Vice is a practice, behaviour, or habit considered immoral, criminal, taboo, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a negative character trait, a defect, an infirmity, or a bad or unhealthy habit. Vices are associated with a transgression in a person's character or temperament rather than their morality. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, iniquity and corruption; the opposite of vice is virtue. The modern English term that best captures its original meaning is the word vicious, which means "full of vice". In this sense, the word vice comes from the Latin word vitium, meaning "failing or defect". Depending on the country or jurisdiction, vice crimes may or may not be treated as a separate category in the criminal codes. In jurisdictions where vice is not explicitly delineated in the legal code, the term vice is used in law enforcement and judicial systems as an umbrella for crimes involving activities that are considered inherently immoral, regardless of the legality or objective harm involved.
In the United Kingdom, the term vice is used in law and law enforcement to refer to criminal offences related to prostitution and pornography. In the United States, the term is used to refer to crimes related to drugs and gambling. A vice squad called a vice unit or a morality squad, is a police division, whose focus is to restrain or suppress moral crimes. Though what is considered or accepted as a moral crime by society varies according to local laws or customs between nations, countries, or states, it includes activities such as gambling, narcotics and illegal sales of alcoholic beverages. Vice squads do not concentrate on crimes like murder. Religious police, for example islamic religious police units or sharia police in certain parts of the Arab-speaking world, are morality squads that monitors for example dress codes, observance of store-closures during prayer time, consumption of unlawful beverages or foods, unrelated males and females socializing, homosexual behavior. Vices are those behaviors which are inherently harmful to society.
In the Sarvastivadin tradition of Buddhism, there are 108 defilements, or vices, which are prohibited. These are subdivided into 98 proclivities; the 10 bonds are the following: Absence of shame Absence of embarrassment Jealousy Parsimony Remorse Drowsiness Distraction Torpor Anger Concealment of wrongdoing Christians believe there are two kinds of vice: Vices that come from the physical organism as instincts, which can become perverse Vices that come from false idolatry in the spiritual realmThe first kind of vice, though sinful, is believed less serious than the second. Vices recognized as spiritual by Christians include blasphemy, despair and indifference. Christian theologians have reasoned that the most destructive vice equates to a certain type of pride or the complete idolatry of the self, it is argued that through this vice, competitive, all the worst evils come into being. In Christian theology, it led to the Fall of Man, and, as a purely diabolical spiritual vice, it outweighs anything else condemned by the Church.
The Roman Catholic Church distinguishes between vice, a habit of sin, the sin itself, an individual morally wrong act. Note that in Roman Catholicism, the word "sin" refers to the state that befalls one upon committing a morally wrong act. In this section, the word always means the sinful act, it is the sin, not the vice, that deprives one of God's sanctifying grace and renders one deserving of God's punishment. Thomas Aquinas taught that "absolutely speaking, the sin surpasses the vice in wickedness". On the other hand after a person's sins have been forgiven, the underlying habit may remain. Just as vice was created in the first place by yielding to the temptation to sin, so vice may be removed only by resisting temptation and performing virtuous acts. Saint Thomas Aquinas says that following rehabilitation and the acquisition of virtues, the vice does not persist as a habit, but rather as a mere disposition, one, in the process of being eliminated. Medieval illuminated manuscripts circulated with colorful schemas for developing proper attitudes, with scriptural allusions modelled on nature: the tree of virtues as blossoming flowers or vices bearing sterile fruit, The Renaissance writer Pietro Bembo is credited with reaffirming and promoting the Christian perfection of classical humanism.
Deriving all from love his schemas were added as supplements in the newly invented technology of printing by Aldus Manutius in his editions of Dante's Divine Comedy dating from early in the 16th century. The poet Dante Alighieri listed the following seven deadly vices, associating them structurally as flaws in the soul's inherent capacity for goodness as made in the Divine Image yet perverted by the Fall: Pride or vanity: an excessive love of the self (holding the self outside of its proper position regarding God or fellows.
Vishnu is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, the Supreme Being or absolute truth in its Vaishnavism tradition. Vishnu is the "preserver" in the Hindu triad that includes Shiva. In Vaishnavism, Vishnu is identical to the formless metaphysical concept called Brahman, the supreme, the Svayam Bhagavan, who takes various avatars as "the preserver, protector" whenever the world is threatened with evil and destructive forces, his avatars most notably include Rama in the Krishna in the Mahabharata. He is known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Hari, he is one of the five equivalent deities worshipped in Panchayatana puja of the Smarta Tradition of Hinduism. In Hindu iconography, Vishnu is depicted as having a pale or dark blue complexion and having four arms, he holds a padma in his lower left hand, Kaumodaki gada in his lower right hand, Panchajanya shankha in his upper left hand and the Sudarshana Chakra in his upper right hand. A traditional depiction is Vishnu reclining on the coils of the serpent Shesha, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi, as he "dreams the universe into reality".
Yaska, the mid 1st-millennium BCE Vedanga scholar, in his Nirukta, defines Vishnu as viṣṇur viṣvater vā vyaśnoter vā, "one who enters everywhere". He writes, atha yad viṣito bhavati tad viṣnurbhavati, "that, free from fetters and bondages is Vishnu"; the medieval Indian scholar Medhātithi suggested that the word Vishnu has etymological roots in viś, meaning to pervade, thereby connoting that Vishnu is "one, everything and inside everything". Vishnu means "all pervasive". Vishnu is a Vedic deity, but not a prominent one when compared to Indra and others. Just 5 out of 1028 hymns of the Rigveda, a 2nd millennium BCE Hindu text, are dedicated to Vishnu, he finds minor mention in the other hymns. Vishnu is mentioned in the Brahmana layer of text in the Vedas, thereafter his profile rises and over the history of Indian mythology, states Jan Gonda, Vishnu becomes a divinity of the highest rank, one equivalent to the Supreme Being. Though a minor mention and with overlapping attributes in the Vedas, he has important characteristics in various hymns of Rig Veda, such as 1.154.5, 1.56.3 and 10.15.3.
In these hymns, the Vedic mythology asserts that Vishnu resides in that highest home where departed Atman reside, an assertion that may have been the reason for his increasing emphasis and popularity in Hindu soteriology. He is described in the Vedic literature as the one who supports heaven and earth. In the Vedic hymns, Vishnu is invoked alongside other deities Indra, whom he helps in killing the symbol of evil named Vritra, his distinguishing characteristic in Vedas is his association with light. Two Rigvedic hymns in Mandala 7 refer to Vishnu. In section 7.99 of the Rgveda, Vishnu is addressed as the god who separates heaven and earth, a characteristic he shares with Indra. In the Vedic texts, the deity or god referred to as Vishnu is Surya or Savitr, who bears the name Suryanarayana. Again, this link to Surya is a characteristic Vishnu shares with fellow Vedic deities named Mitra and Agni, where in different hymns, they too "bring men together" and cause all living beings to rise up and impel them to go about their daily activities.
In hymn 7.99 of Rigveda, Indra-Vishnu are equivalent and produce the sun, with the verses asserting that this sun is the source of all energy and light for all. In other hymns of the Rigveda, Vishnu is a close friend of Indra. Elsewhere in Rigveda and Upanishadic texts, Vishnu is equivalent to Prajapati, both are described as the protector and preparer of the womb, according to Klaus Klostermaier, this may be the root behind post-Vedic fusion of all the attributes of the Vedic Prajapati unto the avatars of Vishnu. In the Yajurveda, Taittiriya Aranyaka, Narayana sukta, Narayana is mentioned as the supreme being; the first verse of Narayana Suktam mentions the words paramam padam, which mean highest post and may be understood as the supreme abode for all souls. This is known as Param Dhama, Paramapadam or Vaikuntha. Rig Veda 1.22.20 mentions the same paramam padam. In the Atharvaveda, the mythology of a boar who raises goddess earth from the depths of cosmic ocean appears, but without the word Vishnu or his alternate avatar names.
In post-Vedic mythology, this legend becomes one of the basis of many cosmogonic myth called the Varaha legend, with Varaha as an avatar of Vishnu. Several hymns of the Rigveda repeat the mighty deed of Vishnu called the Trivikrama, one of the lasting mythologies in Hinduism since the Vedic times, it is an inspiration for ancient artwork in numerous Hindu temples such as at the Ellora Caves, which depict the Trivikrama legend through the Vamana avatar of Vishnu. Trivikrama refers to "three strides" of Vishnu. Starting as a small insignificant looking being, Vishnu undertakes a herculean task of establishing his reach and form with his first step covers the earth, with second the ether, the third entire heaven; the Vishnu Sukta 1.154 of Rigveda says that the first and second of Vishnu's strides are visible to the mortals and the third is the realm of the immortals. The Trivikrama describing hymns integrate salvific themes, stating Vishnu to symbolize that, freedom and life; the Shatapatha Brahmana elaborates this theme of Vishnu, as his herculean effort and sacrifice to create and gain powers that help others, one who realizes and defeats the evil symbolized by the Asuras after they had usurped the three worlds, thus Vishnu is the savior of the mortals and
The Sasak people live on the island of Lombok, numbering around 3.6 million. They are related to the Balinese in language and ancestry, although the Sasak are predominantly Muslim while the Balinese are Hindu. Sasak people who practice pre-Islamic beliefs are known as Sasak Boda in reference to the name of the Sasak people's original religion, Bodha. There is a possibility that the origin of the name Sasak came from the word sak-sak, which means "boat". In the Nagarakretagama, the word Sasak is mentioned together as one with Lombok Island, namely Lombok Sasak Mirah Adhi. According to local tradition, it is believed that the word Sasak came from sa'-saq which means "the one". Followed by the word Lombok which originates from the word Lomboq, meaning "straight". Hence by combining the words together Sa'-saq Lombok, it means "something that's straight". Other translations includes "a straight road". Lombok Sasak Mirah Adhi is taken from the Nagarakretagama literature, a scripture written by Mpu Prapanca that records the power and rule of the Majapahit kingdom.
The word Lombok in Kawi language means "straight" or "honest", Mirah means "gem", Sasak means "statement", Adhi means "something that's good" or "utmost". Therefore Lombok Sasak Mirah Adhi means "honesty is the gem that states out goodness". Little is known about Sasak history except that Lombok was placed under direct rule of the Majapahit prime Minister, patih Gajah Mada; the Sasaks were forced to convert to Islam between the late 16th century to early 17th century under the influence of Pangeran Prapen, the son of Raden Paku or Sunan Giri himself and the Muslim Makassarese mixing basic Islamic beliefs with Hindu-Buddhist beliefs, thus creating the Wetu Telu religion. Lombok was conquered by the Gelgel Balinese kingdom in the early 16th century, thus bringing a large population of Balinese to Lombok; the Balinese population of Lombok today is 10 -- 15 % of Lombok's population. The Balinese have strongly influenced the Wetu Telu religion of Lombok; the Sasak language is related to the languages of Bali and Sumbawa, to most other languages of Western Indonesia more distantly.
There are a number of Sasak dialect in various regions such as Kuto-Kute, Meno-Mene, Mriak-Mriku, Ngeno-Ngene, Ngeto-Ngete and so on. Most of the Sasaks today are adherents of the Lima Waktu version of Islam. Lima Waktu or Five Times signifies the five daily prayers; the term Lima Waktu is used to distinguish them from the Sasaks who are practitioners of Wetu Telu or Three Symbols who only pray three times a day. Orthodox Islamic teachers instruct adherents to pray five times a day. Large numbers of people adhering to the Wetu Telu faith can be still found throughout the island in the village of Bayan, where the religion originated. Large Wetu Telu communities can be still found in Mataram, Sengkol, Sade, Bumbung, Senaru and Pasugulan. A small minority of Sasaks called the Bodha are found in the village of Bentek and on the slopes of Gunung Rinjani, they are untouched by Islamic influence and worship animistic gods, incorporating some Hindu and Buddhist influences in their rituals and religious vocabulary.
This group of Sasak, due in part to the name of their tribe, are recognized as Buddhists by the Indonesian government. The Bodha have the same magico-religious institutions as the Wetu Telu; the Bodhas recognize the existence of five main gods, the highest of, Batara Guru, followed by Batara Sakti and Batara Jeneng with their wives Idadari Sakti and Idadari Jeneng, though they believe in spirits and ghosts. The Bodha religion is to some extent influenced by both Hindu and Buddhist concepts. Of late, they have come under the influence of mainstream Buddhism from Buddhist missionaries. Gandrung Gendang beleq Sasak architecture Sidetrip to Lombok by the New York Times
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Mṛtyu, is a Sanskrit word meaning Death. Mṛtyu or Death is personified as the demigods Mara and Yama in Dharmic religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Mara, the goddess of death according to Hindu mythology. Mṛtyu-māra as death in Buddhism or Māra, a "demon" of the Buddhist cosmology, the personification of Temptation. Yama is the lord of death in Buddhism. Yama in Hinduism. Yama in Buddhism. Vedic mṛtyú, along with Avestan mərəθiiu and Old Persian məršiyu comes from the Proto-Indo-Iranian word for death, *mr̥tyú-, derived from the Indo-European root *mer- and thus is further related to Latin mors; the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad has a creation myth where Mṛtyu "Death" takes the shape of a horse, includes an identification of the Ashvamedha horse sacrifice with the Sun: Then he became a horse, because it swelled, was fit for sacrifice. Verily the shining sun is the Asvamedha, his body is the year; these two are the sacrificial fire and the Asvamedha-sacrifice, they are again one deity, viz. Death.
God of death SpokenSanskrit dictionary translation of Mrtyu
The'Vishnu Purana' is one of the eighteen Mahapuranas, a genre of ancient and medieval texts of Hinduism. It is an important Pancharatra text in the Vaishnavism literature corpus; the manuscripts of Vishnu Purana have survived into the modern era in many versions. More than any other major Purana, the Vishnu Purana presents its contents in Pancalaksana format – Sarga, Vamśa, Manvañtara, Vamśānucaritam; some manuscripts of the text are notable for not including sections found in other major Puranas, such as those on Mahatmyas and tour guides on pilgrimage, but some versions include chapters on temples and travel guides to sacred pilgrimage sites. The text is notable as the earliest Purana to have been translated and published in 1864 CE by HH Wilson, based on manuscripts available, setting the presumptions and premises about what Puranas may have been; the Vishnu Purana is with about 7,000 verses in extant versions. It centers around the Hindu god Vishnu and his avatars such as Krishna, but it praises Brahma and Shiva and asserts that they are one with Vishnu.
The Purana, states Wilson, is pantheistic and the ideas in it, like other Puranas, are premised on the Vedic beliefs and ideas. Vishnu Purana, like all major Puranas, attributes its author to be sage Veda Vyasa; the actual author and date of its composition are unknown and contested. Estimates range of its composition range from 1st millennium BCE to early 2nd-millennium CE; the text was composed and rewritten in layers over a period of time, with roots in ancient 1st-millennium BCE texts that have not survived into the modern era. The Padma Purana categorizes Vishnu Purana as a Sattva Purana; the composition date of Vishnu Purana is unknown and contested, with estimates disagreeing. Some proposed dates for the earliest version of Vishnu Purana by various scholars include: Vincent Smith: 400-300 BCE, CV Vaidya: ~9th-century, Moriz Winternitz: early 1st millennium, but states Rocher, he added, "it is no more possible to assign a definite date to the Vishnu Purana than it is for any other Purana".
Rajendra Chandra Hazra: 275-325 CE Ramachandra Dikshitar: 700-300 BCE, Roy: after the 9th century. Horace Hayman Wilson: acknowledged that the tradition believes it to be 1st millennium BCE text and the text has roots in the Vedic literature, but after his analysis suggested that the extant manuscripts may be from the 11th century. Wendy Doniger: c. 450 CE. Rocher states that the "date of the Vishnu Purana is as contested as that of any other Purana". References to Vishnu Purana in texts such as Brihadvishnu whose dates are better established, states Rocher, suggest that a version of Vishnu Purana existed by about 1000 CE, but it is unclear to what extent the extant manuscripts reflect the revisions during the 2nd millennium. Vishnu Purana like all Puranas has a complicated chronology. Dimmitt and van Buitenen state that each of the Puranas including the Vishnu Purana is encyclopedic in style, it is difficult to ascertain when, why and by whom these were written: As they exist today, the Puranas are a stratified literature.
Each titled work consists of material that has grown by numerous accretions in successive historical eras. Thus no Purana has a single date of composition, it is as if they were libraries to which new volumes have been continuously added, not at the end of the shelf, but randomly. Many of the extant manuscripts were written on palm leaf or copied during the British India colonial era, some in the 19th century; the scholarship on Vishnu Purana, other Puranas, has suffered from cases of forgeries, states Ludo Rocher, where liberties in the transmission of Puranas were normal and those who copied older manuscripts replaced words or added new content to fit the theory that the colonial scholars were keen on publishing. The extant text comprises 126 adhyāyas; the first part has 22 chapters, the second part consists 16 chapters, the third part comprises 18 chapters and the fourth part has 24 chapters. The fifth and the sixth parts are the longest and the shortest part of the text, comprising 38 and 8 chapters respectively.
The textual tradition claims that the original Vishnu Purana had 23,000 verses, but the surviving manuscripts have just a third of these, about 7,000 verses. The text is composed in metric verses or sloka, wherein each verse has 32 syllables, of which 16 syllables in the verse may be free style per ancient literary standards; the Vishnu Purana is an exception in that it presents its contents in Vishnu worship-related Pancalaksana format – Sarga, Vamśa, Manvañtara, Vamśānucaritam. This is rare, state Dimmitt and van Buitenen, because just 2% of the known Puranic literature corpus is about these five Pancalaksana items, about 98% is about diverse range of encyclopedic topics. Vishnu Purana opens as a conversation between sage Maitreya and his guru, with the sage asking, "what is the nature of this universe and everything, in it?" The first Amsha of Vishnu Purana presents cosmology, dealing with the creation and destruction of the universe. The mythology, states Rocher, is woven with the evolutionary theories of Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy.
The Hindu god Vishnu is presented as the central element of this text's cosmology, unlike some other Puranas where Shiva or Brahma or goddess Shakti are. The r
Naraka is the Sanskrit word for the realm of hell in Dharmic traditions. According to some schools of Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism, Naraka is a place of torment; the word'Neraka' in Indonesian and Malaysian has been used to describe the Islamic concept of Hell. Alternatively, the "hellish beings" that are said to reside in this underworld are referred to as "Narakas"; these beings are termed in Hindi as Narakis and Narakavasis. Naraka in Vedas, is a place, it is mentioned in dharmaśāstras, itihāsas and Purāṇas but in Vedic samhitas and Upaniṣads. Some Upanisads speak of'darkness' instead of hell. A summary of Upaniṣads, Bhagavad Gita, mentions hell several times. Adi Sankara mentions it in his commentary on Vedanta sutra. Still, some people like members of Arya Samaj don't accept the existence of Naraka or consider it metaphorical. In Puranas like Bhagavata Purana, Garuda Purana and Vishnu Purana there are elaborate descriptions of many hells, they are situated above the Garbhodaka ocean. Yama, Lord of Justice, assigns appropriate punishments.
Nitya-samsarins can experience Naraka for expiation. After the period of punishment is complete, they are reborn on earth in animal bodies. Therefore, neither naraka nor svarga are permanent abodes. Yama Loka is the abode of Lord Yama. Yama is Dharma king. According to Hindu scriptures, Yama's divine assistant Lord Chitragupta maintains a record of the individual deeds of every living being in the world, based on the complete audit of his deeds, dispatches the soul of the deceased either to Svarga or to the various Narakas according to the nature of their sins; the scriptures describe that people who have done a majority of good deeds could come to Yama Loka for redemption from the small sins they have committed, once the punishments have been served for those sins they could be sent for rebirth to earth or to heaven. In the epic of Mahabharata the Pandavas spent a brief time in hell for their small sins. At the time of death, sinful souls are vulnerable for capture by Yamadutas, servants of Yama.
Yama ordered his servants to leave Vaishnavas alone. Sri Vaishnavas are taken by Vishnudutas to Gaudiya Vaishnavas to Goloka. In Buddhism, Naraka refers to the worlds of greatest suffering. Buddhist texts describe a vast array of realms of torment in Naraka; the descriptions are not always consistent with each other. Though the term is translated as "hell", unlike the Abrahamic hells, Naraka is not eternal, though when a timescale is given, it is suggested to be extraordinarily long. In this sense, it is similar to purgatory, but unlike both Abrahamic hell and purgatory, there is no divine force involved in determining a being's entry and exit to and from the realm and no soul is involved. Rather, the being is brought here—as is the case with all the other realms in the Buddhist cosmology—by natural law: the law of karma, they remain until the negative karma that brought them there has been used up. In Jainism, Naraka is the name given to realm of existence in Jain cosmology having great suffering.
The length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is very long—measured in billions of years. A soul is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma, resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. After his karma is used up, he may be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened. Jain texts mention that these hells are situated in the seven grounds at the lower part of the universe; the seven grounds are: Ratna prabha Sharkara prabha. Valuka prabha. Panka prabha. Dhuma prabha. Tamaha prabha. Mahatamaha prabha. Shurangama Sutra - Volume 6, Chapter 5: The Twelve Categories of Living Beings List of numbers in Hindu scriptures Definition at godrealized.com Wat Thawet Buddhist Learning Garden Feature Article