The +Teamgeist was the official match ball for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany. The plus sign in its name was introduced for trademark purposes, since the regular German word Teamgeist, meaning "team spirit", could not be trademarked; the ball was designed by the Adidas Innovation Team and the Molten Corporation and is made by Adidas, which has provided the balls used in all World Cup matches since the 1970 World Cup when the Telstar was introduced. The +Teamgeist ball differs from previous balls in having just 14 curved panels, rather than the 32 that have been standard since 1970. Like the 32 panel Roteiro which preceded it, the +TeamGeist panels are bonded together, rather than stitched, it is claimed to be rounder and to perform more uniformly regardless of where it is hit, being waterproof, it does not get heavier in wet weather. Each of the 32 qualified federations received 40 match balls for training purposes. Match balls for the 2006 FIFA World Cup were personalized with the name of the stadium, the teams, the match date, the kick-off time of each individual game, under a protective coating.
A special match ball was used for the final game — the "+Teamgeist Berlin". The design is the same as the other match balls, but accented with black and white details. Both qualified federations received 20 of these versions for training purposes. There is a gold +Teamgeist ball. Although it had been planned to include an electronic tracking system in the ball, this was abandoned after a trial at the 2005 Under-17 World Championship in Peru; the Teamgeist was the first World Cup ball to not have the traditional 32 panels. Instead, the ball is made up of 14 panels, which means that the number of three-panel touch points is reduced by 60% and the total length of the panel lines falls by over 15%. Building on the introduction of thermal bonding technology in 2004, the Teamgeist ball is the first time Adidas has used this in a World Cup. Loughborough University conducted extensive comparative testing on the ball, along with the Adidas football laboratory in Scheinfeld, Germany. While Swiss international Johann Vogel and David Beckham, both sponsored by Adidas, others were reported to be happy with the new ball, it was criticized by many top players before the World Cup.
Players such as Brazil's Roberto Carlos and Paul Robinson of England were among the critics of the new ball, claiming it was too light and had a vastly different performance when wet. The ball has fewer seams; the "Wawa Aba" ball of the Africa Cup of Nations was criticised by the player of the tournament, Hosny Abd Rabo of Egypt, who said that ball was bad for passing. The Teamgeist 2 was introduced by Adidas as an update of the ball during the 2007 Club World Cup in Japan; the ball was formally introduced in 2008. Adidas has produced Teamgeist 2 for various competitions. Variants of this ball include the Adidas Teamgeist 2 Magnus Moenia, used in the 2008 Olympic Games, as well as the related Adidas Europass used for UEFA Euro 2008. Association football Adidas Europass Adidas Teamgeist site Teamgeist explained
Flag of France
The flag of France is a tricolour flag featuring three vertical bands coloured blue and red. It is known to English speakers as the French Tricolour or the Tricolour; the Tricolour has become one of the most influential flags in history, with its three-colour scheme being copied by many other nations, both in Europe and the rest of the world. The royal government used many flags, the best known being a blue shield and gold fleur-de-lis on a white background, or state flag. Early in the French Revolution, the Paris militia, which played a prominent role in the storming of the Bastille, wore a cockade of blue and red, the city's traditional colours. According to French general Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, white was the "ancient French colour" and was added to the militia cockade to create a tricolour, or national, cockade; this cockade became part of the uniform of the National Guard, which succeeded the militia and was commanded by Lafayette. The colours and design of the cockade are the basis of the Tricolour flag, adopted in 1790.
The only difference was. A modified design by Jacques-Louis David was adopted in 1794; the royal white flag was used during the Bourbon restoration from 1815 to 1830. Article 2 of the French constitution of 1958 states that "the national emblem is the tricolour flag, white, red". In modern representations, two versions are in use, one darker and the other lighter: both are used but the light version is far more common on digital displays; the light version was introduced in 1976 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing for use in televised governmental speeches. It is sometimes used on official State buildings. Town halls, public buildings and barracks, on the other hand, are adorned with the darker version of the flag; the flag is one and a half times wider than its height and, except in the French Navy, has stripes of equal width. The three stripes of the flag were not wide, being in the proportions 30, 33 and 37. Under Napoleon I, the proportions were changed to make the stripes' width equal, but by a regulation dated 17 May 1853, the navy went back to using the 30:33:37 proportions, which it now continues to use, as the flapping of the flag makes portions farther from the halyard seem smaller.
Blue and red are the traditional colours of Paris, used on the city's coat of arms. Blue is identified with red with Saint Denis. At the storming of the Bastille in 1789, the Paris militia wore red cockades on their hats. White had long featured prominently on French flags and is described as the "ancient French colour" by Lafayette. White was added to the "revolutionary" colours of the militia cockade to "nationalise" the design, thus creating the tricolour cockade. Although Lafayette identified the white stripe with the nation, other accounts identify it with the monarchy. Lafayette denied that the flag contains any reference to the red-and-white livery of the Duc d'Orléans. Despite this, Orléanists adopted the tricolour as their own. Blue and red are associated with the Virgin Mary, the patroness of France, were the colours of the oriflamme; the colours of the French flag may represent the three main estates of the Ancien Régime. Blue, as the symbol of class, comes first and red, representing the nobility, comes last.
Both extreme colours are situated on each side of white referring to a superior order. Lafayette's tricolour cockade was adopted in a moment of national unity that soon faded. Royalists began wearing white cockades and flying white flags, while the Jacobins, the Socialists, flew the red flag; the tricolour, which combines royalist white with republican red, came to be seen as a symbol of moderation and of a nationalism that transcended factionalism. The French government website states that the white field was the colour of the king, while blue and red were the colours of Paris; the three colours are taken to represent the three elements of the revolutionary motto, liberté, égalité, fraternité. In the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks, many famous landmarks and stadiums were illuminated in the flag colours to honour the victims. During the early Middle Ages, the oriflamme, the flag of Saint Denis, was used—red, with two, three, or five spikes, it was the royal banner under the Capetians.
It was stored in Saint-Denis abbey. French kings went forth into battle preceded either by Saint Martin's red cape, supposed to protect the monarch, or by the red banner of Saint Denis. During the Middle Ages, these colours came to be associated with the reigning house of France. In 1328, the coat-of-arms of the House of Valois was blue with gold fleurs-de-lis bordered in red. From this time on, the kings of France were represented in vignettes and manuscripts wearing a red gown under a blue coat decorated with gold fleurs-de-lis. During the Hundred Years' War, England was recognised by a red cross, Burgundy, a red saltire, France, a white cross; this cross could figure either on a red field. The blue field became the common standard for French armies; the French regiments were assigned the white cross as standard, with their proper colours in the c
The Adidas Samba is an indoor soccer shoe. It is among Adidas' most popular shoes, being the second highest selling Adidas design with over 35 million pairs sold worldwide, behind the Adidas Stan Smith, it has been produced in a variety of color schemes, yet the original black with three white stripes is by far the most popular. The shoe features a tan gumsole; the shoe was first produced in 1949 to enable association football players to train on icy, hard ground. Its original design featured the classic three stripes, as well as the gold trefoil on the foldable tongue; as years progressed, the Samba evolved into the Samba Millennium and the Samba'85. Classic models of the shoe are still in production, under the name Classic M; the original model is sometimes used for training, street play, futsal. Samba 62 Samba 85 Samba JP Samba NUA Samba MTL Samba 523 Samba OT-Tech The popularity of the Adidas Samba as a soccer shoe has caused it to move into popular culture worn as a fashion sneaker, it makes many appearances both on the silver screen and on television.
Some of these appearances include:Owen Wilson's character Randy Dupree wears a pair of Adidas Samba K the whole time in the 2006 film You, Me, Dupree. The song "Olé" by The Bouncing Souls features the lines: Lace your Sambas, get on out/Off we go to kick it about. Shia LaBeouf's character Sam Witwicky wears a pair of black Sambas in the 2009 film Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen; the shoe was a favourite in the early 1980s Liverpool football casuals/scally subculture. A few characters can be seen wearing Sambas during the training scenes in the 2000 film Remember the Titans, including Coach Herman Boone. Kevin Seconds, lead singer of American hardcore punk 7 Seconds is an avid fan of classic black Sambas and wears them at all live performances. Ashton Kutcher wears Adidas Sambas on That'70s Show. Freddie Mercury, the lead singer of Queen wore Adidas Hercules wrestling boots, similar to white Sambas during Live Aid in 1985. Eddie Murphy as Axel Foley is seen wearing a pair of white Adidas Country with green stripes in the 1984 film Beverly Hills Cop.
Adrian Grenier's character Vincent Chase, in HBO's Entourage, is seen wearing white Sambas with black stripes in Season 6 episode 10 "Berried Alive". Joseph Gordon-Levitt's character Wilee in the 2012 film Premium Rush can be seen wearing the Adidas Samba OG variant throughout the film. Jamie Bell's character Joey Cassidy in the 2012 film Man on a Ledge could be recognized wearing black Adidas Samba OG's throughout the story. Steven Yeun's character Glenn wears a pair of black Sambas in several episodes of AMC's The Walking Dead. Taylor Lautner's character Cam wears a pair of black Sambas at the beginning of the 2015 film Tracers; these have the Adidas Samba Super:Gary Windass in Coronation Street. Aiden Scotcher in Waterloo Road. Ewan McGregor wears a pair of burgundy adidas Samba Super Suede in Trainspotting in the role of Mark Renton, 1996
Adidas AG is a multinational corporation and headquartered in Herzogenaurach, that designs and manufactures shoes and accessories. It is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, the second largest in the world, after Nike, it is the holding company for the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade golf company, Runtastic, an Austrian fitness technology company and 8.33% of German football club Bayern Munich. Adidas' revenue for 2016 was listed at €19.29 billion. The company was started by Adolf Dassler in his mother's house. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. Dassler persuaded U. S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his handmade spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. In 1949, following a breakdown in the relationship between the brothers, Adolf created Adidas, Rudolf established Puma, which became Adidas' business rival.
Adidas' logo is three stripes, used on the company's clothing and shoe designs as a marketing aid. The branding, which Adidas bought in 1952 from Finnish sports company Karhu Sports, became so successful that Dassler described Adidas as "The three stripes company"; the brand name is uncapitalized and is stylized with a lower case "a". Adidas was founded by Adolf "Adi" Dassler who made sports shoes in his mother's scullery or laundry room in Herzogenaurach, Germany after his return from World War I. In July 1924, his older brother Rudolf joined the business, which became Dassler Brothers Shoe Factory; the electricity supply in Herzogenaurach was unreliable, so the brothers sometimes had to use pedal power from a stationary bicycle to run their equipment. Dassler assisted in the development of spiked running shoes for multiple athletic events. To enhance the quality of spiked athletic footwear, he transitioned from a previous model of heavy metal spikes to utilising canvas and rubber. In 1936, Dassler persuaded U.
S. sprinter Jesse Owens to use his hand made spikes at the 1936 Summer Olympics. Following Owens' four gold medals, the name and reputation of Dassler shoes became known to the world's sportsmen and their trainers. Business was successful and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes every year before World War II; the Dolbury factory, used for production of anti-tank weapons during the Second World War, was nearly destroyed in 1945 by US forces, but was spared when Dassler's wife, convinced the GIs that the company and its employees were only interested in manufacturing sports shoes. American occupying forces subsequently became major buyers of the Dassler brothers' shoes; the brothers split up in 1947 after relations between them had broken down, with Rudolf forming a new firm that he called Ruda – from Rudolf Dassler rebranded Puma, Dassler forming a company formally registered as Adidas AG from Adi Dassler on 18 August 1949. Although it is a popular urban myth that the name is an acronym for All Day I Dream About Sports, that phrase is a "backronym".
Puma SE and Adidas entered into a bitter business rivalry after the split. Indeed, the town of Herzogenaurach was divided on the issue, leading to the nickname "the town of bent necks"—people looked down to see which shoes strangers wore; the town's two football clubs were divided: ASV Herzogenaurach club was supported by Adidas, while 1 FC Herzogenaurach endorsed Rudolf's footwear. When handymen were called to Rudolf's home, they would deliberately wear Adidas shoes. Rudolf would tell them to pick out a pair of free Pumas; the two brothers were never reconciled and although both are now buried in the same cemetery, they are spaced as far apart as possible. In 1948, the first football match after World War II, several members of the West German national football team wore Puma boots, including the scorer of West Germany's first post-war goal, Herbert Burdenski. Four years at the 1952 Summer Olympics, 1500 metres runner Josy Barthel of Luxembourg won Puma's first Olympic gold in Helsinki, Finland.
At the 1960 Summer Olympics, Puma paid German sprinter Armin Hary to wear Pumas in the 100 meter sprint final. Hary had worn Adidas before and asked Adolf for payment; the German won gold in Pumas, but laced up Adidas for the medals ceremony, to the shock of the two Dassler brothers. Hary hoped to cash in from both. In 1952, following the 1952 Summer Olympics, Adidas acquired its signature 3-stripe logo from the Finnish athletic footwear brand Karhu Sports, for two bottles of whiskey and the equivalent of 1600 euros. After a period of trouble following the death of Adolf Dassler's son Horst Dassler in 1987, the company was bought in 1989 by French industrialist Bernard Tapie, for ₣1.6 billion, which Tapie borrowed. Tapie was at the time a famous specialist of rescuing bankrupt companies, an expertise on which he built his fortune. Tapie decided to move production offshore to Asia, he hired Madonna for promotion. He sent, from Christchurch, New Zealand, a shoe sales representative to Germany and met Adolf Dassler's descendants and was sent back with a few items to promote the company there.
In 1992, unable to pay the loan interest, Tapie mandated the Crédit Lyonnais bank to sell Adidas, the bank subsequently
1998 FIFA World Cup
The 1998 FIFA World Cup was the 16th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It was held in France from 10 June to 12 July 1998; the country was chosen as the host nation by FIFA for the second time in the history of the tournament, defeating Morocco in the bidding process. It was the second time that France staged the competition and the ninth time that it was held in Europe. Qualification for the finals began in March 1996 and concluded in November 1997. For the first time in the competition, the group stage was expanded from 24 teams to 32, with eight groups of four. 64 matches were played in 10 stadiums in 10 host cities, with the opening match and final staged at the Stade de France, Saint-Denis. The tournament was won by host country France. France won their first title, becoming the seventh nation to win a World Cup, the sixth to win the tournament on home soil. Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa made their first appearances in the finals. France was awarded the 1998 World Cup on 2 July 1992 by the executive committee of FIFA during a general meeting in Zürich, Switzerland.
They defeated Morocco by 12 votes to 7. Switzerland withdrew; this made France the third country to host two World Cups, after Mexico and Italy in 1986 and 1990 respectively. France hosted the third edition of the World Cup in 1938. England, who hosted the competition in 1966 and won it, were among the original applicants, but withdrew their application in favour of an successful bid to host UEFA Euro 1996. On 4 June 2015, while co-operating with the FBI and the Swiss authorities, Chuck Blazer confirmed that he and other members of FIFA's executive committee were bribed during the 1998 and 2010 World Cups host selection process. Blazer stated that "we facilitated bribes in conjunction with the selection of the host nation for the 1998 World Cup". Since France won the selection process it was thought the bribery came from its bid committee, it transpired that the bribe payment was from the failed Moroccan bid. The qualification draw for the 1998 World Cup finals took place in the Musée du Louvre, Paris on 12 December 1995.
As tournament hosts, France was exempt from the draw. 174 teams from six confederations participated, 24 more than in the previous round. Fourteen countries qualified from the European zone. Ten were determined after group play - the best second-placed team. CONMEBOL and CAF were each given five spots in the final tournament, while three spots were contested between 30 CONCACAF members in the North and Central America and the Caribbean zone; the winner of the Oceanian zone advanced to an intercontinental play-off against the runner-up of the Asian play-off, determined by the two best second placed teams. Four nations qualified for the first time: Croatia, Jamaica and South Africa; the last team to qualify was Iran by virtue of beating Australia in a two-legged tie on 29 November 1997. This was Team Melli's first appearance in the finals since 1978, the last time Tunisia qualified for the tournament. Chile qualified for the first time since 1982, after serving a ban that saw them miss out on the two previous tournaments.
Paraguay and Denmark returned for the first time since 1986. Austria, England and Yugoslavia returned after missing out on the 1994 tournament, with the Balkan team now appearing under the name of FR Yugoslavia. Among the teams who failed to qualify were two-time winners Uruguay; as of 2018, this is the most recent time Austria, Norway, Bulgaria and Jamaica have qualified for a FIFA World Cup finals, as well as the last time Portugal missed out. The highest ranked team not to qualify was Czech Republic, while the lowest ranked team that did qualify was Nigeria; the following 32 teams, shown with final pre-tournament rankings, qualified for the final tournament. France's bid to host the World Cup centered on a national stadium with 80,000 seats and nine other stadiums located across the country; when the finals were awarded in July 1992, none of the regional club grounds were of a capacity meeting FIFA's requirements – namely being able to safely seat 40,000. The proposed national stadium, colloquially referred to as the'Grand stade' met with controversy at every stage of planning.
As Mayor of Paris, Jacques Chirac negotiated a deal with Prime Minister Édouard Balladur to bring the Stade de France – as it was named now, to the commune of Saint-Denis just north of the capital city. Construction on the stadium started in December 1995 and was completed after 26 months of work in November 1997 at a cost of ₣2.67 billion. The choice of stadium locations was drafted from an original list of 14 cities. FIFA and CFO monitored the progress and quality of preparations, culminating in the former providing final checks of the grounds weeks before the tournament commenced. Montpellier was the surprise inclusion from the final list of cities because of its low urban hierarchy in comparison to Strasbourg, who boasted a better hierarchy an
Adidas Roteiro known as Roteiro, was the official match ball of the UEFA Euro 2004 in Portugal and was the official match ball for the 2004 AFC Asian Cup held a month in China. "Roteiro" means "road map" or "navigation chart" in Portuguese and was a reference to the discoveries made by the Portuguese in the 15th and 16th century, in particular Vasco da Gama. It is made by Adidas and it was presented on 1 December 2003 in Lisbon. For the first time in a major football tournament, every single ball at the Euro 2004 was personalized to each game; the Roteiro balls had inscribed the name of the teams playing, the date, the name of the stadium, the longitude and latitude of the center spot of the pitch. It was the first ball to feature an innovative thermal-bonding production technique developed by Adidas. Adidas supplied 2,300 balls for games and training sessions for the tournament. Thermal bonded panel edges. Special adhesive for durability and water resistance. No stitching. Panel design: Syntactic PU surface material for maximum abrasion resistance.
Innovative carcass technology High-grade natural latex bladder Information and pictures of the ball
The Adidas Tango is a successful family and brand of association football balls first introduced as the Tango Durlast in 1978 for the 1978 FIFA World Cup in Argentina. Variations of the design had been produced for various competitions including the FIFA World Cup, the UEFA European Championship and the Summer Olympics; the Tango balls have had different names applied to them to distinguish them in their construction, the competitions they have been used for, if they are match or replica balls. In 2011, Adidas introduced the Tango 12, but besides the name there are no particular similarities between the new ball and the old Adidas Tango family; the 1978 Tango Durlast has twenty identical hexagonal panels with'triads' creating the impression of 12 circles around the pentagons. Like its predecessors, the Adidas Tango Durlast was made of genuine leather and boasted the shiny waterproofing Durlast coating; the Tango España by Adidas was the official match ball of 1982 FIFA World Cup held in Spain.
The Tango España had improved water resistant qualities through its rubberized seams. These were not resistant and resulted in the ball having to be changed several times during some games; this ball was the last genuine leather ball. Other variations of the Tango ball seen include: Tango Roma, Tango Napoli, Tango Munich, Tango Scorpion, Tango Mendoza, Tango Gol, Tango Indoor Ball, Tango Tournoi For the newer family of footballs that are branded Tango please see Adidas Tango 12. Adidas Tango ball is featured on the club badge of Ukrainian club Chornomorets Odessa, as well as Russian football team Mordovia Saransk. Adidas Tango 12 Adidas ball history Soccerball World: History of the World Cup's Match Balls The Guardian - The Joy of Six: great footballs The History of FIFA World Cup Match Ball