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Adiabatic process

An adiabatic process occurs without transfer of heat or mass of substances between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings. In an adiabatic process, energy is transferred to the surroundings only as work; the adiabatic process provides a conceptual basis for the theory used to expound the first law of thermodynamics, as such it is a key concept in thermodynamics. Some chemical and physical processes occur so that they may be conveniently described by the term "adiabatic approximation", meaning that there is not enough time for the transfer of energy as heat to take place to or from the system. By way of example, the adiabatic flame temperature is an idealization that uses the "adiabatic approximation" so as to provide an upper limit calculation of temperatures produced by combustion of a fuel; the adiabatic flame temperature is the temperature that would be achieved by a flame if the process of combustion took place in the absence of heat loss to the surroundings. In meteorology and oceanography, the adiabatic cooling process produces condensation of moisture or salinity and the parcel becomes oversaturated.

Therefore, it is necessary to take away the excess. There the process becomes a pseudo-adiabatic process in which the liquid water/salt that condenses is assumed to be removed as soon as it is formed, by idealized instantaneous precipitation; the pseudoadiabatic process is only defined for expansion, since a parcel, compressed becomes warmer and remains undersaturated. A process that does not involve the transfer of heat or matter into or out of a system, so that Q = 0, is called an adiabatic process, such a system is said to be adiabatically isolated; the assumption that a process is adiabatic is a made simplifying assumption. For example, the compression of a gas within a cylinder of an engine is assumed to occur so that on the time scale of the compression process, little of the system's energy can be transferred out as heat to the surroundings. Though the cylinders are not insulated and are quite conductive, that process is idealized to be adiabatic; the same can be said to be true for the expansion process of such a system.

The assumption of adiabatic isolation of a system is a useful one, is combined with others so as to make the calculation of the system's behaviour possible. Such assumptions are idealizations; the behaviour of actual machines deviates from these idealizations, but the assumption of such "perfect" behaviour provide a useful first approximation of how the real world works. According to Laplace, when sound travels in a gas, there is no time for heat conduction in the medium and so the propagation of sound is adiabatic. For such an adiabatic process, the modulus of elasticity can be expressed as E = γP, where γ is the ratio of specific heats at constant pressure and at constant volume and P is the pressure of the gas. For a closed system, one may write the first law of thermodynamics as: ΔU = Q – W, where ΔU denotes the change of the system's internal energy, Q the quantity of energy added to it as heat, W the work done by the system on its surroundings. If the system has rigid walls such that work cannot be transferred in or out, the walls of the system are not adiabatic and energy is added in the form of heat, there is no phase change, the temperature of the system will rise.

If the system has rigid walls such that pressure–volume work cannot be done, the system walls are adiabatic, but energy is added as isochoric work in the form of friction or the stirring of a viscous fluid within the system, there is no phase change, the temperature of the system will rise. If the system walls are adiabatic, but not rigid, and, in a fictive idealized process, energy is added to the system in the form of frictionless, non-viscous pressure–volume work, there is no phase change, the temperature of the system will rise; such a process is called an isentropic process and is said to be "reversible". Fictively, if the process is reversed the energy can be recovered as work done by the system. If the system contains a compressible gas and is reduced in volume, the uncertainty of the position of the gas is reduced, would reduce the entropy of the system, but the temperature of the system will rise as the process is isentropic. Should the work be added in such a way that friction or viscous forces are operating within the system the process is not isentropic, if there is no phase change the temperature of the system will rise, the process is said to be "irreversible", the work added to the system is not recoverable in the form of work.

If the walls of a system are not adiabatic, energy is transferred in as heat, entropy is transferred into the system with the heat. Such a process is neither adiabatic nor isentropic, having Q > 0, ΔS > 0 according to the second law of thermodynamics. Occurring adiabatic processes are irreversible; the transfer of energy as work into an adiabatically isolated system can be imagined as being of two idealized extreme kinds. In one such kind, there is no entropy produced within the system, the work is only pressure-volume work. In nature, this ideal kind occurs only because it demands an infinitely slow process and no sources of dissipation; the other extreme kind of work is isochoric work, for which energy is added as work through friction or viscous dissipation within the system. A stirrer

Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom

Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom was a movement to fight for women's right to vote. It succeeded through two laws in 1918 and 1928, it became a national movement in the Victorian era. Women were not explicitly banned from voting in Great Britain until the Reform Act 1832 and the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. In 1872 the fight for women's suffrage became a national movement with the formation of the National Society for Women's Suffrage and the more influential National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies; as well as in England, women's suffrage movements in Wales and other parts of the United Kingdom gained momentum. The movements shifted sentiments in favour of woman suffrage by 1906, it was at this point that the militant campaign began with the formation of the Women's Social and Political Union. The outbreak of the First World War on 4 August 1914 led to a suspension of party politics, including the militant suffragette campaigns. Lobbying did take place quietly. In 1918 a coalition government passed the Representation of the People Act 1918, enfranchising all men over 21, as well as all women over the age of 30 who met minimum property qualifications.

This act was the first to include all adult men in the political system and began the inclusion of women, extending the franchise by 5.6 million men and 8.4 million women. In 1928 the Conservative government passed the Representation of the People Act equalizing the franchise to all persons over the age of 21 on equal terms; until the 1832 Great Reform Act specified'male persons', a few women had been able to vote in parliamentary elections through property ownership, although this was rare. In local government elections, women lost the right to vote under the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. Single women ratepayers received the right to vote in the Municipal Franchise Act 1869; this right was confirmed in the Local Government Act 1894 and extended to include some married women. By 1900, more than 1 million single women were registered to vote in local government elections in England. Both before and after the 1832 Reform Act there were some who advocated that women should have the right to vote in parliamentary elections.

After the enactment of the Reform Act, the MP Henry Hunt argued that any woman, single, a taxpayer and had sufficient property should be allowed to vote. One such wealthy woman, Mary Smith, was used in this speech as an example; the Chartist Movement, which began in the late 1830s, has been suggested to have included supporters of female suffrage. There is some evidence to suggest William Lovett, one of the authors of the People's Charter wished to include female suffrage as one of the campaign's demands but chose not to on the grounds that this would delay the implementation of the charter. Although there were female Chartists, they worked toward universal male suffrage. At this time most women did not have aspirations to gain the vote. There is a poll book from 1843 that shows thirty women's names among those who voted; these women were playing an active role in the election. On the roll, the wealthiest female elector was a butcher. Due to the high rates that she paid, Grace Brown was entitled to four votes.

Lilly Maxwell cast a high-profile vote in Britain in 1867 after the Great Reform Act of 1832. Maxwell, a shop owner, met the property qualifications that otherwise would have made her eligible to vote had she been male. In error, her name had been added to the election register and on that basis she succeeded in voting in a by-election – her vote however was declared illegal by the Court of Common Pleas; the case, gave women's suffrage campaigners great publicity. Outside pressure for women's suffrage was at this time diluted by feminist issues in general. Women's rights were becoming prominent in the 1850s as some women in higher social spheres refused to obey the gender roles dictated to them. Feminist goals at this time included the right to sue an ex-husband after divorce and the right for married women to own property; the issue of parliamentary reform declined along with the Chartists after 1848 and only reemerged with the election of John Stuart Mill in 1865. He stood for office showing direct support for female suffrage and was an MP in the run up to the second Reform Act.

In the same year that John Stuart Mill was elected, the first ladies' discussion society, Kensington Society, was formed, debating whether women should be involved in public affairs. Although a society for suffrage was proposed, this was turned down on the grounds that it might be taken over by extremists; however that year Leigh Smith Bodichon formed the first Women's Suffrage Committee and within a fortnight collected nearly 1,500 signatures in favour of female suffrage in advance to the second Reform Bill. The Manchester Society for Women's Suffrage was founded in February 1867, its secretary, Lydia Becker, wrote letters both to Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli and to The Spectator. She was involved with the London group, organised the collection of more signatures. Lydia Becker reluctantly agreed to exclude married women from the "Married Women's Property Act" reform demand. However, in June the London group split a result of party allegiance, the result of tactical issues. Conservative members wished to move to avoid alarming public opinion, while Liberals opposed this apparent dilution of political conviction.

As a result, Helen Taylor founded the London National Society for Women's Suffrage, which set up strong links with Manchester and Edinburgh. In Scotland one of the earliest societies was the Edinburgh National Society for Women's Suffrage

List of ancient Greek theatres

This is a list of ancient Greek theatres by location. Theatre of Dionysus, Athens Odeon of Herodes Atticus, Athens Theatre of Oropos, East Attica Theatre of Zea, Athens Theatre of Thoricus, East Attica Theatre of Aegina, Attica Theatre of Rhamnous, East Attica Theatre of Chaeronea, Boeotia Theatre of Orchomenos, Boeotia Theatre of Delphi, Phocis Theatre of Stratos, Aetolia-Acarnania Theatre of Oiniades, Aetolia-Acarnania Theatre of Eretria, Euboea Theatre of Thebes, Thebes First Ancient Theatre, Larissa Second Ancient Theatre, Larissa Theatre of Dodona, Ioannina Theatre of Ambracia, Arta Theatre of Omolion, Larissa Theatre of Demetrias, Volos Theatre of Cassope, Preveza Theatre of Gitanae, Thesprotia Theatre of Dion, Pieria Theatre of Mieza, Imathia Theatre of Amphipolis, Serres Theatre of Abdera, Xanthi Theatre of Vergina, Imathia Theatre of Olynthus, Chalcidice Theatre of Philippi, Kavala Theatre of Maroneia, Rhodope Theatre of Corinth, Corinthia Theatre of Argos, Argolis Theatre A' of Epidaurus, Argolis Theatre B' of Epidaurus, Argolis Theatre of Megalopolis, Arcadia Theatre of Aigeira, Achaea Theatre of Elis, Elia Theatre of Gytheion, Laconia Theatre of Isthmia, Corinthia Theatre of Mantineia, Arcadia Theatre of Messene, Messenia Theatre of Orchomenos, Arcadia Theatre of Sicyon, Corinthia Theatre of Sparta, Laconia Theatre of Delos, Cyclades Theatre of Milos, Cyclades Theatre of Rhodes, Dodecanese Theatre of Mytilene, Lesbos Theatre of Hephaistia, Lemnos Theatre of Samothrace Theatre of Thasos Theatre of Thera, Cyclades Odeon of Kos, Dodecanese Theatre of Metapontum, Basilicata Theatre of Soli, Soli Theatre of Salamis, Salamis Theatre of Kourion, Kourion Odeon Amphitheatre, Paphos Theatre of Catania Theatre of Segesta Theatre of Syracuse Theatre of Taormina Theatre of Aigai, Manisa Province Theatre of Alexandria Troas, Çanakkale Province Theatre of Antiphellus, Kaş, Antalya Province Theatre of Aphrodisias, Aydın Province Theatre of Arycanda, Antalya Province Theatre of Aspendos, Antalya Province Theatre of Assos, Çanakkale Province Theatre of Ephesus, İzmir Province Theatre of Halicarnassus, Bodrum, Muğla Province Theatre of Hierapolis, Denizli Province Theatre of Knidos, Datça Peninsula, Muğla Province Theatre of Cyme, İzmir Province Theatre of Laodicea, Denizli Province Theatre of Letoon, Antalya Province Theatre of Miletus, Aydın Province Theatre of Myrina, İzmir Province Theatre of Pergamon, İzmir Province Theatre of Phocaea, İzmir Province Theatre of Pinara, Muğla Province Theatre of Pitane, İzmir Province Theatre of Priene, Aydın Province Theatre of Sardis, Manisa Province Theatre of Side, Antalya Province Theatre of Termessos, Antalya Province Theatre of Telmessus, Fethiye, Muğla Province Theatre of Troy, Çanakkale Province

List of streets in Edmonton

The following is a list of the north–south arterial thoroughfares in the city of Edmonton, Canada. Numbered streets run north-south with street numbers increasing to the west. In 1982 a quadrant system was adopted. Meridian Street, portions which run adjacent to the east leg of Anthony Henday Drive, divide the east and west quadrants. Edmonton has three quadrants: northwest and northeast. Addresses on 33 Street and east have been encouraged to include NW to avoid confusion with addresses in the NE quadrant; the majority of major north-south streets are aligned with road allowances. 17 Street NE is a segmented street and services rural and industrial areas. The southern section continues into Sherwood Park as a major arterial road. North of Highway 15, the northern segment is part of Highway 28A and is part of Canada's National Highway System. 17 Street NW is a major arterial road in east Edmonton, west Strathcona County. It services Refinery Row, but the southern portion runs through developing residential areas.

It provides access to Strathcona Science Provincial Park. 17 Street crosses Anthony Henday Drive as 17 Street SW, continues to the city limits at 41 Avenue SW, continuing into Leduc County as Range Road 235. Neighbourhoods 34 Street is located in east Edmonton, west Strathcona County, it services both residential, industrial areas. The boundary between the City of Edmonton and Strathcona County runs on the west side of this right-of-way from Sherwood Park Freeway to Baseline Road. 34 Street crosses Anthony Henday Drive as 34 Street SW to the city limits at 41 Avenue SW, continuing into Leduc County as Range Road 240. Neighbourhoods 50 Street is located in the town of Beaumont and east Edmonton as three separate segments, it begins in Beaumont at Highway 625, where it continues south as Highway 814, enters Edmonton at 41 Avenue SW. 50 Street is segmented by the North Saskatchewan River and the northern leg of Anthony Henday Drive. The portion between Yellowhead Trail and Manning Drive is part of Highway 15.

66 Street is divided into two major segments. The southern segment begins at 41 Avenue SW and travels north through Mill Woods and becomes 75 Street at Whitemud Drive, it is part of a 39 km continuous roadway that runs from 41 Avenue SW to 33 Street NE and includes portions of 75 Street, Wayne Gretzky Drive, portions of Fort Road, as well as Manning Drive. The northern segment begins at Ada Boulevard, north of the North Saskatchewan River, past Londonderry Mall, to Valour Avenue in Sturgeon County outside of CFB Edmonton. Neighbourhoods 75 Street is part of the inner ring road, it is part of a 39 km continuous roadway that runs from 41 Avenue SW to 33 Street NE and the southern portion of 66 Street, Wayne Gretzky Drive, portions of Fort Road, as well as Manning Drive. 82 Street is a major arterial road in north Edmonton. It ends at Valour Avenue in Sturgeon County at CFB Edmonton. Neighbourhoods 83 Street and Connors Road is a major arterial road in east Edmonton, it connects Downtown Edmonton with its mature southeastern neighbourhoods.

83 Street travels north. On the north side of the Bonnie Doon Shopping Centre, it intersects 85 Street and 90 Avenue at a five exit roundabout known as the Bonnie Doon Traffic Circle; the roadway turns northeast as Connors Road towards downtown. At 95 Avenue it becomes a 3 lane road with a centre reversible lane and descends into the North Saskatchewan River valley, intersecting Scona Road and 98 Avenue at an interchange. Travellers have the option to cross the North Saskatchewan River using either the James MacDonald Bridge or the Low Level Bridge. 83 Street and Connors Road used to be signed as Highway 14A between Whyte Avenue and the Low Level Bridge due to its connection with downtown. The designation was phased out in the 1970s. Neighbourhoods 91 Street is a major arterial road in south Edmonton, its northern terminus travels south along the western edge of Mill Woods. South of Anthony Henday Drive it becomes 91 Street SW and becomes Ewing Trail south of 25 Avenue SW. At 41 Avenue SW, the roadway enters Leduc County where it becomes the Nisku Spine Road, a developing arterial road that presently connects with Nisku and will connect Highway 2A south of Leduc.91 Street is part of a cancelled freeway plan where it would run from Highway 2 near Gateway Park to downtown Edmonton via the Mill Creek Ravine.

Neighbourhoods 97 Street is a major arterial road in north Edmonton, Canada. It is used to take vehicles in and out of Downtown Edmonton to the city's northern suburban neighbourhoods and to the region's main military installation, CFB Edmonton. North of Yellowhead Trail, it is designated as part of Highway 28. 99 Street is a major arterial road in south Edmonton. It begins as Parsons Road at 91 Street in the Ellerslie area and travels north past the eastern edge of South Edmonton Common. At 34 Avenue, the roadway becomes 99 Street and serves the industrial areas adjacent to the CP rail yards and mature residential areas near Old Strathcona. At Saskatchewan Drive, the roadway becomes Scona Road and descends into the North Saskatchewan River valley, intersecting Connors Road and 98 Avenue at an interchange. Travellers have the option

Rush Replay X 3

Rush Replay X 3 is a DVD box set of three separate filmed concert presentations by the Canadian band Rush, released on June 13, 2006. The three shows presented are Exit... Stage Left, Grace Under Pressure Tour, A Show of Hands, which were released individually in 1982, 1985, 1989 on VHS and Laserdisc. For Replay X 3, each filmed concert has been remixed in 5.1 surround sound by Rush guitarist and co-producer Alex Lifeson. The box set includes a unreleased CD audio version of the Grace Under Pressure Tour video, a set of reprinted tour books for each concert. Rush Replay X 3 debuted at #1 on the Billboard Music Video charts, making it the third consecutive Rush DVD release to reach #1 on that particular Billboard chart, after Rush in Rio and R30.. Intro - 2:15 "Limelight" - 4:38 "Tom Sawyer" - 5:00 "The Trees" - 4:47 "Xanadu" - 12:32 "Red Barchetta" - 6:37 "Freewill" - 5:50 "Closer to the Heart" - 3:30 "YYZ" - 1:25 "By-Tor and the Snow Dog" - 4:13 "In the End" - 1:42 "In the Mood" - 1:35 "2112: Finale" - 2:42 Intro "The Spirit of Radio" "The Enemy Within" "The Weapon" "Witch Hunt" "New World Man" "Distant Early Warning" "Red Sector A" "Closer to the Heart" "YYZ" "2112: Temples Of Syrinx" "Tom Sawyer" "Vital Signs" "Finding My Way" "In the Mood"Rush Replay X 3 includes an audio CD of the above show.

Box sets purchased from Best Buy contain the following exclusive audio CD tracks: "Limelight" and "Closer to the Heart" from Exit... Stage Left and "The Spirit of Radio" and "Tom Sawyer" from the A Show of Hands video soundtracks. However, the track listing on the Best Buy version of X 3 does not list any of the additional four tracks. Intro "The Big Money" "Marathon" "Turn the Page" "Prime Mover" "Manhattan Project" "Closer to the Heart" "Red Sector A" "Force Ten" "Mission" "Territories" "YYZ" † "The Rhythm Method" "The Spirit of Radio" "Tom Sawyer" "2112 Overture" "The Temples of Syrinx" "La Villa Strangiato" "In the Mood"† The DVD does not list "YYZ" in the track listing and groups it together with the song "Territories". Note: The DVD version of A Show of Hands contains the full program of the VHS version; the Official Rush Replay x3 Homepage

Ramesh L. Nadkarni

Ramesh Laxman Nadkarni was a Hindustani classical music singer from Jogeshwari. Nadkarni a disciple of Aman Ali Khan had composed over Ragas, he was honored for his dedicated lifelong service to classical music and was awarded a fellowship by Sursingar Sansad, Mumbai. He was part of BHENDI BAZAR GHARANA. Ramesh was born in Mumbai in 1921 to a Chitrapur Saraswat Brahmin family from Bankikodla-Hanehalli, his father Laxman Nadkarni was an employee of the mint facility at Hyderabad. Ramesh spent his childhood in Bankikodla. After completing his middle school, he came to Mumbai to study music, his mother Uma a devotional singer inspired young Ramesh to study Hindustani music. After graduating from the University of Mumbai, he continued his music interest to earn Sangeeta Pravaeena. Nadkarni had become a disciple of Aman Ali Khan. Ramesh was married to Sushila Balwally from Ankola. At the age of 30, Ramesh came back to his village and served as a music teacher of the A. H. School, Bankikodla a school at his village until 1957.

During his stay at Bankikodla, he taught English, sanskrit including music at school. At the age of 37, AIR hired Ramesh Nadkarni as a music producer in Cuttack, he spent two decades working for AIR at various places including Indore, New Delhi and Mumbai where he retired as a director of AIR. Nadkarni wrote a biography of Mallikarjun Mansur in Kannada titled Nanna Ras Yatre. Nadkarni was handicapped with Asthma but he knew how to get his own way, he dedicated his life for writing and singing Ragas and melodies and died on 7 September 1995. Nadkarni is survived by his wife, two children who live in Mumbai and disciples like Sairam Iyer, Sakuntala Narsimhan, Devendra Murdeshwar, Mahendra Kapoor and Shaila Piplapure. Madanlal Vyas, a musicologist, music critic and writer, in his article titled "MUSICOLOGIST AND TALENTED MUSICIAN - RAMESH NADKARNI", has given a detailed account of his musical journey. In the souvenir published in October 1984 in Mumbai, on the occasion of felicitation to Nadkarni on his 61st birthday, several notable personalities like S. R. Ekkundi and Gopal H. Gaonkar praised Nadkarny's contributions to the fields of music.

The meaning in English of this composition is somewhat as below. You should practice to sing them melodiously; the words of your composition should be well-interwoven in the rhythmic patters. I say that, while singing, you must watch your breath. If you follow these, you would present ripples of good and enjoyable music