Administrative division

An administrative division, entity, area or region referred to as a subnational entity, constituent unit, or country subdivision, is a portion of a country or other region delineated for the purpose of administration. Administrative divisions are granted a certain degree of autonomy and are required to manage themselves through their own local governments. Countries are divided up into these smaller units to make managing their land and the affairs of their people easier. A country may be divided into provinces, counties, cantons or other sub-units, which, in turn, may be divided in whole or in part into municipalities, counties or others. Administrative divisions are conceptually separate from dependent territories, with the former being an integral part of the state and the other being only under some lesser form of control. However, the term "administrative division" can include dependent territories as well as accepted administrative divisions. For clarity and convenience the standard neutral reference for the largest administrative subdivision of a country is called the "first-level administrative division" or "first administrative level".

Next smaller is called "second-level administrative division" or "second administrative level". In many of the following terms originating from British cultural influence, areas of low mean population density might bear a title of an entity one would expect to be either larger or smaller. There is no fixed rule, for "all politics is local" as is well demonstrated by their relative lack of systemic order. In the realm of self-government, any of these can and does occur along a stretch of road—which for the most part is passing through rural unsettled countryside. Since the terms are administrative political subdivisions of the local regional government their exact relationship and definitions are subject to home rule considerations, tradition, as well as state statute law and local governmental definition and control. In British cultural legacy, some territorial entities began with expansive counties which encompass an appreciably large area, but were divided over time into a number of smaller entities.

Within those entities are the large and small cities or towns, which may or may not be the county seat. Some of the world's larger cities culturally, if not span several counties, those crossing state or provincial boundaries have much in common culturally as well, but are incorporated within the same municipal government. Many sister cities share a water boundary, which quite serves as a border of both cities and counties. For example and Boston, Massachusetts appear to the casual traveler as one large city, while locally they each are quite culturally different and occupy different counties. General terms for these incorporated places include "municipality," "settlement," "locality," and "populated place." Borough, burgh or "boro" City Shire Town Township Village Tribe Indian reservation Indian reserve Band Rancheria Due to variations in their use worldwide, consistency in the translation of terms from non-English to English is sometimes difficult to maintain. Sovereign state, a national or supra-national division.

Country, a national or sub-national division. Empire, a supra-national division. GADM, a high-resolution database of country administrative areas. ISO 3166-2 Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions — Part 2. List of administrative division name changes List of etymologies of country subdivision names List of administrative divisions by country SALB Second Administrative Level Boundaries programme of the United Nations. Statoids, an international convention with standardized two-letter-based multi-level summaries of administrative divisions worldwide

Fish (surname)

Fish is an English surname. Notable people with the surname include: Albert Fish, Canadian politician Amanda Fish, American blues singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist Anne Harriet Fish, British cartoonist and illustrator Bert Fish, American judge and ambassador Bob Fish, former NASCAR Cup Series race car owner Bobby Fish, American professional wrestler Calvin Fish, British racing driver and commentator Christopher Fish, Swedish professional ice hockey player Eric Fish, singer in Subway To Sally and solo artist Farnum Fish, early American aviator Fred Fish, American computer programmer Frederick Perry Fish, president of American Telephone & Telegraph Corporation and founder of Fish & Richardson P. C. Ginger Fish, drummer for the band Marilyn Manson Graeme Fish, Canadian long track speed skater Hamilton Fish, any of several American politicians Henry Fish, New Zealand politician from Dunedin Hugh Fish, responsible for cleaning up the River Thames Jack Fish, American football and college baseball coach Jack Fish, English rugby league player Jacob Fish, Israeli-American researcher and professor in computational mechanics.

Jasper Fish, professional cricketer chiefly associated with Kent in the 1760s and 1770s Jeremy Fish, born 1974 John Fish, American businessman John Charles Lounsbury Fish, American civil engineer and educator Joseph Fish Leslie Fish and anarchist Mardy Fish, American professional tennis player Mark Fish, South African footballer Mark Fish, American composer Mark Fish, American television writer and actor Matt Fish, American basketball player Michael Fish, British fashion designer Michael Fish, BBC weather presenter Morris Fish, Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada Nate Fish, American baseball player and coach Nick Fish, American politician and lawyer Phil Fish, video game designer Preserved Fish, New York shipping merchant Renae Smith, former contestant on MasterChef Australia Rhiannon Fish a Canadian-born Australian actress Ron Fish, American musician and recording artist Samantha Fish, American singer-songwriter and guitarist Simon Fish, 16th-century Protestant reformer Stanley Fish, literary theorist Stuyvesant Fish, president of Illinois Central RailroadFictional characters: Oliver Fish, fictional character on the ABC daytime drama One Life to Live Detective Phil Fish, character played by Abe Vigoda on the television series Barney Miller and spinoff Fish Richard Fish, character from the television series Ally McBeal Fisch Fysh

Zhang Jiqing

Zhang Jiqing, from the Jiangsu Province Kunju Troupe, is a Kunqu artist. Zhang became an artist not for living. After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, her grandmother, together with her mother and aunt left for Wuqing to seek refuge when her mother happened to give birth to Zhang in 1938 at Wuqing, the hometown of many intellectuals, such as Sun Muxin. Qing became a part of her alias "Yi qing" named after the town of Wuqing. Zhang’s grandfather was a "Sue Beach" artist, her family used making a living by performing on the wharf. Zhang was imbued with what she had seen and heard when she was young, whereas her serious learning of opera only began at the age of 14. Zhang Yiqing was first arranged the role of four operas in the New opera "Mandarin Duck Sword". One of Shanghai "Chuan Generation" —Zheng Chuanjian was invited to rehearse The Cowherd and The Weaving Maid and this was the first time that Zhang received influence from Kunqu predecessors. In 1952, Zhang went to take care of her aunt, in Shanghai’s Minfeng Troupe of Suzhou opera.

Unexpectedly, seeking refuge with her aunt because of poverty, Zhang inadvertently began her life as an artist. Zhang Jiqing joined the Minfeng Troupe of Suzhou opera, she played Dan role in her early career life. The Minfeng Troupe of Suzhou opera was settled in Suzhou in October, 1953. In March, 1954, You Caiyun, a famous expert of Kunqu in the last years of Qing Dynasty, was invited to the Minfeng Troupe of Suzhou opera to teach the "Ji Generation" about Kunqu. At the beginning of 1955, Zhang Jiqing played the leading role of two Korean operas, Legend of Chun Xiang and Legend of Shen Qing. In addition, she played a role in a modern drama named Liu Hulan with her mother Zhang Huifen from the Qingfeng Troupe of Suzhou opera after the two troupes were consolidated. After 1958, she concentrated most of her time on Kunqu and received instruction from some experts such as Shen Chuanzhi, Yao Chuanxiang, Yu Xihou, she became known by audiences for playing Zhengdan and Liudan. Her representative drama are The Peony Pavilion, The Divorce of Chu Mai-sen and etc..

She was awarded the 1st Plum Blossom Prize in 1983. Yu Xihou, a student of Yu Sulu, quite an expert in the singing and spoken parts of Dan, has influenced Zhang the most in her Kunqu career. Zhang Jiqing, like her husband Yao Jikun, is one member of the "Ji Generation", they walked into a love-based marriage after a 10-year-long courtship on May 1, 1991. Her initial visit to Italy had great effects. In 1980, the ancient city— Suzhou and the Italian city- Venice became sister cities. Mayor Rodrigo invited the Suzhou city government to form art performing groups and give performances in Venice in October, 1982, he showed much hope. With the arrangement of Jiangsu Province and the Suzhou government, the "Suzhou Opera Troupe” was formed, performing Peking Opera and Suzhou storytelling. Zhang Jiqing accepted the invitation and performed The Peony Pavilion and the Lankeshan—the Crazy Dream; the first show was successful. After Venice, the troupe went to Florence, returned to Rome, Italy; this visit was the first time for Kunqu, this ancient form of theater, to go abroad as an independent group after the founding of People's Republic of China.

It could be said. The first repertoire was The Peony Pavilion. Zhang responded to a curtain call 15 times, cheers resounded through the theater; the last performance was The Divorce of Chu Mai-sen. When Zhang was still in China, Japan’s NHK made a special trip to China and shot a documentary for Zhang- The Dream of Jiangnan; the representative performances—The Peony Pavilion and The Divorce of Chu Mai-sen were shown, received tremendous response. After a commercial performance in Japan, Zhang Jiqing went to France to participate in Festival d'automne à Paris, her performance named The Peony Pavilion was welcomed by the local audiences. She received the title of the "Honorary Citizen" of Villeurbanne. In December 1993, Zhang Jiqing, together with her husband Yao Jikun, went to Korea to participate in the Seoul Art Festival and performed the Divorce of Chu Mai-sen. In the second half of 1997, they went to visit the Helsinki Festival in Northern Europe, performed The Divorce of Chu Mai-sen; these performances achieved great success.

In 1998, Zhang Jiqing cooperated with a famous Japanese Kyōgen actor, Mansaku Nomura to perform a traditional Chinese play named the Jade Hairpin in Tokyo. Invited by Pai Hsien-yung, Zhang Jiqing became the art director of the Peony Pavilion of the youth version in 2003. Shen Fengying, acting the role of Du Liniang, formally became Zhang’s first apprentice. Zhang Jiqng has been the leading role of many plays, including: Ms. Cui in The Divorce of Chu Mai-sen Du Liniang in The Peony Pavilion Yang Yuhuan in The Palace of Eternal Youth the White Snake in Legend of the White Snake Dou E in Dou E Grievances Madam Ying in