Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, which was released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and it established the norms for the Ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States. The Council for Public Affairs of the Church had previously been a section of the Secretariat of State, the constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia.
As of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended in 2011, by Quaerit semper, in 2013, by Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam, and in 2014, by Confermando una tradizione. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization, in October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. It established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia, original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, and Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, changing needs, changing names, Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition, Catholic New Service,13 July 2014
Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
The Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples in Rome is the congregation of the Roman Curia responsible for missionary work and related activities. It is perhaps better known by its title, the Sacred Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith. It was renamed by Pope John Paul II in 1982 and its mission continues unbroken, the early Congregation was established in the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Juan Bautista Vives, to the south of the Piazza di Spagna. The current Prefect of the Congregation is Cardinal Fernando Filoni, the current Secretary is Archbishop Savio Hon Tai-Fai from Hong Kong. The Adjunct Secretary is Archbishop Protase Rugambwa, the Under-Secretary is Father Tadeusz Wojda, S. A. C. The Archivist of the Archives of the Congregation is Bishop Luis Manuel Cuña Ramos, monsignors Lorenzo Piva and Camillus Nimalan Johnpillai assist as Office Heads of the Congregation. The Congregation was originally housed in a palace, the Palazzo Ferratini, donated by Vives. In 1634 a small chapel was built according to designs by Bernini.
In 1642, Father Valerio, with Bernini, redesigned the façade to the Piazza di Spagna, and the development was continued along the Via Due Macelli by Gaspare de’Vecchio from 1639-1645. Initially Borromini designed an oval chapel plan but this was superseded by a rectilinear design, with the greater length parallel to the street. Construction of the chapel commenced in 1660 and although the part was built by 1665. The Re Magi chapel, dedicated to the Three Kings, has a plan with four side chapels and galleries above. On the interior, the wall and the vault are differentiated horizontally by a line but there is a vertical continuity of wall. The criss cross arrangement in the Re Magi Chapel is such that an octagon is formed at the centre and his first designs for the façade onto the Via di Propaganda Fide had five bays but he expanded this to seven. The façade is dominated by the giant pilasters that originally supported a balustrade above the narrow entablature, the central door leads into the courtyard where Borromini intended a curved arcade but this was not built.
Only the left side of the façade relates to the chapel. Other parts of the College have further minor works by Borromini, the intrinsic importance of its duties and the extraordinary extent of its authority and of the territory under its jurisdiction caused the Cardinal Prefect of Propaganda to be known as the red pope. This was the direction for the Catholic Church to look for evangelizing
Congregation (Roman Curia)
The second highest-ranking departments of the Roman Curia are called congregations. Above them are the three Secretariats, lower-ranking are the pontifical councils and pontifical commissions. In origin, the congregations were selected groups of cardinals, not the whole College of Cardinals, today, as a result of a decision of the Second Vatican Council, the membership includes diocesan bishops from diverse parts of the world who are not cardinals. Each congregation has a permanent staff to assist it in dealing with the business comes before it. Each congregation is led by a prefect, who is usually a cardinal, until recently, a non-cardinal appointed to head a congregation was styled pro-prefect until made a cardinal. Ecclesiastical business used to be handled by the pontifical chancery, the ever-growing number of business items and the ever-increasing complexity of the issues necessitated the creation of separate, specialised administrative-legislative bodies. Thereafter, cardinals in greater or less number were associated with them, however, they were not merely entrusted with the preparation of the case, but were given authority to decide it.
This division would evidently facilitate the selection of wise and experienced men in all branches of ecclesiastical affairs, hence a natural division into executive cases, assigned to the offices, judicial cases, reserved to the tribunals, and administrative cases, committed to the Roman Congregations. By a judicious division of administrative matters, he established that permanent organization of these departments of the Curia, on 29 June 1908, with the constitution Sapienti Consilio, Pope St. Pius X reduced the number of the congregations to 11. Wherefore, it is forbidden for an officer of one of the congregations to serve in any way as an agent, or as a procurator or advocate, the competency of the congresso in each congregation is determined. The congresso consists of the officers under the presidency of the cardinal who presides over the congregation. It deals with the matters of importance among those that are before the congregation. It is the business of the congresso to prepare for their discussion those matters that are to be considered by the full congregation.
On the other hand, the congresso is charged with the execution of the orders of the congregation that have received the approval of the pope. The normæ peculiares and the communes, together with the Constitution Sapienti Consilio. Following the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI implemented many of the called for in the Curia with his Constitution Regimini Ecclesiae Universae of 15 August 1967. One of the changes brought about by Paul VI was the admission of diocesan bishops and archbishops as members of the Congregations. The most recent reorganization of the Roman Congregations came with Pope John Paul IIs Constitution Pastor Bonus, agents of Roman Congregations This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed. article name needed
Secretariat of State (Holy See)
The Secretariat of State is the oldest dicastery in the Roman Curia, the central papal governing bureaucracy of the Catholic Church. It is headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State and performs all the political, the Secretariat is divided into two sections, the Section for General Affairs and the Section for Relations with States, known as the First Section and Second Section, respectively. The origins of the Secretariat of State go back to the fifteenth century, one can trace to this Secretaria Apostolica the Chancery of Briefs, the Secretariat of Briefs to Princes and the Secretariat of Latin Letters. From these beginnings, the Secretariat of State developed, especially at the time of the Council of Trent, for a long time, the Secretarius Intimus, called Secretarius Papae or Secretarius Maior, was almost always a prelate, often endowed with episcopal rank. It was only at the beginning of the pontificate of Innocent X that someone already a Cardinal, Pope Innocent XII definitively abolished the office of Cardinal Nephew, and the powers of that office were assigned to the Cardinal Secretary of State alone.
With the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae of 15 August 1967, Pope Paul VI reformed the Roman Curia, the head of the Secretariat of State is the Secretary of State, who is a cardinal. The Cardinal Secretary of State is primarily responsible for the diplomatic and political activity of the Holy See, the Section for General Affairs is responsible for organizing the activities of nuncios around the world in their activities concerning the local church. The Section for General Affairs is headed by a known as the Substitute for General Affairs, or more formally. The current Substitute for General Affairs to the Secretary of State is Archbishop Giovanni Angelo Becciu, the current Assessor for General Affairs of the Secretariat of State is Monsignor Paolo Borgia. In 1814, Pope Pius VII gave this office responsibility for negotiations with all governments and this Council was replaced by the present Section for Relations with States. The Section is responsible for the Holy Sees interactions with civil governments, the Section is headed by an Archbishop, the Secretary for Relations with States, who reports to the Secretary of State.
His staff includes a Prelate, the Under-Secretary for Relations with States, the Secretary for Relations with States is often called the foreign minister of the Holy See, and the Under-Secretary is often called the deputy foreign minister. The current Secretary for Relations with States is Archbishop Paul Gallagher, the current Undersecretary for Relations with States is Monsignor Antoine Camilleri. The current Delegate for Pontifical Representations is Archbishop Jan Pawłowski and the current Head of Protocol is Monsignor José Avelino Bettencourt
Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith is the oldest among the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. It was founded to defend the church from heresy and its headquarters are at the Palace of the Holy Office, just outside Vatican City. The congregation employs a board including cardinals, priests, lay theologians. The current Prefect is Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller and it served as the final court of appeal in trials of heresy and served as an important part of the Counter-Reformation. This body was renamed the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Holy Office in 1908 by Pope Saint Pius X, in many Catholic countries, the body is often informally called the Holy Office. The Congregations name was changed to Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith on 7 December 1965 and this includes investigations into grave delicts, i. e. These crimes, in a motu proprio of 2001, Sacramentorum sanctitatis tutela, in effect, it is the promoter of justice who deals with, among other things, the question of priests accused of paedophilia.
Within the CDF are the International Theological Commission, the Pontifical Biblical Commission, the Prefect of the CDF is ex officio president of these commissions. Until 1968, the Pope himself held the title of prefect, instead, he appointed one of the cardinals to preside over the meetings, first as Secretary, as Pro-Prefect. Since 1968, the Cardinal head of the dicastery has borne the title of Prefect, from 1968 onwards, the title of Secretary refers to the second highest-ranking officer of the Congregation. The Congregation has a membership of some 18 other cardinals and a number of non-cardinal bishops, a staff of some 38 priests and lay men and women. The work of the CDF is divided into four sections, the doctrinal, matrimonial, Prefect, Cardinal Gerhard Ludwig Müller Secretary, Archbishop Luis Ladaria Ferrer, S. J. Assistant Secretary, Archbishop Joseph Augustine Di Noia, O. P and they refused to recant the doctrines of the Community of the Lady of All Nations. The nuns are members of the Good Shepherd Monastery of Our Lady of Charity, sister Mary Theresa Dionne,82, one of 6, said they will still live at the convent property, which they own.
The sect believes that its 86-year-old founder, Marie Paule Giguere, is the reincarnation of the Virgin Mary, notification on the works of the Reverend Father Jon Sobrino, S. J. Notification regarding the book Jesus Symbol of God of the Reverend Father Roger Haight, notification on the book Toward a Christian Theology of Religious Pluralism by the Reverend Father Jacques Dupuis, S. J. Notification concerning some writings of Professor Dr. J, notification concerning the Text Mary and Human Liberation by the Reverend Father Tissa Balasuriya, O. M. I. Notification on the writings and activities of Mrs. M. I. P, essay on militant Ecclesiology by Leonardo Boff, O. F. M
An appeal may be had to the Pope himself, who is the supreme ecclesiastical judge. The Catholic Church has a legal system, which is the oldest in the West still in use today. The court is named Rota because the judges, called auditors, the Rota was established in the 13th century. The Pope appoints the auditors of the Rota and designates one of them the dean, on Saturday, September 22,2012, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the resignation as Dean, for reasons of age, of Bishop Antoni Stankiewicz, and appointed in his place Msgr. Pio Vito Pinto, until serving as a prelate Auditor of the Court of first instance, the Rota issues its decrees and sentences in Latin. The auditors of the Rota are selected from among recognized ecclesiastical judges serving various Dioceses around the world, the Rotas official records begin in 1171. Until the Risorgimento and the loss of the Papal States in 1870, until the 14th century the court was formally known as the Apostolic Court of Audience. Its first usage in a bull is in 1418.
It is possible that the term Rota comes from the wheel that was centered in the marble floor of Avignon. The Rota serves as a tribunal of first instance in cases such as any contentious case in which a Bishop of the Latin Church is a defendant. If the case can still be appealed after a Rotal decision, the Rota is the highest appeals court, or Supreme court, for all judicial trials in the Catholic Church. The Roman Rota proceedings are governed by a set of rules. Only advocates who are registered in a specific list are allowed to represent the parties before the Tribunal, since Pope Benedict XVI issued the motu proprio Quaerit semper the Rota has had exclusive competence to dispense from marriages ratum sed non consummatum. The Dean of the Rota, even if not already consecrated a Bishop, is to be addressed as Your Excellency, all Prelate Auditor Judges of the Rota are styled, Most Reverend Monsignor. The active auditors of the Rota, with their dates of appointment by the Pope, domenico Teti, Dean of the Roman Rota Tribunal of the Roman Rota Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts GCatholic.
org Herbermann, Charles, ed. Sacra Romana Rota
The Apostolic Penitentiary, formerly called the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Penitentiary, is one of the three tribunals of the Roman Curia. The Apostolic Penitentiary is chiefly a tribunal of mercy, responsible for relating to the forgiveness of sins in the Catholic Church. The Apostolic Penitentiary has jurisdiction only over matters in the internal forum, the head of the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Major Penitentiary, is one of the few Vatican officials who retain their positions sede vacante. If the Major Penitentiary is a Cardinal Elector he is one of three persons in the conclave allowed to communicate with those outside the conclave, so that he can continue to fulfill his duties. The Major Penitentiary is a Titular Archbishop and is normally a Cardinal, since 21 September 2013, the Major Penitentiary is Cardinal Mauro Piacenza. The second-highest-ranking official in the Apostolic Penitentiary, the Regent, is H. E. Msgr, normally, a priest or even a bishop would not be able to do this unless the person was in danger of imminent death.
The Pope has the power, as the absolute sovereign of the Catholic Church. Up until the 18th century, the Apostolic Penitentiary considered cases of confessor-penitent disputes involving violations against what was termed the external forum. For particularly heinous sins, or for serious sins committed by penitents of high political or cultural standing and this practice was particularly true in the medieval Church, for sins referred to a bishop for absolution. If a penitent felt that the penance imposed was disproportionate to the sins committed, the alleged offense was said to be against the external forum, that is, related to public acts required of the penitent. These statements were transcribed by legal clerks, who were paid by fees assessed by Apostolic Penitentiary for the transcription of their decisions and this practice prompted claims that the tribunal, and by extension the Church, accepted money for the forgiveness of sins. Normally confessions of sins are handled at the level by priests.
The work of the Apostolic Penitentiary involves sins, such as defiling the Eucharist and these sins bring automatic excommunication from the Church. Once the excommunication is lifted, absolution can be granted, persons who wish to receive an absolution or dispensation reserved to the Holy See write a petition to the Penitentiary. Usually, this petition is written through their initial confessor, the petition must use pseudonyms when explaining the situation to avoid revealing the identity of the persons involved, and the tribunal itself acts in complete secrecy. The Major Penitentiary considers the matter himself, unless it is particularly important, the members of the tribunal only give advice regarding the petition—the Major Penitentiary has the ultimate decision on whether the dispensation or absolution should be granted. If the Major Penitentiary is uncertain as to whether he has authority in a given case, the impediment or act in question must not be public, as it would be a matter of the external forum and cannot be absolved or dispensed by the Penitentiary.
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Congregation of Ceremonies
The Sacred Congregation of Ceremonies was a dicastery of the Roman Curia that was charged with the direction of all papal ceremonies as well as of the ceremonial of cardinals. The congregation was established by Pope Sixtus V and it communicated instructions to the legates of the Holy See for the maintenance of due decorum in transacting the affairs of their missions. It instructed newly promoted cardinals, too, on the etiquette to be followed conformably with their new dignity, finally, it solved the questions of precedence which arose among cardinals or among ambassadors to the Holy See. It was dissolved in 1967 in the Curial reforms by Pope Paul VI, rhema-Verlag, Münster 2007, ISBN 978-3-930454-80-8 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Charles, ed