owned by CenturyLink, the third largest landline telephone company in the United States. CenturyLink operating companies consist of operations inherited from various predecessor companies, reflected in the differing names of the companies and overlapping service territories. Predecessors include: CenturyTel - the former corporate name of CenturyLink. Embarq, the former landline operations of Sprint Nextel, which were spun off in 2006. Qwest Communications International - which, through its acquisition of U S WEST, inherited operations of the former Bell System in numerous western states. CenturyLink grew as Century Telephone and CenturyTel through acquiring many small and mid-size telephone companies; these include: CenturyTel of Adamsville, Inc. d/b/a CenturyLink Adamsville CenturyTel of Alabama, LLC - part of Contel of the South and Verizon South CenturyTel of Arkansas, Inc. CenturyTel of Central Arkansas, LLC - GTE CenturyTel of Chester, Inc.

CenturyTel of Claiborne, Inc. d/b/a CenturyLink Claiborne CenturyTel of Colorado, Inc. - Universal Telephone CenturyTel of Eagle, Inc. - portions part of U S WEST Communications CenturyTel of Missouri, LLC - part of GTE Midwest CenturyTel of Mountain Home, Inc. CenturyTel of Northwest Arkansas, LLC - part GTE Southwest CenturyTel of Ooltewah-Collegedale, Inc. d/b/a CenturyLink Ooltewah CenturyTel of Ohio, Inc. - owned by Centel CenturyTel of Port Aransas, Inc. CenturyTel of Redfield, Inc. CenturyTel of San Marcos, Inc. CenturyTel of South Arkansas, Inc. CenturyTel of the Gem State, Inc. - owned by Pacific Telecom CenturyTel of the Midwest-Kendall, LLC - portions part of Wisconsin Bell Spectra Communications Group, LLC - part of GTE Midwest Telephone USA of Wisconsin, LLC - 89% owned The following companies were owned by Embarq, acquired in 2009, owned by Sprint Nextel until 2006. Centel companies are included, purchased by Sprint in 1993. Carolina Telephone and Telegraph Company Central Telephone Company Central Telephone Company of Virginia, Inc.

Central Telephone Company of Texas Embarq Florida, Inc. Embarq Minnesota, Inc. Embarq Missouri, Inc. United Telephone Company of Eastern Kansas United Telephone Company of Kansas United Telephone Company of Ohio United Telephone Company of Indiana United Telephone Company of New Jersey United Telephone Company of Pennsylvania, covering South Central Pennsylvania and the area in and around Butler County, Pennsylvania United Telephone Company of South Carolina United Telephone Company of South Central Kansas United Telephone - Southeast, Inc. United Telephone Company of the West - United Telephone Company of Texas United Telephone of the Northwest - Qwest, acquired in 2011, owned an original Bell Operating Company and a small independent provider. Qwest acquired U S WEST, one of the Baby Bells, in 2000. El Paso County Telephone Company Qwest Corporation

Multiple drug resistance

Multiple drug resistance, multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs. The types most threatening to public health are MDR bacteria. Recognizing different degrees of MDR, the terms extensively drug resistant and pandrug-resistant have been introduced; the definitions were published in 2011 in the journal Clinical Microbiology and Infection and are accessible. Common multidrug-resistant organisms are bacteria: Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase producing Gram-negatives Multidrug-Resistant Gram negative rods MDRGN bacteria such as Enterobacter species, E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosaA group of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of particular recent importance have been dubbed as the ESKAPE group. Multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis Various microorganisms have survived for thousands of years by their ability to adapt to antimicrobial agents.

They do so by DNA transfer. This process enables some bacteria to oppose the action of certain antibiotics, rendering the antibiotics ineffective; these microorganisms employ several mechanisms in attaining multi-drug resistance: No longer relying on a glycoprotein cell wall Enzymatic deactivation of antibiotics Decreased cell wall permeability to antibiotics Altered target sites of antibiotic Efflux mechanisms to remove antibiotics Increased mutation rate as a stress responseMany different bacteria now exhibit multi-drug resistance, including staphylococci, gonococci, salmonella, as well as numerous other Gram-negative bacteria and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are able to transfer copies of DNA that code for a mechanism of resistance to other bacteria distantly related to them, which are able to pass on the resistance genes and so generations of antibiotics resistant bacteria are produced; this process is called horizontal gene transfer. Phage-resistant bacteria variants have been observed in human studies.

As for antibiotics, horizontal transfer of phage resistance can be acquired by plasmid acquisition. Yeasts such as Candida species can become resistant under long term treatment with azole preparations, requiring treatment with a different drug class. Scedosporium prolificans infections are uniformly fatal because of their resistance to multiple antifungal agents. HIV is the prime example of MDR against antivirals, as it mutates under monotherapy. Influenza virus has become MDR. Cytomegalovirus can become resistant to ganciclovir and foscarnet under treatment in immunosuppressed patients. Herpes simplex virus becomes resistant to acyclovir preparations in the form of cross-resistance to famciclovir and valacyclovir in immunosuppressed patients; the prime example for MDR against antiparasitic drugs is malaria. Plasmodium vivax has become chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistant a few decades ago, as of 2012 artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has emerged in western Cambodia and western Thailand.

Toxoplasma gondii can become resistant to artemisinin, as well as atovaquone and sulfadiazine, but is not MDRAntihelminthic resistance is reported in the veterinary literature, for example in connection with the practice of livestock drenching and has been recent focus of FDA regulation. To limit the development of antimicrobial resistance, it has been suggested to: Use the appropriate antimicrobial for an infection. More thorough education of and by prescribers on their actions' implications globally; the medical community relies on education of its prescribers, self-regulation in the form of appeals to voluntary antimicrobial stewardship, which at hospitals may take the form of an antimicrobial stewardship program. It has been argued that depending on the cultural context government can aid in educating the public on the importance of restrictive use of antibiotics for human clinical use, but unlike narcotics, there is no regulation of its use anywhere in the world at this time. Antibiotic use has been restricted or regulated for treating animals raised for human consumption with success, in Denmark for example.

Infection prevention is the most efficient strategy of prevention of an infection with a MDR organism within a hospital, because there are few alternatives to antibiotics in the case of an extensively resistant or panresistant infection. The use of bacteriopha