Maham Anga was the chief nurse of the Mughal emperor Akbar. A shrewd and ambitious woman, she was the political adviser of the teenage emperor and the de facto regent of the Mughal Empire from 1560 to 1562. Maham Anga was Akbar's chief nurse prior to his enthronement at age thirteen as Mughal emperor in 1556, her own son, Adham Khan, as Akbar's foster brother, was regarded as one of the imperial family. Maham Anga and ambitious and much in charge of the household and harem, sought to advance her own authority and that of her son. In 1560, the two tricked Akbar into coming to India without his regent and guardian Bairam Khan and they were able to convince Akbar that now that he was seventeen, he did not need Bairam. Akbar sent him on a pilgrimage to Mecca. Months Bairam was murdered by an Afghan and much of the former's power passed on to Maham Anga, her power began to wane in 1561, when Akbar appointed Ataga Khan, a man outside her sphere of influence, as his new chief minister. Adham Khan's violent execution for the murder of Ataga Khan, Akbar’s favourite general Shams-ud-Din, at the hands of the young Emperor himself no less in May, 1562, profoundly affected her.
She famously commented. Her tomb and that of her son, known as Adham Khan's Tomb, was built by Akbar, popularly named Bhul-bulaiyan, owing to the labyrinth in its structure, lies north of the Qutub Minar in Mehrauli, she built a mosque, Khairul Manazil in 1561 CE in Mughal architecture. It served as a madarsa, now stands opposite, Purana Qila, Delhi on Mathura Road, south east to Sher Shah Gate, it was her slave that tried to kill Akbar, after his return from hunting and moving towards Nizamuddin Dargah, but the arrow hit a soldier in his entourage instead, hurt, albeit not gravely. Ila Arun portrayed Maham Anga in the Bollywood film Jodha Akbar. A fictionalized Maham Anga was portrayed by Ashwini Kalsekar in Zee TV's fictional drama Jodha Akbar. Jaya Bhattacharya portrayed Maham Anga in Sony TV's historical drama Bharat Ka Veer Putra - Maharana Pratap. Mughal Architecture of Delhi: A Study of Mosques and Tombs, by Praduman K. Sharma, Sundeep, 2001, ISBN 81-7574-094-9. Chapter 4. B. V. Bhavan'The Mughal Empire' The Cambridge History of India v.4 Abu'l Fazl'Akbarnama' Badauni
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
The Akbarnama which translates to Book of Akbar, is the official chronicle of the reign of Akbar, the third Mughal Emperor, commissioned by Akbar himself by his court historian and biographer, Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak, one of the nine jewels in Akbar's court. It was written in Persian, the literary language of the Mughals, includes vivid and detailed descriptions of his life and times; the work was commissioned by Akbar, written by Abul Fazl, one of the Nine Jewels of Akbar’s royal court. It is stated; the original manuscripts contained many miniature paintings supporting the texts, thought to have been illustrated between c. 1592 and 1594 by at least forty-nine different artists from Akbar's studio, representing the best of the Mughal school of painting, masters of the imperial workshop, including Basawan, whose use of portraiture in its illustrations was an innovation in Indian art. After Akbar's death in 1605, the manuscript remained in the library of his son and Shah Jahan. Today, the illustrated manuscript of Akbarnma, with 116 miniature paintings, is at the Victoria and Albert Museum.
It was bought by the South Kensington Museum in 1896 from Mrs Frances Clarke, acquired by her husband upon his retirement from serving as Commissioner of Oudh. Soon after, the paintings and illuminated frontispiece were removed from the volume to be mounted and framed for display; the first volume of Akbarnama deals with the birth of Akbar, the history of Timur's family and the reigns of Babur and Humayun and the Suri sultans of Delhi. Volume one of Akbarnama encompasses his upbringings. According to the Abul Fazl Humayuan, the second Mughal emperor and Akbar's father, is praying to the Ka'ba, an islamic holy place, for a successor to the Mughal empire. After this prayer, Maryam Makani showcases different signs that she is pregnant with Akbar such as having a shining forehead that others believe to be a mirror on her face or the warmth and joy that enters her bosom when a light shines on her. Miryam believes the light to be God's Light blessing her unborn child. Nine months while Humayuan is away, Maryam gives birth to Akbar under what is considered an auspicious star and there is great celebration.
The second volume describes the detailed history of the reign of Akbar till 1602, records the events during Akbar's reign. It deals with that how Bairam Khan and Akbar won the battle of Panipat against Hemu an Indian warrior; the third volume is named Ā’īn-i-Akbarī, details the administrative system of the Empire as well as containing the famous "Account of the Hindu Sciences". It deals with Akbar's household, the revenues and the geography of the empire, it produces rich details about the traditions and culture of the people living in India. It is famous for its rich statistical details about things as diverse as crop yields, prices and revenues. Here Abu'l Fazl's ambition, in his own words, is: "It has long been the ambitious desire of my heart to pass in review to some extent, the general conditions of this vast country, to record the opinions professed by the majority of the learned among the Hindus. I know not whether the love of my native land has been the attracting influence or exactness of historical research and genuine truthfulness of narrative...".
In this section, he expounds the major beliefs of the six major Hindu philosophical schools of thought, those of the Jains, Nāstikas. He gives several Indian accounts of geography and some tidbits on Indian aesthetic thought. Most of this information is derived from Sanskrit texts and knowledge systems. Abu'l Fazl admits that he did not know Sanskrit and it is thought that he accessed this information through intermediaries Jains who were favoured at Akbar's court. In his description of Hinduism, Abu’l Fazl tries to relate everything back to something that the Muslims could understand. Many of the orthodox Muslims thought that the Hindus were guilty of two of the greatest sins and idolatry. On the topic of idolatry, Abu’l Fazl says that the symbols and images that the Hindus carry are not idols, but are there to keep their minds from wandering, he writes that only worshipping God is required. Abul Fazl describes the Caste system to his readers, he writes the name and duties of each caste. He goes on to describe the sixteen subclasses which come from intermarriage among the main four.
Abu’l Fazl next writes about Karma about which he writes, “This is a system of knowledge of an amazing and extraordinary character, in which the learned of Hindustan concur without dissenting opinion.” He places the actions. First, he writes many of the different ways in which a person from one class can be born into a different class in the next life and some of the ways in which a change in gender can be brought about, he sicknesses one suffers from. The third kind is the death of a child, and the fourth kind lack thereof. The Ain-i-Akbari is housed in the Hazarduari Palace, in West Bengal; the Akbarnama of Shaikh Illahdad Faiz Sirhindi is another contemporary biography of the Mughal emperor Akbar. This work is not original and a compilation from the Tabaqat-i-Akbari of Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Ahmad and the more famous Akbarnama of Abu´l Fazl; the only original elements in this work are a few verses and so
Miyan Bayezid Baz Bahadur Khan was the last sultan of Malwa, who reigned from 1555 to 1562. He succeeded Shuja'at Khan, he is known for his romantic liaison with Roopmati. Baz Bahadur as sultan did not bother to look after his kingdom nor did he maintain a strong army, being devoted to the arts and to his paramour; the Mughals defeated him and captured his Hindu queen Roopmati, who killed herself at this turn of events. In 1561, Akbar's army led by Adham Khan and Pir Muhammad Khan attacked Malwa and defeated Baz Bahadur in the battle of Sarangpur on 29 March 1561. One of the reasons for Adham Khan's attack seems to be his lust for Rani Roopmati. Rani Roopmati poisoned herself upon hearing of the fall of Mandu. Baz Bahadur fled to Khandesh. Akbar soon recalled Adham Khan and made over command to Pir Muhammad, who attacked Khandesh and proceeded up to Burhanpur but was soon defeated by a coalition of three powers: Miran Mubarak Shah II of Khandesh, Tufal Khan of Berar and Baz Bahadur. Pir Muhammad died.
The confederate army pursued the Mughals and drove them out of Malwa, thus Baz Bahadur regained his kingdom for a brief period. In 1562, Akbar sent another army led by Abdullah Khan which defeated Baz Bahadur and Baaz Bahadur died. Bahadur's capital was Mandu, which became an important city in the Mughal Empire; the Jahaz Mahal is located in Mandu
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar ابو الفتح جلال الدين محمد اكبر, popularly known as Akbar I as Akbar the Great, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605. Akbar succeeded his father, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India. A strong personality and a successful general, Akbar enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river, his power and influence, extended over the entire country because of Mughal military, political and economic dominance. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a centralised system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage and diplomacy. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, he adopted policies that won him the support of his non-Muslim subjects. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic state identity, Akbar strove to unite far-flung lands of his realm through loyalty, expressed through an Indo-Persian culture, to himself as an emperor who had near-divine status.
Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. Akbar himself was a patron of culture, he was fond of literature, created a library of over 24,000 volumes written in Sanskrit, Persian, Latin and Kashmiri, staffed by many scholars, artists, scribes and readers. He did much of the cataloging himself through three main groupings. Akbar established the library of Fatehpur Sikri for women, he decreed that schools for the education of both Muslims and Hindus should be established throughout the realm, he encouraged bookbinding to become a high art. Holy men of many faiths, poets and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion. Akbar's courts at Delhi and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts and learning. Perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterized by Mughal style arts and architecture. Disillusioned with orthodox Islam and hoping to bring about religious unity within his empire, Akbar promulgated Din-i-Ilahi, a syncretic creed derived from Islam and Hinduism as well as some parts of Zoroastrianism and Christianity.
A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centered on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema and orthodox Muslims. Many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet. One famous courtier who followed this blended religion was Birbal. Akbar's reign influenced the course of Indian history. During his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in wealth, he instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the sectarian tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust and loyalty of the native subjects, he had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in native festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation and good-will of his subjects. Thus, the foundations for a multicultural empire under Mughal rule were laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Prince Salim known as Jahangir. Defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in 1539 to 1540 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri, Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh.
There he met and married the 14-year-old Hamida Banu Begum, daughter of Shaikh Ali Akbar Jami, a teacher of Humayun's younger brother Hindal Mirza. Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar was born the next year on 15 October 1542 at the Rajput Fortress of Umerkot in Sindh, where his parents had been given refuge by the local Hindu ruler Rana Prasad. During the extended period of Humayun's exile, Akbar was brought up in Kabul by the extended family of his paternal uncles, Kamran Mirza and Askari Mirza, his aunts, in particular Kamran Mirza's wife, he spent his youth learning to hunt and fight, making him a daring and brave warrior, but he never learned to read or write. This, did not hinder his search for knowledge as it is said always when he retired in the evening he would have someone read. On 20 November 1551, Humayun's youngest brother, Hindal Mirza, died fighting in a battle against Kamran Mirza's forces. Upon hearing the news of his brother's death, Humayun was overwhelmed with grief. Out of affection for the memory of his brother, Humayun betrothed Hindal's nine-year-old daughter, Ruqaiya Sultan Begum, to his son Akbar.
Their betrothal took place in Kabul, shortly after Akbar's first appointment as a viceroy in the province of Ghazni. Humayun conferred on the imperial couple all the wealth and adherents of Hindal and Ghazni. One of Hindal's jagir was given to his nephew, appointed as its viceroy and was given the command of his uncle's army. Akbar's marriage with Ruqaiya was solemnized in Jalandhar, when both of them were 14-years-old, she was his first chief consort. Following the chaos over the succession of Sher Shah Suri's son Islam Shah, Humayun reconquered Delhi in 1555, leading an army provided by his Persian ally Tahmasp I. A few months Humayun died. Akbar's guardian, Bairam Khan concealed the death. Akbar succeeded Humayun on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah to reclaim
Malwa is a historical region of west-central India occupying a plateau of volcanic origin. Geologically, the Malwa Plateau refers to the volcanic upland north of the Vindhya Range. Politically and administratively, the historical Malwa region includes districts of western Madhya Pradesh and parts of south-eastern Rajasthan; the definition of Malwa is sometimes extended to include the Nimar region south of the Vindhyas. The Malwa region had been a separate political unit from the time of the ancient Malava Kingdom, it has been ruled by several kingdoms and dynasties, including the Avanti Kingdom, the Mauryans, the Malavas, the Guptas, the Paramaras, the Malwa sultans, the Mughals and the Marathas. Malwa continued to be an administrative division until 1947, when the Malwa Agency of British India was merged into Madhya Bharat state of independent India. Although its political borders have fluctuated throughout history, the region has developed its own distinct culture, influenced by the Rajasthani and Gujarati cultures.
Several prominent people in the history of India have lived in Malwa, including the poet and dramatist Kalidasa, the author Bhartrihari, the mathematicians and astronomers Varahamihira and Brahmagupta, the polymath king Bhoja. Ujjain had been the political and cultural capital of the region in ancient times, Indore is now the largest city and commercial centre. Overall, agriculture is the main occupation of the people of Malwa; the region has been one of the important producers of opium in the world. Wheat and soybeans are other important cash crops, textiles are a major industry. Several early stone age or Lower Paleolithic habitations have been excavated in eastern Malwa; the name Malwa is derived from the name of the ancient Indian tribe of Malavas. The name Malava is said to be derived from the Sanskrit term Malav, which means “part of the abode of Lakshmi”; the location of the Malwa or Moholo, mentioned by the 7th-century Chinese traveller Xuanzang, is plausibly identified with present-day Gujarat.
The region is cited as Malibah such as Kamilu-t Tawarikh by Ibn Asir. The Malwa Culture was a Chalcolithic archaeological culture which existed in the Malwa region, as well as nearby parts of Maharashtra to the south, during the 2nd millennium BCE. Ujjain known as Ujjaiyini and Avanti, emerged as the first major centre in the Malwa region during India's second wave of urbanisation in the 7th century BC. Around 600 BC an earthen rampart was built around Ujjain. Ujjain was the capital city of the Avanti kingdom, one of the prominent mahajanapadas of ancient India. In the post-Mahabharata period—around 500 BC—Avanti was an important kingdom in western India; the region was conquered by the Nanda Empire in the mid-4th century BC, subsequently became part of the Maurya Empire. Ashoka, a Mauryan emperor, was governor of Ujjain in his youth. After the death of Ashoka in 232 BC, the Maurya Empire began to collapse. Although evidence is sparse, Malwa was ruled by the Kushanas, the Shakas and the Satavahana dynasty during the 1st and 2nd century CE.
Ownership of the region was the subject of dispute between the Western Kshatrapas and the Satavahanas during the first three centuries AD. Ujjain emerged a major trading centre during the 1st century AD. Malwa became part of the Gupta Empire during the reign of Chandragupta II known as Vikramaditya, who conquered the region, driving out the Western Kshatrapas; the Gupta period is regarded as a golden age in the history of Malwa, when Ujjain served as the empire's western capital. Kalidasa and Varahamihira were all based in Ujjain, which emerged as a major centre of learning in astronomy and mathematics. Around 500, Malwa re-emerged from the dissolving Gupta Empire as a separate kingdom. During the seventh century, the region became part of Harsha's empire, who disputed the region with the Chalukya king Pulakesin II of Badami in the Deccan. In 756 AD Gurjara-Pratiharas advanced into Malwa. In 786 the region was captured by the Rashtrakuta kings of the Deccan, was disputed between the Rashtrakutas and the Gurjara Pratihara kings of Kannauj until the early part of the tenth century.
The Emperors of the Rashtrakuta dynasty appointed the Paramara rulers as governors of Malwa. From the mid-tenth century, Malwa was ruled by the Paramaras. King Bhoj, who ruled from about 1010 to 1060, was known as the great polymath philosopher-king of medieval India. Under his rule Malwa became an intellectual centre of India, his successors ruled until about 1305. Malwa was several times invaded by the south Indian Western Chalukya Empire. Dilawar Khan Malwa's governor under the rule of the Delhi sultanate, declared himself sultan of Malwa in 1401 after the Mughal conqueror Timur attacked Delhi, causing the break-up of the sultanate into smaller states. Khan started the Malwa Sultanate and established a capital at Mandu, high in the Vindhya Range overlooking the Narmada River valley, his son and successor, Hoshang Shah, developed Mandu as an important city. Hoshang Shah's son, Ghazni Khan, ruled for only a year and was succeeded by Mahmud Khalji, the first of the Khalji sultans of Malwa, who expanded the state to include parts of
Shamsuddin Muhammad Atgah Khan known as Khan-e-Kalan Shamsu'd-Din Muhammad Khan Atgah Khan, held important positions in the court, including that of wakil to which he was appointed in November 1561, much to displeasure of Maham Anga, whose son Adham Khan murdered him in 1562. Ataga Khan was the husband of one of Akbar's wet nurses. Shamsuddin was the son of Mir Yar Muhammad of Ghazni, a simple farmer, started life as a soldier in Kamran Mirza’s army, he saved Humayun from drowning in the Ganges. As reward, Humayun took him into his personal service and his wife became one of Akbar's foster-mothers, she was called foster-mother and her husband Shamsuddin was designated foster-father. He received the title of Khan and his biological son, Aziz became Akbar's foster or milk-brother. On May 16, 1562 Adham Khan accompanied by a few ruffians burst in upon him as he sat in the Diwan-e-Aam, the hall of audience, in Agra Fort, murdered him, in the courtyard of Diwan-e-Aam. Hearing of this murder, an enraged Akbar ordered Adham Khan to be defenestrated from the ramparts of the fort.
The fall only broke Adham Khan's legs, so the still angry emperor ordered that he be thrown down again. The second fall killed Adham Khan instantly. After the death of Ataga Khan, his tomb was built by the instructions of Mughal emperor Akbar and built by his foster brother, Mirza Aziz Koka, in 1566-67, it is situated on the northern edge of Nizamuddin, most known for the dargah of 13th century Sufi saint Nizamuddin Auliya. Its architect was Ustab Khuda Quli and calligrapher Baqi Muhammad from Bukhara, who added Quranic verses on the white marble slabs, inlaid on the red sandstone exterior walls, which were suitably chosen reflecting his mode of death, considered a martyrdom by Mughal historian, Abul Fazal. An inscription on the southern door of the tomb mentions that it was finished in 974 AH. "Delhi's Belly: Unknown city, Glimpses of Delhi's past through monuments that dot every neighbourhood". Live Mint. Apr 1, 2011