Greta Christina is an American atheist blogger and author. Christina was born in Chicago on December 31, 1961, she graduated from Reed College in 1983. She changed her name in her twenties, dropping her family name and taking her middle name as her last name, resulting in her current name of Greta Christina. Christina is a regular atheist correspondent for AlterNet, Free Inquiry, The Humanist, has been writing about atheism in her own "Greta Christina's blog" since 2005, her blog is now part of The Orbit. In 2009, Hemant Mehta at the "Friendly Atheist" ranked Christina's blog in the Top Ten most popular atheist blogs, she created the "Atheist Meme of the Day" on Facebook. She has been writing professionally since 1989, has been a full-time freelance writer and speaker since 2012, her writing about atheism has appeared in print in Skeptical Inquirer and the anthology Everything You Know About God Is Wrong, as well as in her own books Coming Out Atheist: How to Do It, How to Help Each Other, Why and Why Are You Atheists So Angry?: 99 Things that Piss Off the Godless.
Speaking to Chris Mooney for the Point of Inquiry podcast, she stated that "there isn't one emotion" affecting atheists "but anger is one of the emotions that many of us have... drives others to participate in the movement". She feels that there are many goals for the atheist movement — more separation of church and state, ending "bigotry against atheism", for some, persuading people "out of religion", she thinks. As a speaker, she is a member of the Speakers Bureau for the Secular Student Alliance and the Center for Inquiry, she was a speaker on the Diversity in Skepticism panel at The Amaz!ng Meeting in July, 2011, the Reason Rally in 2012, the 50th annual convention of American Atheists in 2013. Rebecca Hensler founded the social media and internet support group'Grief Beyond Belief' for grieving people who do not believe in God or an afterlife in 2011. In 2013 Christina was named the International Team Honored Hero of the Foundation Beyond Belief; the Foundation's teams raise money for The Lymphoma Society.
As of 2015 she is a member of the Foundation Beyond Belief's Board of Directors. She received the 2013 LGBT Humanist Pride Award from the American Humanist Association. In 2013, a photo of Christina with her wife Ingrid and a piece about the photo by Christina was featured in the book A Better Life, by Christopher Johnson, a book with photos of 100 atheists and pieces by them about how their atheism has enabled them to have, in their view, a better life. In 2015, Christina received the first Secular Student Alliance Ambassador Award, the 2015 Secular Student Alliance Ambassador Award. Christina is a donor at the Lifetime Membership level. Outside of her atheist work, she is the editor of Paying For It: A Guide by Sex Workers for Their Clients and of the Best Erotic Comic anthology series, has written the erotic novella Bending and the erotic fiction collection Bending: Dirty Kinky Stories About Pain, Religion, Unicorns, & More, her writing has appeared in three volumes of Best American Erotica.
She has written about cats for Catster, has written for the magazine Femme Feminism. She worked at Last Gasp and Lusty Lady, both in San Francisco, she has performed in pornography. Greta Christina has lived in the San Francisco Bay Area since 1984 and lives with her wife, Ingrid Nelson, whom she has been with since 1998. At some point previous to 1998 she had a husband. Christina is pansexual. Nelson is bisexual and works as a nurse practitioner in the field of HIV and AIDS. Christina and Nelson were married in February 2004 at San Francisco City Hall, during the time that year in which same-sex marriage licenses were being issued in San Francisco, they had a wedding on November 12, 2005 in San Francisco's Swedish American Hall in the Castro district. Christina stated in 2010, "Ingrid and I are happily married. We've been married for six and a half years, we've been together for close to thirteen years." Greta Christina is co-organizer and co-host of the Godless Perverts Story Hour and the Godless Perverts Social Club in San Francisco.
She is kinky and polyamorous. Christina's parents divorced when she was 12. Christina's mother died of cancer at the age of 45, when Christina was 17. Christina has struggled with depression on throughout most of her adult life. In 2012 she was diagnosed with endometrial cancer, she had a surgical hysterectomy and oophorectomy to treat it, is now cancer-free. However, she has a presumptive diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome, which increases the odds of getting certain kinds of cancers, including endometrial cancer. Christina is a pro-choice feminist. Why Are You Atheists So Angry? 99 Things That Piss Off the Godless. Pitchstone Publishing. 2012. ISBN 978-0985281526. Coming Out Atheist: How to Do It, How to Help Each Other, Why. Pitchstone Publishing. 2014. ISBN 1939578191. Bending: Dirty Kinky Stories About Pain, Religion, Unicorns, & More. Pitchstone Publishing. 2015. ISBN 978-1634310079. Comforting Thoughts About Death That
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, novelist, political activist and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism, his work has influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, literary studies, continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre was noted for his open relationship with prominent feminist and fellow existentialist philosopher and writer Simone de Beauvoir. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought; the conflict between oppressive, spiritually destructive conformity and an "authentic" way of "being" became the dominant theme of Sartre's early work, a theme embodied in his principal philosophical work Being and Nothingness. Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism Is a Humanism presented as a lecture.
He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature despite attempting to refuse it, saying that he always declined official honours and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution". Jean-Paul Sartre was born on 21 June 1905 in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, Anne-Marie, his mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer, whose father Louis Théophile was the younger brother of Anne-Marie's father. When Sartre was two years old, his father died of an illness, which he most contracted in Indochina. Anne-Marie moved back to her parents' house in Meudon, where she raised Sartre with help from her father Charles Schweitzer, a teacher of German who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a early age; when he was twelve, Sartre's mother remarried, the family moved to La Rochelle, where he was bullied. As a teenager in the 1920s, Sartre became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergson's essay Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness.
He attended a private school in Paris. He studied and earned certificates in psychology, history of philosophy, general philosophy and sociology, physics, as well as his diplôme d'études supérieures in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure, an institution of higher education, the alma mater for several prominent French thinkers and intellectuals, it was at ENS. The most decisive influence on Sartre's philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojève's seminars, which continued for a number of years. From his first years in the École Normale, Sartre was one of its fiercest pranksters. In 1927, his antimilitarist satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem upset the director Gustave Lanson. In the same year, with his comrades Nizan, Larroutis and Herland, he organized a media prank following Charles Lindbergh's successful New York City–Paris flight. Many newspapers, including Le Petit Parisien, announced the event on 25 May. Thousands, including journalists and curious spectators, showed up, unaware that what they were witnessing was a stunt involving a Lindbergh look-alike.
The public's resultant outcry forced Lanson to resign. In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and went on to become a noted philosopher and feminist; the two became inseparable and lifelong companions, initiating a romantic relationship, though they were not monogamous. The first time Sartre took the agrégation, he failed, he took it a second time and tied for first place with Beauvoir, although Sartre was awarded first place, with Beauvoir second. Sartre was drafted into the French Army from 1939 to 1941 and served as a meteorologist for some time, he argued in 1959 that each French person was responsible for the collective crimes during the Algerian War of Independence. From 1931 until 1945, Sartre taught at various lycées of Le Havre and Paris. In 1932, Sartre discovered Voyage au bout de la nuit by Louis-Ferdinand Céline, a book that had a remarkable influence on him. In 1933–34, he succeeded Raymond Aron at the Institut français d'Allemagne in Berlin where he studied Edmund Husserl's phenomenological philosophy.
Aron had advised him in 1930 to read Emmanuel Levinas's Théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl. The Neo-Hegelian revival led by Alexandre Kojève and Jean Hyppolite in the 1930s inspired a whole generation of French thinkers, including Sartre, to discover Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. In 1939 Sartre was drafted into the French army, he was captured by German troops in 1940 in Padoux, he spent nine months as a prisoner of war—in Nancy and in Stalag XII-
History of atheism
Atheism is the absence or rejection of the belief that deities exist. The English term was used at least as early as the sixteenth century and atheistic ideas and their influence have a longer history. Over the centuries, atheists have supported their lack of belief in gods through a variety of avenues, including scientific and ideological notions. In the East, a contemplative life not centered on the idea of deities began in the sixth century BCE with the rise of Indian religions such as Jainism and various sects of Hinduism in ancient India, of Taoism in ancient China. Within the astika schools of Hindu philosophy, the Samkhya and the early Mimamsa school did not accept a creator deity in their respective systems; the Vedas in the Indian subcontinent admitted only the possibility that deities might exist but went no further. Neither prayers nor sacrifices were suggested in any way by the tribes. Philosophical atheist thought began to appear in Europe and Asia in the sixth or fifth century BCE.
Will Durant, in his The Story of Civilization, explained that certain pygmy tribes found in Africa were observed to have no identifiable cults or rites. There were no totems, no deities, no spirits, their dead were buried without special ceremonies or accompanying items and received no further attention. They appeared to lack simple superstitions, according to travelers' reports. In the East, a contemplative life not centered on the idea of deities began in the sixth century BCE with the rise of Jainism and various sects of Hinduism in India, of Taoism in China; these religions offered a salvific path not involving deity worship. Deities are not seen as necessary to the salvific goal of the early Buddhist tradition, their reality is explicitly questioned and rejected. There is a fundamental incompatibility between the notion of gods and basic Buddhist principles, at least in some interpretations. Within the astika schools of Hindu philosophy, the Samkhya and the early Mimamsa school did not accept a creator-deity in their respective systems.
The principal text of the Samkhya school, the Samkhya Karika, was written by Ishvara Krishna in the fourth century CE, by which time it was a dominant Hindu school. The origins of the school are lost in legend; the school was both atheistic. They believed in a dual existence of Prakriti and Purusha and had no place for an Ishvara in its system, arguing that the existence of Ishvara cannot be proved and hence cannot be admitted to exist; the school dominated Hindu philosophy in its day, but declined after the tenth century, although commentaries were still being written as late as the sixteenth century. The foundational text for the Mimamsa school is the Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini; the school reached its height c. 700 CE, for some time in the Early Middle Ages exerted near-dominant influence on learned Hindu thought. The Mimamsa school saw their primary enquiry was into the nature of dharma based on close interpretation of the Vedas, its core tenets were ritualism and antimysticism. The early Mimamsakas believed in an adrishta, the result of performing karmas and saw no need for an Ishvara in their system.
Mimamsa persists in some subschools of Hinduism today. The materialistic and antireligious philosophical Cārvāka school that originated in India with the Bārhaspatya-sūtras is the most explicitly atheist school of philosophy in the region; the school grew out of the generic skepticism in the Mauryan period. In the sixth century BCE, Ajita Kesakambalin, was quoted in Pali scriptures by the Buddhists with whom he was debating, teaching that "with the break-up of the body, the wise and the foolish alike are annihilated, destroyed, they do not exist after death." Cārvākan philosophy is now known principally from its Buddhist opponents. The proper aim of a Cārvākan, according to these sources, was to live a prosperous, productive life in this world; the Tattvopaplavasimha of Jayarashi Bhatta is sometimes cited as a surviving Carvaka text. The school appears to have died out sometime around the fifteenth century; the nonadherence to the notion of a supreme deity or a prime mover is seen by many as a key distinction between Buddhism and other religions.
While Buddhist traditions do not deny the existence of supernatural beings, it does not ascribe powers, in the typical Western sense, for creation, salvation or judgement, to the "gods", praying to enlightened deities is sometimes seen as leading to some degree of spiritual merit. Buddhists accept the existence of beings in higher realms, known as devas, but they, like humans, are said to be suffering in samsara, not wiser than we are. In fact the Buddha is portrayed as a teacher of the deities, superior to them. Despite this they do have some enlightened Devas in the path of buddhahood. Jains see their tradition as eternal. Organized Jainism can be dated back to Parshva who lived in the ninth century BCE, more reliably, to Mahavira, a teacher of the sixth century BCE, a contemporary of the Buddha. Jainism is a dualistic religion with the universe made up of matter and souls; the universe, the matter and souls within it, is eternal and uncreated, there is no omnipotent creator deity in Jainism.
There are, however, "gods" and other spirits who exist within the universe and Jains believe that the soul can atta
Atheist feminism is a branch of feminism that advocates atheism. Atheist feminists hold that religion is a prominent source of female oppression and inequality, believing that the majority of the religions are sexist and oppressive towards women; the first known feminist, an atheist was Ernestine Rose, born in Poland on January 13, 1810. Her open confession of disbelief in Judaism when she was a teenager brought her into conflict with her father and an unpleasant relationship developed. In order to force her into the obligations of the Jewish faith, her father, without her consent, betrothed her to a friend and fellow Jew when she was sixteen. Instead of arguing her case in a Jewish court, she went to a secular court, pleaded her own case, won. In 1829 she went to England, in 1835 she was one of the founders of the British atheist organization Association of All Classes of All Nations, which "called for human rights for all people, regardless of sex, color, or national origin", she lectured in England and America and was described by Samuel P.
Putnam 3 as "one of the best lecturers of her time". He wrote that "no orthodox man could meet her in debate". In the winter of 1836, Judge Thomas Hertell, a radical and freethinker, submitted a married women's property act in the legislature of the state of New York to investigate ways of improving the civil and property rights of married women, to permit them to hold real estate in their own name, which they were not permitted to do in New York. Upon hearing of the resolution, Ernestine Rose drew up a petition and began the soliciting of names to support the resolution in the state legislature, sending the petition to the legislature in 1838; this was the first petition drive done by a woman in New York. Ernestine continued to increase both the number of the petitions and the names until such rights were won in 1848, with the passing of the Married Women's Property Act. Others who participated in the work for the bill included Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and Frances Wright, who were all anti-religious.
When Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton analyzed the influences which led to the Seneca Falls Convention on women's rights in 1848, they identified three causes, the first two being the radical ideas of Frances Wright and Ernestine Rose on religion and democracy, the initial reforms in women's property law in the 1830s and 1840s. Ernestine joined a group of freethinkers who had organized a Society for Moral Philanthropists, at which she lectured. In 1837, she took part in a debate that continued for thirteen weeks, where her topics included the advocacy of abolition of slavery, women's rights, equal opportunities for education, civil rights. In 1845 she was in attendance at the first national convention of infidels. Ernestine Rose introduced "the agitation on the subject of women's suffrage" in Michigan in 1846. In a lecture in Worcester, Massachusetts in 1851, she opposed calling upon the Bible to underwrite the rights of women, claiming that human rights and freedom of women were predicated upon "the laws of humanity" and that women, did not require the written authority of either Paul or Moses, because "those laws and our claim are prior" to both.
She attended the Women's Rights Convention in the Tabernacle, New York City, on September 10, 1853, spoke at the Hartford Bible Convention in 1854. It was in March of that year that she took off with Susan B. Anthony on a speaking tour to Washington, D. C. Susan B. Anthony arranged Ernestine Rose did all of the speaking. Anthony embarked on her own first lecture tour. In October 1854, Ernestine Rose was elected president of the National Women's Rights Convention at Philadelphia, overcoming the objection that she was unsuitable because of her atheism. Susan B. Anthony supported her in this fight, declaring that every religion—and none—should have an equal right on the platform. In 1856 she spoke at the Seventh National Woman's Convention saying in part, "And when your minister asks you for money for missionary purposes, tell him there are higher, holier, nobler missions to be performed at home; when he asks for colleges to educate ministers, tell him you must educate woman, that she may do away with the necessity of ministers, so that they may be able to go to some useful employment."She appeared again in Albany, New York, for the State Women's Rights Convention in early February 1861, the last one to be held until the end of the Civil War.
On May 14, 1863, she shared the podium with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone, Antoinette Blackwell when the first Women's National Loyal League met to call for equal rights for women, to support the government in the Civil War "in so far as it makes a war for freedom", she was in attendance at the American Equal Rights Association meeting in which there was a schism and on May 15, 1869 joined with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Lucy Stone to form a new organization, the National Woman Suffrage Association, which fought for both male and female suffrage, taking a position on the executive committee, she died at England, on August 4, 1892, at age eighty-two. The most prominent other people to publicly advocate for feminism and to challenge Christianity in the 1800s were Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Matilda Joslyn Gage. In 1885 Stanton wrote an essay entitled "Has Christianity Benefited Woman?" Arguing that it had in fact hurt women's rights, stating, "All religions thus far have taught the headship and superiority of man, the inferiority and subordina
Problem of evil
The problem of evil is the question of how to reconcile the existence of evil with an omnipotent and omniscient God. An argument from evil claims that because evil exists, either God does not exist or does not have all three of those properties. Attempts to show the contrary have traditionally been discussed under the heading of theodicy. Besides philosophy of religion, the problem of evil is important to the field of theology and ethics; the problem of evil is formulated in two forms: the logical problem of evil and the evidential problem of evil. The logical form of the argument tries to show a logical impossibility in the coexistence of God and evil, while the evidential form tries to show that given the evil in the world, it is improbable that there is an omnipotent and wholly good God; the problem of evil has been extended to non-human life forms, to include animal suffering from natural evils and human cruelty against them. Responses to various versions of the problem of evil, come in three forms: refutations and theodicies.
A wide range of responses have been made against these arguments. There are many discussions of evil and associated problems in other philosophical fields, such as secular ethics, evolutionary ethics, but as understood, the "problem of evil" is posed in a theological context. The problem of evil acutely applies to monotheistic religions such as Christianity and Judaism that believe in a monotheistic God, omnipotent and omnibenevolent; the problem of evil refers to the challenge of reconciling belief in an omniscient and omnibenevolent God, with the existence of evil and suffering in the world. The problem may be described either experientially or theoretically; the experiential problem is the difficulty in believing in a concept of a loving God when confronted by suffering or evil in the real world, such as from epidemics, or wars, or murder, or rape or terror attacks wherein innocent children, men or a loved one becomes a victim. The problem of evil is a theoretical one described and studied by religion scholars in two varieties: the logical problem and the evidential problem.
Originating with Greek philosopher Epicurus, the logical argument from evil is as follows: If an omnipotent and omniscient god exists evil does not. There is evil in the world. Therefore, an omnipotent and omniscient god does not exist; this argument is of the form modus tollens, is logically valid: If its premises are true, the conclusion follows of necessity. To show that the first premise is plausible, subsequent versions tend to expand on it, such as this modern example: God exists. God is omnipotent and omniscient. An omnipotent being has the power to prevent that evil from coming into existence. An omnibenevolent being would want to prevent all evils. An omniscient being knows every way in which evils can come into existence, knows every way in which those evils could be prevented. A being who knows every way in which an evil can come into existence, able to prevent that evil from coming into existence, who wants to do so, would prevent the existence of that evil. If there exists an omnipotent and omniscient God no evil exists.
Evil exists. Both of these arguments are understood to be presenting two forms of the'logical' problem of evil, they attempt to show that the assumed propositions lead to a logical contradiction and therefore cannot all be correct. Most philosophical debate has focused on the propositions stating that God cannot exist with, or would want to prevent, all evils, with defenders of theism arguing that God could well exist with and allow evil in order to achieve a greater good. If God lacks any one of these qualities—omniscience, omnipotence, or omnibenevolence—then the logical problem of evil can be resolved. Process theology and open theism are other positions that limit God's omnipotence and/or omniscience. Dystheism is the belief; the evidential problem of evil seeks to show that the existence of evil, although logically consistent with the existence of God, counts against or lowers the probability of the truth of theism. As an example, a critic of Plantinga's idea of "a mighty nonhuman spirit" causing natural evils may concede that the existence of such a being is not logically impossible but argue that due to lacking scientific evidence for its existence this is unlikely and thus it is an unconvincing explanation for the presence of natural evils.
Both absolute versions and relative versions of the evidential problems of evil are presented below. A version by William L. Rowe: There exist instances of intense suffering which an omnipotent, omniscient being could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil bad or worse. An omniscient, wholly good being would prevent the occurrence of any intense suffering it could, unless it could not do so without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil bad or worse. There does not exist an omnipotent, wholly good being. Another by Paul Draper: Gratuitous evils exist; the hypothesis of indifference, i.e. that if there are supernatural beings they are indifferent to gratuitous evils, is a better explanation for than theism. Therefore, evidence prefers that no god, as understood by theists, exists; the problem of e
Ayaan Hirsi Ali
Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a Somali-born Dutch-American activist, author and former politician. She received international attention as a critic of Islam and advocate for the rights and self-determination of Muslim women opposing forced marriage, honor violence, child marriage and female genital mutilation, she has founded an organisation for the defense of the AHA Foundation. Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a Fellow with the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, a Fellow with the Future of Diplomacy Project at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at The Harvard Kennedy School, a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, D. C. and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. In 2003, Hirsi Ali was elected a member of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the States General of the Netherlands, representing the centre-right People's Party for Freedom and Democracy. A political crisis related to the validity of her Dutch citizenship—namely the accusation that she had lied on her application for political asylum—led to her resignation from parliament, indirectly to the fall of the second Balkenende cabinet in 2006.
Hirsi Ali, a former Muslim who abandoned her faith and became an atheist, has been a vocal critic of Islam. In 2004, she collaborated on a short movie with Theo van Gogh, entitled Submission, a film depicting oppression of women under fundamentalist Islamic law, critical of the Islamic canon itself; the film sparked death threats. Van Gogh was murdered that year by Mohammed Bouyeri, a Moroccan-Dutch Islamic terrorist. Hirsi Ali maintains that "Islam is part religion, part a political-military doctrine, the part, a political doctrine contains a world view, a system of laws and a moral code, incompatible with our constitution, our laws, our way of life." Having argued that Islam was beyond reform, in her latest book Heretic she calls for a reformation of Islam by defeating the Islamists and supporting reformist Muslims. In 2005, Hirsi Ali was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people in the world, she has received several awards, including a free speech award from the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten, the Swedish Liberal Party's Democracy Prize, the Moral Courage Award for commitment to conflict resolution and world citizenship.
Critics accuse Ali of having built her political career on denigrating Islam and Muslims, questioned her scholarly credentials "to speak authoritatively about Islam and the Arab world". Her works are accused of using neo-Orientalist portrayals and of being an enactment of the colonial "civilizing mission" discourse. Hirsi Ali emigrated to the United States and became a U. S. citizen in 2013. Hirsi Ali has published two autobiographies: in 2006 and 2010, she is married to public commentator Niall Ferguson. Ayaan was born in 1969 in Somalia, her father, Hirsi Magan Isse, was a prominent member of the Somali Salvation Democratic Front and a leading figure in the Somali Revolution. Shortly after she was born, her father was imprisoned due to his opposition to the Siad Barre government. Hirsi Ali's father had studied abroad and was opposed to female genital mutilation, but while he was imprisoned, Hirsi Ali's grandmother had a man perform the procedure on her, when Hirsi Ali was five years old. According to Hirsi Ali, she was fortunate that her grandmother could not find a woman to do the procedure, as the mutilation was "much milder" when performed by men.
After her father escaped from prison, he and the family left Somalia in 1977, going to Saudi Arabia and to Ethiopia, before settling in Nairobi, Kenya by 1980. There he established a comfortable upper-class life for them. Hirsi Ali attended the English-language Muslim Girls' Secondary School. By the time she reached her teens, Saudi Arabia was funding religious education in numerous countries and its religious views were becoming influential among many Muslims. A charismatic religious teacher, trained under this aegis, joined Hirsi Ali's school, she inspired the teenaged Ayaan, as well as some fellow students, to adopt the more rigorous Saudi Arabian interpretations of Islam, as opposed to the more relaxed versions current in Somalia and Kenya. Hirsi Ali said that she had long been impressed by the Qur'an and had lived "by the Book, for the Book" throughout her childhood, she sympathised with the views of the Islamist Muslim Brotherhood, wore a hijab with her school uniform. This has become more common among some young Muslim women.
At the time, she agreed with the fatwa proclaimed against British Indian writer Salman Rushdie in reaction to the portrayal of the Islamic prophet Muhammad in his novel The Satanic Verses. After completing secondary school, Hirsi Ali attended a secretarial course at Valley Secretarial College in Nairobi for one year; as she was growing up, she read English-language adventure stories, such as the Nancy Drew series, with modern heroine archetypes who pushed the limits of society. Remembering her grandmother refusing soldiers entry into her house, Hirsi Ali associated with Somalia "the picture of strong women: the one who smuggles in the food, the one who stands there with a knife against the army and says,'You cannot come into the house.' And I became like that. And my parents and my grandmother don't appreciate that now - because of what I've said about the Qur'an. I have become them, just in a different way." Hirsi Ali arrived in the Netherlands in 1992. That year she had travelled from Kenya to visit her family in Düsseldorf a
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties, he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, history, tragedy and science, his writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism. He developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his work, he became preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts, reworking his unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with Nazism. Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism and post-structuralism—as well as art, psychology and popular culture.
Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. Nietzsche's Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, they had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; the family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner and Wilhelm Pinder, all of whom came from respected families. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg; because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta.
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. He found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources, his end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in German. While at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects, he became acquainted with the work of the almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality." The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, more "German" writers. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric and drunken poet, found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Rich