Special Reconnaissance Regiment
The Special Reconnaissance Regiment is a special reconnaissance unit of the British Army. It was established on 6 April 2005 and is part of the United Kingdom Special Forces under the command of Director Special Forces, alongside the Special Air Service, Special Boat Service and the Special Forces Support Group; the regiment conducts a wide range of classified activities related to covert surveillance and reconnaissance. The SRR draws its personnel from existing units and can recruit male and female volunteers from any branch of the British Armed Forces; the Special Reconnaissance Regiment conducts surveillance operations concerning, but not limited to, "counter-terrorism" activities. It was formed to relieve the Special Air Service and the Special Boat Service of that role and is believed to contain around 500–700 personnel. Media reports state they are based alongside the Special Air Service at Stirling Lines barracks, Credenhill in Herefordshire; the SRR was formed to meet a demand for a special reconnaissance capability identified in the Strategic Defence Review: A New Chapter published in 2002 in response to the 2001 September 11 attacks.
The regiment was formed around a core of the established 14 Intelligence Company, which played a similar role against the Provisional IRA in Northern Ireland during the Troubles. Around 2006, a British special forces unit was formed called E Squadron, the unit was made up of members selected from the SAS, SBS and SRR, with a mandate to work with the intelligence services, such as SIS, on missions that required'maximum discretion' in places that were'off radar and considered dangerous'; the squadron was at the disposal of the Director Special Forces and the SIS. The regiment was active during the Iraq War as part of Task Force Black/knight. Although members of other British Special forces units were sceptical of the value of the regiment, by mid-2006 a handful of SRR operators were operating in Baghdad, they formed Special Reconnaissance detachments. The force was made up of Task Force Black/knight operators who carried out difficult surveillance missions throughout the city. In the aftermath of 21 July 2005 London bombings, the SRR attached one of its members to each of the Metropolitan Police Service's surveillance teams to provide additional capability to a overstretched SO12.
On 22 July 2005 Jean Charles de Menezes was shot dead by armed police officers on a London Underground train at Stockwell tube station. Three media reports carry unconfirmed assertions by unattributed UK government sources that SRR personnel were involved in the intelligence collection effort leading to the shooting and were on the tube train while the offensive action occurred. A partial Ministry of Defence response was reported by The Sunday Times. On 27 June 2006, a 16-man unit from C Squadron, Special Boat Service and the SRR carried out Operation Ilois: an operation that covertly captured four Taliban leaders in compounds on the outskirts of Sangin, Helmand province; as they returned to their Land Rover vehicles, they were ambushed by an estimated 60 to 70 Taliban insurgents. With one vehicle disabled by Rocket-propelled grenade fire, the team took cover in an irrigation ditch and requested assistance while holding off the Taliban force; the Helmand Battle Group had not been informed of the operation.
After an hour-long gunfight, Apache attack helicopters, the Gurkha quick reaction force and the 16-man unit, supported by a U. S. A-10 Thunderbolt and two Harrier GR7s managed to break contact and return to the closest forward operating base. Upon reaching the forward operating base it was discovered that Captain David Patton, SRR, Sergeant Paul Bartlett, SBS were missing – one was helping wounded out of a vehicle when he was shot and assumed killed, while the second went missing during the firefight. A company from the Parachute Regiment in an RAF Chinook took off to find them, a pair of Apaches spotted the bodies and the Parachute Regiment troops recovered them. One SBS member was awarded the MC for his actions in the ambush. In March 2009, Chief Constable Sir Hugh Orde informed the Northern Ireland Policing Board that he had asked for the Special Reconnaissance Regiment to be deployed in Northern Ireland to help the Police Service of Northern Ireland gather intelligence on dissident republicans.
He claimed that they would have no operational role and would be accountable, as required by the St Andrews Agreement. Deputy First Minister and Sinn Féin MP Martin McGuinness and Sinn Féin leader Gerry Adams condemned the move, but Democratic Unionist Party MP Ian Paisley, Jr. said the SRR "poses no threat to any community in Northern Ireland". The SRR troops were withdrawn in 2011, but were sent back to Northern Ireland in 2015 to help detect and prevent attempted attacks by the Real Irish Republican Army and Continuity Irish Republican Army. In late 2015, it was reported there were 60 Special Reconnaissance Regiment plain-clothed and unarmed surveillance troops operating in Northern Ireland, that unmarked vehicles were used. By the end of July 2011, a 24-man British special forces team from D Squadron 22nd SAS Regiment, including members of the SRR who were expert in covert intelligence gathering had been deployed to Libya to train and mentor NTC units against the Gaddafi regime during th
Royal Army Chaplains' Department
The Royal Army Chaplains' Department is an all-officer corps that provides ordained clergy to minister to the British Army. The Army Chaplains' Department was formed by Royal Warrant of 23 September 1796. Chaplains had been part of individual regiments, but not on the central establishment. Only Anglican chaplains were recruited until 1827. Roman Catholic chaplains were recruited from 1836, Methodist chaplains from 1881, Jewish chaplains from 1892. During the First World War some 4,400 Army Chaplains were recruited and 179 lost their lives on active service; the Department received the "Royal" prefix in February 1919. During the Second World War another 96 British and 38 Commonwealth Army Chaplains lost their lives. From 1946 until 1996, the RAChD's Headquarters and Training Centre were at Bagshot Park in Surrey, now the home of The Earl and Countess of Wessex. In 1996, they moved to the joint service Armed Forces Chaplaincy Centre at Amport House near Andover. There are about 150 serving regular chaplains in the British Army.
Uniquely within the British Army, the Royal Army Chaplains' Department has different cap badges for its Christian and Jewish officers. Army chaplains, although they are all commissioned officers of the British Army and wear uniform, do not have executive authority, they are unique within the British Army. At services on formal occasions, chaplains wear their medals and decorations on their clerical robes; the RAChD's motto is "In this Sign Conquer" as seen in the sky before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge by the Roman Emperor Constantine. Its regimental march, both quick and slow, is the Prince of Denmark's March, erroneously known as the Trumpet Voluntary; the Museum of Army Chaplaincy is located at Amport House near Hampshire. Chaplains are either classified as Jewish or as a member of one of the following eight Christian denominational groups: Anglican Presbyterian Roman Catholic Church Methodist Church United Board, incorporating the Baptist Church, United Reformed Church and Congregational Church Elim Pentecostal Church Assemblies of God Salvation ArmyThere are religious advisors from other faiths.
However, an Army chaplain is expected to minister to and provide pastoral care to any soldier who needs it, no matter their denomination or faith or lack of it. In 2011 following a freedom of information request on Ministry of Defence spending on chaplaincy, the National Secular Society requested that £22m of spending should come directly from churches while professional counselling should continue to be funded by the tax payer, in order to better serve the non-religious in the military; the proposal was rejected by the Church of England. As of 2018 there are no non-religious chaplains in the British armed forces although organisations such as the UK Armed Forces Humanist Association and the Non-Religious Pastoral Support Network continue to advocate for it. Chaplains are the only British Army officers, they are designated Chaplain to the Forces. They do, have grades which equate to the standard ranks and wear the insignia of the equivalent rank. Chaplains are addressed as "Padre", never by their nominal military rank.
Chaplain-General = Major-General Deputy Chaplain-General = Brigadier Chaplain to the Forces 1st Class = Colonel Chaplain to the Forces 2nd Class = Lieutenant-Colonel Chaplain to the Forces 3rd Class = Major Chaplain to the Forces 4th Class = CaptainThe senior Church of England Chaplain is ranked within the church hierarchy as an Archdeacon – he or she holds the appointment of Archdeacon for the Army whether or not he or she is the Chaplain-General. The Senior Roman Catholic Chaplain is sometimes ranked as a monsignor. Royal Air Force Chaplains Branch Royal Navy Chaplaincy Service Bishop to the Forces Bishopric of the Forces Military chaplain#United Kingdom International Military Chiefs of Chaplains Conference Religion in the United Kingdom Toc H Military archdeacons Category:Royal Army Chaplains' Department officers Bergen, Doris. L. 2004. The Sword of the Lord: Military Chaplains from the First to the Twenty-First Century. University of Notre Dame Press ISBN 0-268-02176-7 Kennedy, Geoffrey Anketell Studdert The Unutterable Beauty, ISBN 1-84685-110-6 Loudon, Stephen H. Chaplains in Conflict.
The Role of Army Chaplains since 1914. Avon Books, London: 1996. ISBN 1-86033-840-2 MacDonald, David R. Padre E. C. Crosse and'the Devonshire Epitaph': The Astonishing Story of One Man at the Battle of the Somme, ISBN 978-1-929569-45-8 McLaren, Stuart John Somewhere in Flanders. A Norfolk Padre in the Great War; the War Letters of the Revd Samuel Frederick Leighton Green MC, Army Chaplain 1916–1919. The Larks Press, Norfolk, UK: 2005. ISBN 1-904006-25-6 Montell, Hugh A Chaplain's War; the Story of Noel Mellish VC, MC. ISBN 1-84394-008-6 O'Rahilly, Alfred The Padre of Trench Street, ISBN 1-905363-15-X Purcell, William Woodbine Willie. An Anglican Incident. Being some account of the life and times of Geoffrey Anketell Studdert Kennedy, prophet, seeker after truth, 1883–1929. London: 1962 Smyth, Brigadier The Rt
Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom)
The Ministry of Defence is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces. The MOD states that its principal objectives are to defend the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its interests and to strengthen international peace and stability. With the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, the MOD does not foresee any short-term conventional military threat; the MOD manages day-to-day running of the armed forces, contingency planning and defence procurement. During the 1920s and 1930s, British civil servants and politicians, looking back at the performance of the state during the First World War, concluded that there was a need for greater co-ordination between the three services that made up the armed forces of the United Kingdom—the Royal Navy, the British Army and the Royal Air Force; the formation of a united ministry of defence was rejected by David Lloyd George's coalition government in 1921.
As rearmament became a concern during the 1930s, Stanley Baldwin created the position of Minister for Co-ordination of Defence. Lord Chatfield held the post until the fall of Neville Chamberlain's government in 1940. Winston Churchill, on forming his government in 1940, created the office of Minister of Defence to exercise ministerial control over the Chiefs of Staff Committee and to co-ordinate defence matters; the post was held by the Prime Minister of the day until Clement Attlee's government introduced the Ministry of Defence Act of 1946. The new ministry was headed by a Minister of Defence; the three existing service Ministers—the First Lord of the Admiralty, the Secretary of State for War and the Secretary of State for Air—remained in direct operational control of their respective services, but ceased to attend Cabinet. From 1946 to 1964 five Departments of State did the work of the modern Ministry of Defence: the Admiralty, the War Office, the Air Ministry, the Ministry of Aviation, an earlier form of the Ministry of Defence.
These departments merged in 1964. The Ministers in the Ministry of Defence are as follows: The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the British Armed Forces and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Secretary of State for Defence and the Prime Minister; the CDS is supported by the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff who deputises and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the armed services aspect of the MOD through the Central Staff, working alongside the Permanent Secretary. They are joined by the professional heads of the three British armed services and the Commander of Joint Forces Command. All personnel sit at OF-9 rank in the NATO rank system. Together the Chiefs of Staff form the Chiefs of Staff Committee with responsibility for providing advice on operational military matters and the preparation and conduct of military operations; the current Chiefs of Staff are as follows. Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Nick Carter Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff – General Sir Gordon Messenger First Sea Lord and Chief of the Naval Staff – Admiral Sir Philip Jones Chief of the General Staff – General Mark Carleton-Smith Chief of the Air Staff – Air Chief Marshal Sir Stephen Hillier Commander of Joint Forces Command – General Sir Christopher Deverell The Chief of Staff is supported by several other senior military personnel at OF-8 rank.
Chief of Defence People – Lieutenant General Richard Nugee Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Douglas Chalmers Deputy Chief of Defence Staff – Lieutenant-General Mark Poffley Chief of Joint Operations - Vice-Admiral Timothy Fraser Defence Senior Adviser Middle East - Lieutenant-General John LorimerAdditionally, there are a number of Assistant Chiefs of Defence Staff, including the Assistant Chief of the Defence Staff and the Defence Services Secretary in the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, the Assistant Chief of Defence Staff. Permanent Secretary and other senior officials The Ministers and Chiefs of the Defence Staff are supported by several civilian and professional military advisors; the Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Defence is the senior civil servant at the MOD. Their role is to ensure that it operates as a government department and has responsibility for the strategy, reform and the finances of the MOD; the role works with the Chief of the Defence Staff in leading the organisation and supporting Ministers in the conduct of business in the Department across the full range of responsibilities.
Permanent Under-Secretary of State – Stephen Lovegrove Director General Finance – Cat Little Director General Head Office and Commissioning Services – Julie Taylor Director General Nuclear – Julian Kelly Director General Security Policy – Peter Watkins MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Hugh Durrant-Whyte MOD Chief Scientific Adviser – Professor Robin Grimes Lead Non-Executive Board Member – Sir Gerry Gri
Royal Military Police
The Royal Military Police is the corps of the British Army responsible for the policing of army service personnel, for providing a military police presence both in the UK and while service personnel are deployed overseas on operations and exercises. Members of the RMP are known as'Redcaps' because of the scarlet covers on their peaked caps, or scarlet coloured berets; the RMP's origins can be traced back to the 13th century but it was not until 1877 that a regular corps of military police was formed with the creation of the Military Mounted Police, followed by the Military Foot Police in 1885. Although technically two independent corps, they functioned as a single organisation. In 1926, they were amalgamated to form the Corps of Military Police. In recognition of their service in the Second World War, they became the Corps of Royal Military Police on 28 November 1946. On 6 April 1992, the RMP amalgamated into the Adjutant General's Corps, where they form part of the AGC's Provost Branch. Non-commissioned members of the RMP receive their basic training as soldiers at the Army Training Centre in Pirbright.
They receive further training at the Defence School of Policing and Guarding known as the Defence College of Policing and Guarding. RMP commissioned officers are trained at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, as are all other British Army officers; the regimental march of the RMP is "The Watchtower" or "Hoch Heidecksburg" a German Army marching tune from 1912 by Rudolf Herzer. The RMP motto is Exemplo Ducemus, Latin for "By example, shall we lead"; the Provost Marshal is a post which goes back to the 13th century and was an under-officer of the Earl Marshal. In 1685 the role of Provost Marshal General became a permanent post; the Cavalry Staff Corps of 1813–14 and 1815–18 is regarded as Britain's first standing military police force and a forerunner of the Royal Military Police. The Military Mounted Police was formed in 1877 and the Military Foot Police was formed in 1885. During the First World War the Military Police grew from 508 all ranks to over 25,000 all ranks by the end of the War. During the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915 the Military Police served the Army as a whole, rather than individual units.
On 27 February 1926 the Corps of Military Police was formed by merging the Military Mounted Police and the Military Foot Police. During the Second World War the Military Police grew from 4,121 all ranks to over 50,000 all ranks within six major branches of specialists: Special Investigation Branch – formed in 1940, with 19 detectives from the Metropolitan Police transferred to the Army for deployment in France. From this small beginning the Branch expanded into numerous Sections which were deployed both in the UK and overseas, providing the Corps with its own Criminal Investigation Department to conduct more detailed and protracted investigations into organised crime and serious offences such as murder. Provost Wing – responsible for general policing. Provost Companies were included in the order of battle of Home Commands, Armoured and Airborne Divisions, as well as at Army and Corps level and with independent Brigades. From 1942, "Ports Provost" Companies were raised, consisting of a mix of Provost and Vulnerable Points Sections, which were deployed on security and policing duties within ports and docks.
Vulnerable Points Wing -- formed in 1941 to provide security of static establishments. They were known. Intended to act as static Companies and detachments, VP Coys were deployed in North West Europe, guarding prisoner of war camps and other static installations; the VP Wing was phased out at the end of the war, but re-appeared in the Supplementary Reserve/Army Emergency Reserve between 1950 and 1961. Traffic Control Wing – formed in 1941, TC Coys were deployed throughout the United Kingdom, releasing Provost Companies from the tasks of traffic control. TC Coys were deployed in the Middle East and North-West Europe; the Wing was phased out of the Corps by 1946.. Field Security Wing – formed in 1937. Personnel wore Lincoln green cap covers, green brassards and brass shoulder titles on their tunics with the letters "FSP", to distinguish them from the rest of the Corps, they wore the standard CMP cap badge, but unofficially ground down the wording "MILITARY POLICE" from the lower scroll of the badge.
In July 1940 the Wing was absorbed into the new Intelligence Corps. In November 1946, King George VI granted the'Royal' prefix to the Corps of Military Police in recognition of its outstanding record in two World Wars and the Corps became known as The Corps of Royal Military Police, though abbreviated to Royal Military Police. From 1969 the Corps made an important contribution during The Troubles in Northern Ireland. On 6 April 1992 the RMP amalgamated into the Adjutant General's Corps, under whose overall command they form part of the AGC's Provost Branch alongside the pre-existent Military Provost Staff Corps and the later-formed Military Provost Guard Service. Although they lost status as an independent corps, they were permitted to retain the Royal Military Police title and cap badge; as well as policing service personnel whilst at home in the UK, the Royal Military Police are required to provide a capable military police presence in support of military
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers
The Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers is a corps of the British Army that maintains the equipment that the Army uses. Prior to REME's formation, maintenance was the responsibility of several different corps: Royal Army Ordnance Corps—weapons and armoured vehicles Royal Engineers—engineering plant and machinery, RE motor transport Royal Corps of Signals—communications equipment Royal Army Service Corps—other motor transport Royal Artillery—heavy weapons artificersDuring World War II, the increase in quantity and complexity of equipment exposed the flaws in this system. Pursuant to the recommendation of a Committee on Skilled Men in the Services chaired by William Beveridge, the Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers was formed on 1 October 1942; such a major re-organisation was too complex to be carried out and in the middle of a world war. Therefore, the changeover was undertaken in two phases. In Phase I, implemented REME was formed on the existing framework of the RAOC Engineering Branch, strengthened by the transfer of certain technical units and tradesmen from the RE and RASC.
At the same time, a number of individual tradesmen were transferred into REME from other corps. The new corps was made responsible for repairing the technical equipment of all arms with certain major exceptions. REME did not yet undertake: Those repairs that were carried out by unit tradesmen who were driver/mechanics or fitters in regiments and belonged to the unit rather than being attached to it. Repairs of RASC-operated vehicles, which remained the responsibility of the RASC. Repairs of RE specialist equipment, which remained the responsibility of the RE. In 1949, it was decided; this decision was published in Army Council Instruction 110 of 1949, the necessary reorganisation was carried out in the various arms and services in three stages between July 1951 and January 1952. The main changes were: The transfer to REME of most of the unit repair responsibilities of other arms; the provision of Light Aid Detachments for certain units that had not possessed them under the old organisation. The provision of new REME workshops to carry out field repairs in RASC transport companies.
Maintenance of vessels of the RASC fleet whilst in port was given to the fleet repair branch, a civilian organisation which came under the REME umbrella. This organisation was responsible for arranging and overseeing ship refits. After some interim designs, the badge of the Corps was formalised in June 1943 for use as the cap-badge, collar-badge, on the buttons, it consisted of an oval Royally Crowned laurel wreath. Within the wreath was a pair of calipers. Examples of these early badges can be found at the REME Museum. In 1947, the Horse and Lightning was adopted as the cap badge. At the end of the war, the Allies occupied the major German industrial centres to decide their fate; the Volkswagen factory at Wolfsburg became part of the British Zone in June 1945 and No. 30 Workshop Control Unit, REME, assumed control in July. They operated under the overall direction of Colonel Michael McEvoy at Rhine Army Headquarters, Bad Oeynhausen. Uniquely, he had experience of the KdF Wagen in his pre-war career as a motor racing engineer.
After visiting the Volkswagen factory, McEvoy had the idea of trying to get Volkswagen back into production to provide light transport for the occupying forces. The British Army, Red Cross and essential German services were chronically short of light vehicles. If the factory could provide them, there would be no cost to the British taxpayer and the factory could be saved. To do this, a good manager with technical experience would be needed. Maj. Ivan Hirst was told to "take charge of" the Volkswagen plant before arriving in August 1945, he had drains fixed and bomb craters filled in. At first, the wartime Kubelwagen was viewed as a suitable vehicle. Once it became clear it could not be put back into production, the Volkswagen saloon or Kaefer was suggested. Hirst had an example delivered to Rhine Army headquarters, where it was demonstrated by Colonel McEvoy; the positive reaction led to the Military Government placing an order for 20,000 Volkswagens in September 1945. The REME Museum is based at MoD Lyneham.
The Defence School of Electronic and Mechanical Engineering at MoD Lyneham meets most of the training needs of the corps. With minor exceptions only, the Corps is now responsible for the examination, modification and recovery of all mechanical, electronic and optical equipment of the Army beyond the capacity of unit non-technical personnel. REME has its Regimental Headquarters collocated with 8 Training Battalion REME based in MOD Lyneham, in Wiltshire. All trade training and Artificer training of Electro/Mechanical trades of REME and various related training to other units within the British Army and the Navy and Air Force is conducted by 8 Training Battalion REME. In line with the Army 2020 review, there are seven Regular, two Training and six Army Reserve battalions within REME. Regular Army Battalions 1 Close Support Battalion REME 4 CS Company 12 CS Company 2 Close Support Battalion REME 7 CS Company 11 CS Company 3 Close Support Battalion REME 5 Armoured Company 20 Armoured Company 18 Field Company 4 Close Support Battalion REME 9 Armoured Company 10 Armoured Company 17 Field Company 5 Force Support Battalion REME 1 Field Company 2 Field Company 15 Field Company 6 Close S
Special Air Service
The Special Air Service is a special forces unit of the British Army. The SAS was founded in 1941 as a regiment, reconstituted as a corps in 1950; the unit undertakes a number of roles including covert reconnaissance, counter-terrorism, direct action and hostage rescue. Much of the information and actions regarding the SAS is classified, is not commented on by the British government or the Ministry of Defence due to the sensitivity of their operations; the corps consists of the 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, the regular component under operational command of United Kingdom Special Forces, as well as the 21st Special Air Service Regiment and the 23rd Special Air Service Regiment, which are reserve units under operational command of the 1st Intelligence and Reconnaissance Brigade. The Special Air Service traces its origins to the Second World War, it was reformed as part of the Territorial Army in 1947, named the 21st Special Air Service Regiment. The 22nd Special Air Service Regiment, part of the regular army, gained fame and recognition worldwide after its televised rescue of all but one of the hostages held during the 1980 Iranian Embassy siege.
The Special Air Service was a unit of the British Army during the Second World War, formed in July 1941 by David Stirling and called "L" Detachment, Special Air Service Brigade—the "L" designation and Air Service name being a tie-in to a British disinformation campaign, trying to deceive the Axis into thinking there was a paratrooper regiment with numerous units operating in the area. It was conceived as a commando force to operate behind enemy lines in the North African Campaign and consisted of five officers and 60 other ranks, its first mission, in November 1941, was a parachute drop in support of the Operation Crusader offensive. Due to German resistance and adverse weather conditions, the mission was a disaster, its second mission was a major success. Transported by the Long Range Desert Group, it attacked three airfields in Libya, destroying 60 aircraft with the loss of 2 men and 3 jeeps. In September 1942, it was renamed 1st SAS, consisting at that time of four British squadrons, one Free French, one Greek, the Folboat Section.
In January 1943, Colonel Stirling was captured in Tunisia and Paddy Mayne replaced him as commander. In April 1943, the 1st SAS was reorganised into the Special Raiding Squadron under Mayne's command and the Special Boat Squadron was placed under the command of George Jellicoe; the Special Raiding Squadron fought in Sicily and Italy along with the 2nd SAS, formed in North Africa in 1943 in part by the renaming of the Small Scale Raiding Force. The Special Boat Squadron fought in the Aegean Islands and Dodecanese until the end of the war. In 1944 the SAS Brigade was formed from the British 1st and 2nd SAS, the French 3rd and 4th SAS and the Belgian 5th SAS, it was tasked with parachute operations behind the German lines in France and carried out operations supporting the Allied advance through France, the Netherlands, into Germany. As a result of Hitler's issuing of the Commando Order on 18 October 1942, the members of the unit faced the additional danger that they would be summarily executed if captured by the Germans.
In July 1944, following Operation Bulbasket, 34 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. In October 1944, in the aftermath of Operation Loyton another 31 captured SAS commandos were summarily executed by the Germans. At the end of the war the British government saw no further need for the force and disbanded it on 8 October 1945; the following year it was decided there was a need for a long-term deep-penetration commando unit and a new SAS regiment was to be raised as part of the Territorial Army. The Artists Rifles, raised in 1860 and headquartered at Dukes Road, took on the SAS mantle as 21st SAS Regiment on 1 January 1947. In 1950, a 21 SAS squadron was raised to fight in the Korean War. After three months of training in Britain, it was informed that the squadron would no longer be required in Korea and so it instead volunteered to fight in the Malayan Emergency. Upon arrival in Malaya, it came under the command of "Mad Mike" Mike Calvert, forming a new unit called the Malayan Scouts.
Calvert had formed one squadron from 100 volunteers in the Far East, which became A Squadron—the 21 SAS squadron became B Squadron. The Rhodesians were replaced by a New Zealand squadron. By this time the need for a regular army SAS regiment had been recognised. In 1959 the third regiment, the 23rd SAS Regiment, was formed by renaming the Reserve Reconnaissance Unit, which had succeeded MI9 and whose members were experts in escape and evasion. Since serving in Malaya, men from the regular army 22 SAS Regiment have taken part in covert reconnaissance and surveillance by patrols and some larger scale raiding missions in Borneo. An operation against communist guerillas included the Battle of Mirbat in the Oman, they have taken part in operations in the Aden Emergency, Northern Ireland, Gambia. Their Special projects team assisted the West German counterterrorism group GSG 9 at Mogadishu; the SAS counter terrorist wing famously took part in a hostage rescue operation dur
The Corps of Royal Engineers just called the Royal Engineers, known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. It provides military engineering and other technical support to the British Armed Forces and is headed by the Chief Royal Engineer; the Regimental Headquarters and the Royal School of Military Engineering are in Chatham in Kent, England. The corps is divided into several regiments, barracked at various places in the United Kingdom and around the world; the Royal Engineers trace their origins back to the military engineers brought to England by William the Conqueror Bishop Gundulf of Rochester Cathedral, claim over 900 years of unbroken service to the crown. Engineers have always served in the armies of the Crown. In Woolwich in 1716, the Board formed the Royal Regiment of Artillery and established a Corps of Engineers, consisting of commissioned officers; the manual work was done by the Artificer Companies, made up of contracted civilian artisans and labourers. In 1772, a Soldier Artificer Company was established for service in Gibraltar, the first instance of non-commissioned military engineers.
In 1787, the Corps of Engineers was granted the Royal prefix and adopted its current name and in the same year a Corps of Royal Military Artificers was formed, consisting of non-commissioned officers and privates, to be led by the RE. Ten years the Gibraltar company, which had remained separate, was absorbed and in 1812 the name was changed to the Corps of Royal Sappers and Miners; the Corps has no battle honours. In 1832, the regimental motto, Ubique' &'Quo Fas Et Gloria Ducunt, was granted; the motto signified that the Corps had seen action in all the major conflicts of the British Army and all of the minor ones as well. In 1855 the Board of Ordnance was abolished and authority over the Royal Engineers, Royal Sappers and Miners and Royal Artillery was transferred to the Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, thus uniting them with the rest of the Army; the following year, the Royal Engineers and Royal Sappers and Miners became a unified corps as the Corps of Royal Engineers and their headquarters were moved from the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, to Chatham, Kent.
The re-organisation of the British military that began in the mid-Nineteenth Century and stretched over several decades included the reconstitution of the Militia, the raising of the Volunteer Force, the ever-closer organisation of the part-time forces with the regular army. The old Militia had been an infantry force, other than the occasional employment of Militiamen to man artillery defences and other roles on an emergency basis; this changed with the conversion of some units to artillery roles. Militia and Volunteer Engineering companies were created, beginning with the conversion of the militia of Anglesey and Monmouthshire to engineers in 1877; the Militia and Volunteer Force engineers supported the regular Royal Engineers in a variety of roles, including operating the boats required to tend the submarine mine defences that protected harbours in Britain and its empire. These included a submarine mining militia company, authorised for Bermuda in 1892, but never raised, the Bermuda Volunteer Engineers that wore Royal Engineers uniforms and replaced the regular Royal Engineers companies withdrawn from the Bermuda Garrison in 1928.
The various part-time reserve forces were amalgamated into the Territorial Force in 1908, retitled the Territorial Army after the First World War, the Army Reserve in 2014. In 1911 the Corps formed the first flying unit of the British Armed Forces; the Air Battalion was the forerunner of the Royal Flying Royal Air Force. In 1915, in response to German mining of British trenches under the static siege conditions of the First World War, the corps formed its own tunnelling companies. Manned by experienced coal miners from across the country, they operated with great success until 1917, when after the fixed positions broke, they built deep dugouts such as the Vampire dugout to protect troops from heavy shelling. Before the Second World War, Royal Engineers recruits were required to be at least 5 feet 4 inches tall, they enlisted for six years with the colours and a further six years with the reserve or four years and eight years. Unlike most corps and regiments, in which the upper age limit was 25, men could enlist in the Royal Engineers up to 35 years of age.
They trained at the Royal Engineers Depot in the RE Mounted Depot at Aldershot. During the 1980s, the Royal Engineers formed the vital component of at least three Engineer Brigades - 12 Engineer Brigade. After the Falklands War, 37 Engineer Regiment was active from August 1982 until 14 March 1985; the Royal Engineers Museum is in Gillingham in Kent. Britain having acquired an Empire, it fell to the Royal Engineers to conduct some of the most significant "civil" engineering schemes around the world; some examples of great works of the era of empire can be found in A. J. Smithers's book Honourable Conquests; the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, commanded by Richard Clement Moody, was responsible for the foundation and settlement of British Columbia as the Colony of British Columbia. The Royal Albert Hall is one of the UK's most treasured and distinctive buildings, recognisable the world over. Since its opening by Queen Victoria in 1871, the world's leading artists from every kind of performance genre have appeared on its stage.
Each year it