Pyrrho, was a Greek philosopher of Classical Antiquity and is credited as being the first Greek skeptic philosopher. Pyrrho was from Elis, on the Ionian Sea, Diogenes Laertius, quoting from Apollodorus of Athens, says that Pyrrho was at first a painter, and that pictures by him were exhibited in the gymnasium at Elis. Later he was diverted to philosophy by the works of Democritus and his doctrines were recorded in the writings of his pupil Timon of Phlius. Unfortunately these works are mostly lost, today Pyrrhos ideas are known mainly through the book Outlines of Pyrrhonism written by the Greek physician Sextus Empiricus. Pyrrho is renowned for creating the first formal approach to skepticism in Western Philosophy, Pyrrho summarized his philosophy as follows, Whoever wants to live well must consider these three questions, how are pragmata by nature. Secondly, what attitude should we adopt towards them, what will be the outcome for those who have this attitude. Pyrrhos answer is that As for pragmata they are all adiaphora, astathmēta, neither our sense-perceptions nor our doxai tell us the truth or lie, so we certainly should not rely on them.
Rather, we should be adoxastous and akradantous, pyrrhonians can be subdivided into those who are ephectic, zetetic, or aporetic. Callisthenes Greco-Buddhism Nausiphanes This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Algra, K. Barnes, J. Mansfeld, J. and Schofield, the Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy, Cambridge University Press,1999. Annas and Barnes, The Modes of Scepticism, Ancient Texts and Modern Interpretations, Pyrrhos Encounter with Early Buddhism in Central Asia, Princeton University Press and Oxford,2015. Bett, Aristocles on Timon on Pyrrho, The Text, Its Logic and its Credibility Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 12, Richard, What did Pyrrho Think about the Nature of the Divine and the Good. Bett, Pyrrho, His Antecedents, and His Legacy, Myles, The Skeptical Tradition, University of California Press,1983. Burnyeat and Frede, The Original Sceptics, A Controversy, doomen, The Problems of Scepticism Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy 10, 36-52.
Halkias, The Self-immolation of Kalanos and other Luminous Encounters among Greeks, journal of the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, Vol. VIII,2015, 163-186. Kuzminski, Pyrrhonism, How the Ancient Greeks Reinvented Buddhism, Hellenistic Philosophy, Epicureans, University of California Press,1986. Long, A. A. and Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers, Gisela, On the difference between the Pyrrhonists and the Academics in G. Striker, Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics, Cambridge University Press,1996, 135-149. Striker, Sceptical strategies in G. Striker, Essays on Hellenistic Epistemology and Ethics, Cambridge University Press,1996, 92-115
The period is usually considered to have begun with the publication of the Ninety-five Theses by Luther in 1517 to the Thirty Years War and ended with the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The Protestant position, would come to incorporate doctrinal changes such as sola scriptura, the initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. The spread of Gutenbergs printing press provided the means for the dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the Lutherans and Calvinists, Lutheran churches were founded mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia, while the Reformed ones were founded in Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The new movement influenced the Church of England decisively after 1547 under Edward VI and Elizabeth I, there were reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation, which gave rise to the Anabaptist and other Pietistic movements. The Roman Catholic Church responded with a Counter-Reformation initiated by the Council of Trent, much work in battling Protestantism was done by the well-organised new order of the Jesuits.
In general, Northern Europe, with the exception of most of Ireland, southern Europe remained Roman Catholic, while Central Europe was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the Thirty Years War, which left it devastated. The oldest Protestant churches, such as the Unitas Fratrum and Moravian Church, the Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to simony, the reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the Churchs hierarchy, which included the pope. Unrest due to the Great Schism of Western Christianity excited wars between princes, uprisings among the peasants, and widespread concern over corruption in the Church, New perspectives came from John Wycliffe at Oxford University and from Jan Hus at the Charles University in Prague.
Hus rejected indulgences and adopted a doctrine of justification by grace through faith alone, the Roman Catholic Church officially concluded this debate at the Council of Constance by condemning Hus, who was executed by burning despite a promise of safe-conduct. Wycliffe was posthumously condemned as a heretic and his corpse exhumed and burned in 1428, the Council of Constance confirmed and strengthened the traditional medieval conception of church and empire. The council did not address the national tensions or the theological tensions stirred up during the century and could not prevent schism. Pope Sixtus IV established the practice of selling indulgences to be applied to the dead, Pope Alexander VI was one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes. He was the father of seven children, including Lucrezia and Cesare Borgia, in response to papal corruption, particularly the sale of indulgences, Luther wrote The Ninety-Five Theses. The Reformation was born of Luthers dual declaration – first, the discovering of Jesus and salvation by faith alone, the Protestant reformers were unanimous in agreement and this understanding of prophecy furnished importance to their deeds.
It was the point and the battle cry that made the Reformation nearly unassailable
Church of England
The Church of England is the state church of England. The Archbishop of Canterbury is the most senior cleric, although the monarch is the supreme governor, the Church of England is the mother church of the international Anglican Communion. It dates its establishment as a church to the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent led by Augustine of Canterbury. The English church renounced papal authority when Henry VIII sought to secure an annulment from Catherine of Aragon in the 1530s, the English Reformation accelerated under Edward VIs regents before a brief restoration of papal authority under Queen Mary I and King Philip. This is expressed in its emphasis on the teachings of the early Church Fathers, as formalised in the Apostles, Nicene, in the earlier phase of the English Reformation there were both Catholic martyrs and radical Protestant martyrs. The phases saw the Penal Laws punish Roman Catholic and nonconforming Protestants, in the 17th century and religious disputes raised the Puritan and Presbyterian faction to control of the church, but this ended with the Restoration.
Papal recognition of George III in 1766 led to religious tolerance. Since the English Reformation, the Church of England has used a liturgy in English, the church contains several doctrinal strands, the main three known as Anglo-Catholic and Broad Church. Tensions between theological conservatives and progressives find expression in debates over the ordination of women and homosexuality, the church includes both liberal and conservative clergy and members. The governing structure of the church is based on dioceses, each presided over by a bishop, within each diocese are local parishes. The General Synod of the Church of England is the body for the church and comprises bishops, other clergy. Its measures must be approved by both Houses of Parliament, according to tradition, Christianity arrived in Britain in the 1st or 2nd century, during which time southern Britain became part of the Roman Empire. The earliest historical evidence of Christianity among the native Britons is found in the writings of such early Christian Fathers as Tertullian, three Romano-British bishops, including Restitutus, are known to have been present at the Council of Arles in 314.
Others attended the Council of Sardica in 347 and that of Ariminum in 360, Britain was the home of Pelagius, who opposed Augustine of Hippos doctrine of original sin. Consequently, in 597, Pope Gregory I sent the prior of the Abbey of St Andrews from Rome to evangelise the Angles and this event is known as the Gregorian mission and is the date the Church of England generally marks as the beginning of its formal history. A archbishop, the Greek Theodore of Tarsus, contributed to the organisation of Christianity in England, the Church of England has been in continuous existence since the days of St Augustine, with the Archbishop of Canterbury as its episcopal head. Despite the various disruptions of the Reformation and the English Civil War, while some Celtic Christian practices were changed at the Synod of Whitby, the Christian Church in the British Isles was under papal authority from earliest times. The Synod of Whitby established the Roman date for Easter and the Roman style of monastic tonsure in Britain and this meeting of the ecclesiastics with Roman customs with local bishops was summoned in 664 at Saint Hildas double monastery of Streonshalh, called Whitby Abbey
Good and evil
In religion, ethics and psychology good and evil is a very common dichotomy. In cultures with Manichaean and Abrahamic religious influence, evil is usually perceived as the dualistic antagonistic opposite of good, Evil, in a general context, is the absence or opposite of that which is described as being good. Often, evil is used to denote profound immorality, in certain religious contexts, evil has been described as a supernatural force. Definitions of evil vary, as does the analysis of its motives, elements that are commonly associated with evil involve unbalanced behavior involving expediency, ignorance, or neglect. How to achieve good is discussed in the social sciences, every language has a word expressing good in the sense of having the right or desirable quality and bad in the sense undesirable. A sense of judgment and a distinction right and wrong, good. This idea developed into a religion which spawned many sects, some of which embraced an extreme dualistic belief that the world should be shunned.
Morality in this absolute sense solidifies in the dialogues of Plato, the idea is further developed in Late Antiquity by Neoplatonists and Church Fathers. Medieval theology was shaped by St. Augustine of Hippo. According to the definition of St. Augustine of Hippo sin is a word, deed. Other Germanic forms include Middle English evel, ufel, Old Frisian evel, Old Saxon ubil, Old High German ubil, differing views exist as to why evil might arise. Many religious and philosophical traditions claim that evil behavior is an aberration that results from the human condition. Sometimes, evil is attributed to the existence of free will, Some argue that evil itself is ultimately based in an ignorance of truth. A variety of Enlightenment thinkers have alleged the opposite, by suggesting that evil is learned as a consequence of social structures. In physics and statistical thermodynamics, the property of goodness or order is referred to as a state of low entropy. Confucianisms primary concern is with correct social relationships and the behavior appropriate to the learned or superior man, thus evil would correspond to wrong behavior.
By good, I understand that which we know is useful to us. By evil, on the contrary I understand that which we certainly know hinders us from possessing anything that is good
Worship is an act of religious devotion usually directed towards a deity. An act of worship may be performed individually, in an informal or formal group, or by a designated leader. The word is derived from the Old English weorþscipe, meaning worship, honour shown to an object, Worship in Buddhism may take innumerable forms given the doctrine of skillful means. Buddhist Devotion is an important part of the practice of most Buddhists, according to a spokesman of the Sasana Council of Burma, devotion to Buddhist spiritual practices inspires devotion to the Triple Gem. Most Buddhists use ritual in pursuit of their spiritual aspirations, in Buddhism, puja are expressions of honour and devotional attention. Acts of puja include bowing, making offerings and chanting and these devotional acts are generally performed daily at home as well as during communal festivals and Uposatha days at a temple. Meditation is a form of worship in Buddhism. This practice is focused on the step of the Eightfold Path that ultimately leads to self awakening.
Meditation promotes self-awareness and exploration of the mind and spirit, Buddhist meditation had combined samatha and vipasyana to create a complete mind and body experience. By stopping ones everyday activities and focusing on something simple, the mind can open, by practicing the step of vipasyana, one does not achieve the final stage of awareness, but rather approaches one step closer. Mindful meditation teaches one to stop reacting quickly to thoughts and external objects that present themselves, although in traditional Buddhist faith, enlightenment is the desired end goal of meditation, it is more of a cycle in a literal sense that helps individuals better understand their minds. For example, meditation leads to understanding, leading to kindness, leading to peace, Anglican devotions are private prayers and practices used by Anglican Christians to promote spiritual growth and communion with God. Among members of the Anglican Communion, private devotional habits vary widely, depending on personal preference, roman Catholic devotions are external practices of piety which are not part of the official liturgy of the Catholic Church but are part of the popular spiritual practices of Catholics.
Catholic devotions do not become part of worship, even if they are performed within a Catholic church, in a group. The Congregation for Divine Worship at the Vatican publishes a Directory on Popular Piety, the church service is the gathering together of Christians to be taught the Word of God and encouraged in their faith. Technically, the church in church service refers to the gathering of the rather than to the building in which it takes place. In Christianity, worship is reverent honor and homage paid to God, in the New Testament various words are used for worship. The word proskuneo to worship means to bow down to Gods or kings, in the New Testament various words are used for worship
Christianity is a Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ, who serves as the focal point for the religion. It is the worlds largest religion, with over 2.4 billion followers, or 33% of the global population, Christians believe that Jesus is the Son of God and the savior of humanity whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Christian theology is summarized in creeds such as the Apostles Creed and his incarnation, earthly ministry and resurrection are often referred to as the gospel, meaning good news. The term gospel refers to accounts of Jesuss life and teaching, four of which—Matthew, Luke. Christianity is an Abrahamic religion that began as a Second Temple Judaic sect in the mid-1st century, following the Age of Discovery, Christianity spread to the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world through missionary work and colonization. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization, throughout its history, Christianity has weathered schisms and theological disputes that have resulted in many distinct churches and denominations.
Worldwide, the three largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the denominations of Protestantism. There are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible, concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds. They began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another. Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church, the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, the Apostles Creed is the most widely accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists and this particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries.
Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator, each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Most Christians accept the use of creeds, and subscribe to at least one of the mentioned above. The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God, Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin
The Temperance movement is a social movement against the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The temperance movement began in the early 19th century, before this, although there were pieces published against drunkenness and excess, total abstinence from alcohol was very rarely advocated or practiced. There was a concentration on hard spirits rather than on abstinence from alcohol, an early temperance movement began during the American Revolution in Connecticut and New York state, with farmers forming associations to ban whiskey distilling. The movement spread to eight states, advocating temperance rather than abstinence, the American Temperance Society was formed in 1826, within 12 years claiming more than 8,000 local groups and over 1,250,000 members. He mainly concentrated his fire on the elimination of spirits rather than wine, on 14 August 1829 he wrote a letter in the Belfast Telegraph publicizing his views on temperance. He formed the Ulster Temperance Movement with other Presbyterian clergy, the 1830s saw a tremendous growth in temperance groups, not just in England and the United States, but in British colonies, especially New Zealand and Australia.
In the 1830s a more form of temperance emerged called teetotalism. This movement originated in Preston, England, in 1833, the Catholic temperance movement started in 1838 when the Irish priest Theobald Mathew established the Teetotal Abstinence Society in 1838. In 1838, the working class movement for universal suffrage for men, Chartism. During the Victorian period, the movement became more radical, advocating the legal prohibition of all alcohol. It was perceived to be tied in both religious renewal and progressive politics, particularly female suffrage. In 1855, an organisation was formed amidst an explosion of Band of Hope work. Meetings were held in churches throughout the UK and included Christian teaching, the group campaigned politically for the curtailment of the influence of pubs and brewers. In this period there was success at restricting or banning the sale of alcohol in many parts of the United States, New Zealand. The Temperance movement was a significant mass movement at this time, numerous periodicals devoted to temperance were published and temperance theatre, which had started in the 1820s, became an important part of the American cultural landscape at this time.
The Salvation Army quickly spread internationally, maintaining an emphasis on abstinence, many of the most important prohibitionist groups, such as the avowedly prohibitionist United Kingdom Alliance and the US-based Womans Christian Temperance Union, were started in this time. In 1898 the Pioneer Total Abstinence Association was formed by James Cullen, an Irish Catholic, the Anti-Saloon League was an organization that began in 1893 in Ohio. A favorite goal of the British Temperance movement was to reduce the heavy drinking by closing as many pubs as possible
Morality is the differentiation of intentions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper. Morality may be synonymous with goodness or rightness. Moral philosophy includes moral ontology, or the origin of morals, as well as moral epistemology, an example of normative ethical philosophy is the Golden Rule, which states that, One should treat others as one would like others to treat oneself. Immorality is the opposition to morality, while amorality is variously defined as an unawareness of, indifference toward. Ethics is the branch of philosophy which addresses questions of morality, the word ethics is commonly used interchangeably with morality, and sometimes it is used more narrowly to mean the moral principles of a particular tradition, group, or individual. It does not connote objective claims of right or wrong, descriptive ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense. In its normative sense, morality refers to whatever is actually right or wrong, normative ethics is the branch of philosophy which studies morality in this sense.
For example, while they might concede that forces of social conformity significantly shape individuals moral decisions and this may be the philosophical view propounded by ethical naturalists, however not all moral realists accept that position. Moral anti-realism, on the hand, holds that moral statements either fail or do not even attempt to report objective moral facts. Some forms of non-cognitivism and ethical subjectivism, while considered anti-realist in the robust sense used here, are considered realist in the sense synonymous with moral universalism, celia Green made a distinction between tribal and territorial morality. She characterizes the latter as predominantly negative and proscriptive, it defines a persons territory, including his or her property and dependents, apart from these proscriptions, territorial morality is permissive, allowing the individual whatever behaviour does not interfere with the territory of another. By contrast, tribal morality is prescriptive, imposing the norms of the collective on the individual, Green relates the development of territorial morality to the rise of the concept of private property, and the ascendancy of contract over status.
Some observers hold that individuals apply distinct sets of rules to people depending on their membership of an in-group or an out-group. Some biologists and evolutionary psychologists believe this in-group/out-group discrimination has evolved because it enhances group survival and this belief has been confirmed by simple computational models of evolution. In simulations this discrimination can result in both unexpected cooperation towards the in-group and irrational hostility towards the out-group, falger have argued that nationalism and patriotism are forms of this in-group/out-group boundary. Jonathan Haidt has noted that experimental observation indicating an in-group criterion provides one moral foundation substantially used by conservatives and Seligman approach the anthropological view looking across cultures, geo-cultural areas and across millennia. They conclude that certain virtues have prevailed in all cultures they examined, the major virtues they identified include wisdom / knowledge, humanity, justice and transcendence.
Each of these includes several divisions, for instance humanity includes love and social intelligence
Celebrity status is often associated with wealth, while fame often provides opportunities to make money. Successful careers in sports and entertainment are commonly associated with celebrity status, People may become celebrities due to media attention on their lifestyle, wealth, or controversial actions, or for their connection to a famous person. Throughout recorded history there are accounts of people who attracted the trappings of celebrity which would be recognized today, athletes in Ancient Greece were welcomed home as heroes, had songs and poems written in their honor, and received free food and gifts from those seeking celebrity endorsement. Ancient Rome similarly lauded actors and notorious gladiators, and Julius Caesar appeared on a coin in his own lifetime, in the 12th century, Thomas Becket became famous following his murder. He was promoted by the Christian Church as a martyr and images of him, the cult of personality can be traced back to the Romantics in the 18th Century, whose livelihood as artists and poets depended on the currency of their reputation.
The establishment of cultural hot-spots became an important factor in the process of generating fame, for example, newspapers started including gossip columns and certain clubs and events became places to be seen in order to receive publicity. The movie industry spread around the globe in the first half of the 20th Century, celebrity wasnt always tied to actors in films, especially when cinema was starting out as a medium. The second half of the century saw television and popular music bring new forms of celebrity, such as the rock star, unlike movies, television created celebrities who were not primarily actors, for example, talk show hosts and news readers. In the sixties and early seventies the book publishing industry began to persuade major celebrities to put their names on autobiographies and other titles in a genre called celebrity publishing. In most cases the book was not written by the celebrity but by a ghost-writer and regions with a significant population may have their own independent celebrity systems, with distinct hierarchies.
For example, the Canadian province of Quebec, which is French-speaking, has its own system of French-speaking television, movie, a person who garners a degree of fame in one culture may be considered less famous or obscure in another. S. Whereas the francophone Canadian singer Celine Dion is well known in both the French-speaking world and in the United States, regions within a country, or cultural communities can have their own celebrity systems, especially in linguistically or culturally distinct regions such as Quebec or Wales. Regional radio personalities, politicians or community leaders may be local or regional celebrities and these informal rankings indicate a placing within a hierarchy. However, due to differing levels of celebrity in different regions, a Brazilian actor might be a B-list action film actor in the U. S. but an A-list star in Portugal. Some elements are associated with fame, such as appearing on the cover of Time, being spoofed in Mad, having a wax statue in Madame Tussauds, certain people are known even to people unfamiliar with the area in which they excelled.
If one has to name a famous boxer, they are likely to name Muhammad Ali or Mike Tyson. The same phenomenon is true for fictional characters, Spider-Man, The Hulk, Wonder Woman and Batman represent super heroes to a far wider audience than that of the comics and graphic novels in which they appear. Disney have themeparks around the world rely on the fame of its creations headed by Mickey Mouse
Law and Gospel
In Protestant Christianity, the relationship between Law and Gospel—Gods Law and the Gospel of Jesus Christ—is a major topic in Lutheran and Reformed theology. It is used as a principle of biblical interpretation and a guiding principle in homiletics. It is the supersession of the Old Covenant by the New Covenant, sometimes the issue is discussed under the headings of Law and Grace and Grace, Spirit and Letter, and ministry of death/condemnation and ministry of the Spirit/righteousness. Martin Luther wrote, whoever knows well this art of distinguishing between Law and Gospel, him place at the head and call him a doctor of Holy Scripture, throughout the Lutheran Age of Orthodoxy this hermeneutical discipline was considered foundational and important by Lutheran theologians. This distinction was the first article in Patricks Places by Patrick Hamilton, the Formula of Concord distinguished three uses, or purposes, in the Law in Article VI. It states, he Law was given to men for three reasons and that thereby outward discipline might be maintained against wild, disobedient men that men thereby may be led to the knowledge of their sins that after they are regenerate.
Confessional Lutheranism teaches that the Law cannot be used to deny the Gospel, the three uses of the Law are, Curb - Through fear of punishment, the Law keeps the sinful nature of both Christians and non-Christians under check. This does not stop sin, since the sin is committed when the heart desires to do what is wrong. Mirror - The Law serves as a reflection of what God created the human heart. It shows anyone who compares his/her life to Gods requirement for perfection that he/she is sinful, guide - This use of the law that applies only to Christians. The law becomes the believers helper, empowered by the gospel truth of forgiveness and righteousness in Christ, the believers new self eagerly desires to live to please the Triune God. The distinction between law and gospel is a standard formulation in Reformed theology, though in recent years some have characterized it as distinctively Lutheran, zacharias Ursinus sharply contrasted the law and gospel as the chief and general divisions of the holy scriptures in his commentary on the Heidelberg Catechism.
Louis Berkhof called the law and the gospel the two parts of the Word of God as a means of grace and Gospel are found in both testaments. In his Institutes of the Christian Religion, the Reformer John Calvin distinguished three uses in the Law, Calvin wrote the following, o make the whole matter clearer, let us survey briefly the function and use of what is called the moral law. Now, so far as I understand it, it consists of three parts and it warns, informs and lastly condemns, every man of his own unrighteousness. It functions by fear of punishment to restrain certain men who are untouched by any care for what is just and it admonishes believers and urges them on in well-doing. This scheme is the same as the Formula of Concord, with the exception that the first, in Reformed scholasticism the order is the same as for Lutherans. The three uses are called, The usus politicus sive civilis, the political or civil use, is a restraint on sin and it is part of Gods general revelation or common grace for unbelievers as well as believers
Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy that flourished throughout the Roman and Greek world until the 3rd century AD. Stoicism is predominantly a philosophy of ethics which is informed by its system of logic. It was founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early 3rd century BC. Because of this, the Stoics presented their philosophy as a way of life, to live a good life, one had to understand the rules of the natural order since they taught that everything was rooted in nature. Later Stoics—such as Seneca and Epictetus—emphasized that, because virtue is sufficient for happiness, from its founding, Stoic doctrine was popular during the Roman Empire—and its adherents included the Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It experienced a decline after Christianity became the religion in the 4th century. Over the centuries, it has seen revivals, notably in the Renaissance, the Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic, monistic physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the focus of human knowledge.
A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individuals ethical and moral well-being and this viewpoint was described as Classical Pantheism. Beginning at around 301 BC, Zeno taught philosophy at the Stoa Poikile, Zenos ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, had been a disciple of Socrates. Zenos most influential follower was Chrysippus, who was responsible for the molding of what is now called Stoicism, Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control. Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into three phases, Early Stoa, from the founding of the school by Zeno to Antipater, middle Stoa, including Panaetius and Posidonius. Late Stoa, including Musonius Rufus, Epictetus, no complete work by any Stoic philosopher survives from the first two phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survive, diodorus Cronus, who was one of Zenos teachers, is considered the philosopher who first introduced and developed an approach to logic now known as propositional logic.
This is an approach to logic based on statements or propositions, rather than terms, Chrysippus developed a system that became known as Stoic logic and included a deductive system, Stoic Syllogistic, which was considered a rival to Aristotles Syllogistic. New interest in Stoic logic came in the 20th century, when important developments in logic were based on propositional logic, susanne Bobzien wrote, The many close similarities between Chrysippus philosophical logic and that of Gottlob Frege are especially striking. The Stoics held that all being – though not all things – is material and they accepted the distinction between concrete bodies and abstract ones, but rejected Aristotles belief that purely incorporeal being exists. Thus, they accepted Anaxagoras idea that if an object is hot, unlike Aristotle, they extended the idea to cover all accidents