The United Mexican States is a federal republic composed of 32 states. According to the Constitution of 1917, the states of the federation are free and sovereign in all matters concerning their internal affairs; each state has constitution. The states of the Mexican Federation are free, sovereign and independent of each other, they are free to govern themselves according to their own laws. The states cannot make alliances with other states or any independent nation without the consent of the whole federation, except those of defense and security arrangements necessary to keep the border states secure in the event of an invasion; the political organization of each state is based on a separation of powers in a congressional system: legislative power is vested in a unicameral congress. Since states have legal autonomy, each has its own penal codes and judicial body. In the Congress of the Union, the federative entities – the States– are each represented by three senators, two elected by universal suffrage on the principle of relative majority and one assigned to the party that obtains the largest minority.
In addition, the federation makes up a constituency in which 32 senators are elected by the method of proportional representation. Federal Deputies, however, do not represent the states, but rather the citizens themselves; the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate together comprise the Congress of the Union. The states are internally divided into municipalities; each municipality is autonomous in its ability to elect its own council. The council is headed by a mayor elected every 3 years with no possibility of immediate reelection; each municipality has a council composed of councilors in terms of population size. The council is responsible, in most cases, to provide all utilities required for its population; this concept, which arises from the Mexican Revolution, is known as a "free municipality". In total there are 2438 municipalities in Mexico. Mexico City held special status within the federation, being a federal district, until January 2016, when Mexico City changed its name from its name called Federal District.
It is the capital of the United Mexican States. Mexico City was separated from the State of Mexico, of which it was the capital, on November 18, 1824, to become the capital of the federation; as such, it belonged not to all of them and to the federation. Therefore, it was the president of Mexico, who represented the federation, who designated its head of government. However, the Federal District received more autonomy in 1997, its citizens were able to elect their chief of government for the first time. In 2016, the Mexican Congress approved a constitutional reform eliminating the Federal District and establishing Mexico City as a autonomous entity on par with the states, becoming the 32nd state of Mexico, but with financial advantages. Unlike the states of the Union, it would receive funds for health. With full autonomy, Mexico City would have its own constitution and its boroughs became municipalities; until the ratification of Mexico City's constitution, the city is still divided for administrative purposes into 16 "delegaciones" or boroughs.
While not equivalent to a municipality or to the concept of a municipio libre, the 16 boroughs have gained significant autonomy, since 2000, the heads of government of the boroughs are elected directly by plurality vote. The second article of the constitution recognizes the multicultural composition of the nation, founded upon the indigenous peoples; the government grants them the right of self - autonomy. According to this article, the indigenous peoples are granted The right to decide their internal forms of social, economic and cultural organization; the nation commits to and demands the constituent states and municipalities to promote the economic and social development of the indigenous communities, as well as an intercultural and bilingual education. According to the General Law of Linguistic Rights of the Indigenous Peoples, the nation recognizes 68 indigenous languages as "national languages", with the same validity as Spanish in the territories in which they are spoken; the indigenous peoples are entitled to request public services in their languages.
*Mexico's post agency, Correos de México, does not offer an official list. Various competing commercially devised; the list here reflects choices among them according to these sources. On September 27, 1821, after three centuries of Spanish rule, Mexico gained independence; the Treaty of Córdoba recognized part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain as an Independent Empire – "monarchist, constitutional
Nydia Margarita Velázquez Serrano is a Puerto Rican-American politician serving in the United States House of Representatives since 1993. Velázquez, a Democrat from New York was the chair of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus until January 3, 2011, her district, located in New York City, was numbered the 12th district from 1993 to 2013 and has been numbered the 7th district since 2013. Velázquez is the first Puerto Rican woman to serve in the United States Congress, Velázquez was born in the town of Limones in the municipality of Yabucoa, Puerto Rico on March 28, 1953, she grew up in Yabucoa in a small house on the Río Limones. Her father, Benito Velázquez Rodríguez, was a poor worker in the sugarcane fields who became a self-taught political activist and the founder of a local political party. Political conversations at the dinner table focused on workers' rights, her mother was Carmen Luisa Serrano Medina. She was one of nine siblings born to the couple. Velázquez skipped three grades as a child.
She became the first in her family to graduate high school. She became a student at University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras at age 16. In 1974, she received a degree in political science, magna cum laude, became a teacher. While in college, Velázquez was a supporter of Puerto Rican independence. A. in political science from New York University. She subsequently served as an instructor of political science at the University of Puerto Rico at Humacao from 1976 to 1981. After returning to New York City, Velázquez was an adjunct professor of Puerto Rican studies at Hunter College from 1981 to 1983. In 1983, Velázquez was special assistant to Representative Edolphus Towns, a Democrat representing New York's 10th congressional district in Brooklyn. In 1984, Velázquez was named by Howard Golden to fill a vacant seat on the New York City Council, becoming the first Hispanic woman to serve on the Council. Velázquez lost to a challenger. From May 1986 to July 1989, Velázquez was national director of the Puerto Rico Department of Labor and Human Resources' Migration Division Office.
From 1989 to 1992 she was named by the governor of Puerto Rico as the director of the Department of Puerto Rican Community Affairs in the United States. In this role, according to a 1992 New York Times profile, "Velazquez solidified her reputation that night as a street-smart and politically savvy woman who understood the value of solidarity and loyalty to other politicians, community leaders and organized labor."Velázquez pioneered Atrévete Con Tu Voto, a program that aims to politically empower Latinos in the United States through voter registration and other projects. The Atrévete project spread from New York to Hartford, New Jersey, Chicago, Boston, helping Hispanic candidates secure electoral wins. Velázquez has been an advocate for civil rights of the Puerto Rican people. In the late 1990s and the 2000s, she was a leader in the Vieques movement, which sought to stop the United States military from using the inhabited island as a bomb testing ground. In May 2000, Velázquez was one of nearly two hundred people arrested for refusing to leave the natural habitat the US military wished to continue using as a bombing range.
Velázquez was successful: in May 2003, the Atlantic Fleet Weapons Training Facility on Vieques Island was closed. S. Navy's last remaining base on Puerto Rico, the Roosevelt Roads Naval Station - which employed 1,000 local contractors and contributed $300 million to the local economy - was closed. Velázquez ran for Congress in the 1992 election, seeking a seat in the New York's newly-drawn 12th congressional district, drawn as a majority-Hispanic district. Velázquez won the Democratic primary, defeating nine-term incumbent Stephen J. Solarz and four Hispanic candidates. In 2003, Hispanic Business Magazine honored her with its first "Woman of the Year" award, citing her support of minority small-business owners; as a Representative, Velázquez has focused on building a legislative agenda that lobbies to increase the opportunities for the nation's 47 million Hispanics, including the over 2.3 million Hispanics residing in New York City. Throughout her career as a New York Representative, Velázquez has and supported pro-choice and family-planning interests groups such as the NARAL Pro-Choice America and the Planned Parenthood.
Velázquez has shown support of the National Farmers' Union. She has shown no support of interests groups. In 2009, Velázquez voted against the amendment Prohibiting Federally Funded Abortion Services. In the past year, Velázquez has supported the Agriculture, Rural Development and Drug Administration, Related Agencies Appropriations, the Unemployment Benefits Association, the Unemployment Benefits Extension. Velázquez has consistently voted in favor of bills attempting to strengthen women's rights, such as the Employment Discrimination Law Amendments, Equal Pay Bill and the Inclusion of Consolidated Appropriations. On September 29, 2008, Velázquez voted in favor of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008. On November 19, 2008, Congresswoman Velázquez was elected by her peers in the Congressional Hispanic Caucus to lead the group for the 111th Congress. Prior to removing her name from consideration, she was considered a possible candidate to be appointed to the United States Senate by Governor
Navíd Akhavan is an Iranian-German actor best known for his role as Hakan in the German comedy television series König von Kreuzberg. He is known as Navid Navid. Navid Akhavan was born in Iran. Due to the Iran-Iraq war the four-year Navid had to escape with his family from his native country. After living in the United States, Akhavan moved to Germany with his father, his mother and his younger brother. Akhavan grew up speaking English and Persian, he performed on stage for the first time. He has grown up with music, his mother, a composer, his father, a concert organizer, let him participate in their working life. He has played in different theater, TV and film productions over this time. During 2003 Akhavan was nominated "best actor" for his role in the 2003 drama Fremder Freund. Septembers of Shiraz Sein gutes Recht 45 Minutes to Ramallah For a Moment, Freedom 2008 Fremde Haut Fremder Freund Happy Halloween Alarm für Cobra 11 - Die Autobahnpolizei Die Diplomatin Tatort Großstadtrevier 2007–2017 Blow Dry König von Kreuzberg Navíd Akhavan on IMDb Official website