Mongolia under Qing rule
Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty of China over the Mongolian steppe, including the Outer Mongolian 4 aimags and Inner Mongolian 6 leagues from the 17th century to the end of the dynasty. "Mongolia" here is understood in the broader historical sense. The last Mongol Khagan Ligden saw much of his power weakened in his quarrels with the Mongol tribes and was defeated by the Manchus, he died soon afterwards, his son Ejei Khan gave Hong Taiji the imperial authority, ending the rule of Northern Yuan dynasty centered in Inner Mongolia by 1635. However, the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia continued to rule until they were overrun by the Dzungars in 1690, they submitted to the Qing dynasty in 1691; the Manchu-led Qing dynasty had ruled Outer Mongolia for over 200 years. During this period Qing rulers established separate administrative structures to govern each region. While the empire maintained firm control in both Inner and Outer Mongolia, the Mongols in Outer Mongolia enjoyed more degree of autonomy, retained their own language and culture during this period.
During the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, most regions inhabited by ethnic Mongols, notably Outer and Inner Mongolia became part of the Qing Empire. Before the dynasty began to take control of China proper in 1644, the escapades of Ligden Khan had driven a number of Mongol tribes to ally with the Manchu state; the Manchus conquered a Mongol tribe in the process of war against the Ming. Nurhaci's early relations with the Mongols tribes was an alliance. After Ligden's defeat and death his son had to submit to the Manchus, when the Qing dynasty was founded, most of what is now called Inner Mongolia belonged to the new state; the Khalkha Mongols in Outer Mongolia joined in 1691 when their defeat by the Dzungars left them without a chance to remain independent. The Khoshud in Qinghai were conquered in 1723/24; the Dzungars were destroyed, their territory conquered, in 1756/57 during the Dzungar genocide. The last Mongols to join the empire were the returning Torgud Kalmyks at the Ili in 1771.
After conquering the Ming, the Qing identified their state as Zhongguo, referred to it as "Dulimbai Gurun" in Manchu. When the Qing conquered Dzungaria in 1759, they proclaimed that the new land which belonged to the Dzungar Mongols was now absorbed into "China" in a Manchu language memorial; the Qing expounded on their ideology that they were bringing together the "outer" non-Han Chinese like the Inner Mongols, Eastern Mongols, Oirat Mongols, Tibetans together with the "inner" Han Chinese, into "one family" united in the Qing state. The Manchu language version of the Convention of Kyakhta, a treaty with the Russian Empire concerning criminal jurisdiction over bandits, referred to people from the Qing as "people from the Central Kingdom", the usage of "Chinese" in the convention referred to the Mongols. In the Manchu official Tulisen's Manchu language account of his meeting with the Torghut Mongol leader Ayuki Khan, it was mentioned that the Torghut Mongols were unlike the Russians but were instead like the "people of the Central Kingdom" such as the Manchus.
Due to the different ways of legitimization for different peoples in the Qing Empire, some non-Han people such as the Mongols considered themselves as subjects of the Qing state but outside China or Khitad. From the early years, the Manchus' relations with the neighboring Mongol tribes had been crucial in the dynasty development. Nurhaci had exchanged wives and concubines with the Khalkha Mongols since 1594, received titles from them in the early 17th century, he consolidated his relationship with portions of the Khorchin and Kharachin populations of eastern Mongols. They recognized Nurhaci as Khan, in return leading lineages of those groups were titled by Nurhaci and married with his extended family. Nurhaci chose to variously emphasize either differences or similarities in lifestyles with the Mongols for political reasons. Nurhaci said to the Mongols that "The languages of the Chinese and Koreans are different, but their clothing and way of life is the same, it is the same with us Mongols. Our languages are different, but our clothing and way of life is the same."
Nurhaci indicated that the bond with the Mongols was not based in any real shared culture, rather it was for pragmatic reasons of "mutual opportunism", when he said to the Mongols: "You Mongols raise livestock, eat meat and wear pelts. My people live on grain. We two are not one country and we have different languages." As Nurhaci formally declared independence from the Ming dynasty and proclaimed the Later Jin in 1616, he gave himself a Mongolian-style title, consolidating his claim to the Mongolian traditions of leadership. The banners and other Manchu institutions are examples of productive hybridity, combining "pure" Mongolian elements and Han Chinese elements. Intermarriage with Mongolian noble families had cemented the alliance between the two peoples. Hong Taiji further expanded the marriage alliance policy. Despite the growing intimacy of Manchu-Mongol ties, Ligdan Khan, the last Khan from the Chakhar, resolutely opposed the growing Manchu power and viewed himself as the legitimate representative of the Mongolian imperial tradition.
But after his repeated losses in battle to the Manchus in the 1620s and early 1630s, as well as his own death in 16
Tüsheet Khan refers to the territory as well as the Chingizid dynastic rulers of the Tüsheet Khanate, one of four Khalkha Mongolian Khanates that emerged from remnants of the Mongol Empire after the death of Dayan Khan's son Gersenji in 1549 and which continued until 1930. Through most of the 17th century, the Tüsheet Khan, along with the Setsen Khan, comprised two Left Wing Khalkha Mongol khanates situated in central and eastern areas of present-day Mongolia with the Jasaghtu Khan and the Altan Khan comprising the two Right Wing khanates; the Altan Khan ceased to exist after a series of defeats at the hands of their western neighbors the Oirat Dzungar Khanate in the late 17 century. The Tüsheet Khan exerted more influence and power over the other Khans as it occupied most of modern central Mongolia, an area that included the Orkhon Valley, the ancient Mongol capital of Karakorum, the religious center of Erdene Zuu; the 3rd Dalai Lama declared Abtai, grandson of Gersenji, Khan of the Tüsheet following their meeting at Guihua in 1587.
In the years leading up to the meeting, Abtai had converted to Buddhism and founded Erdene Zuu, one of Mongolia's first Buddhist monasteries, near the ruins of Karakorum. Following his meeting with the Dalai Lama, Abtai declared Tibetan Buddhism the state religion of his khanate. Zanabazar, the first Jebtsundamba Khutuktu was the son of Tüsheet khan Gombodorj and the great grandson of Abtai Sain Khan, his migratory palace, the Örgöö, would settle in the location of Mongolia's present day capital Ulaanbaatar. In 1691, the leaders of the Tüsheet Khan, the Jasaghtu Khan, the Setsen Khan fled to Inner Mongolia where they pledged fealty to the Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty in return for protection against the invading Dzungar Mongolian forces under Galdan Boshugtu Khan. After the Qing's victory over the Dzungars at the Battle of Jao Modo in 1697, the three khanates became provincial subdivisions or aimags of the Manchus and their respective khans were made nominal leaders. In 1725, the Qing created a fourth aimag, Sain Noyon Khan Aimag, carved out of 19 khoshuu in western Tüsheet Khan Aimag.
In 1930, following the Mongolian Revolution of 1921, the four aimags were divided into the present day 21 smaller aimags, which were subdivided into sums. Gersenji Khongtaiji of the Jalayir Onokhui üizen noyan Abtai Sain Khan Erkhi Mergen Khan Gombodorj Chikhundorj Dondubjorj Ravdandorj Vandildorj Togtokhdorj Tubdandorj Jampildorj Tsedendorj Minjurdorj 1795 Oidubdorj Erentei Tserendorj Nasantsogt Dashyam Dorjsuren Khoroljav
The Jebtsundamba Khutuktu are the spiritual heads of the Gelug lineage of Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia. They hold the title of Bogd Gegeen, making them the top-ranked lamas in Mongolia; the first Jebtsundamba, was identified as the reincarnation of the scholar Taranatha of the Jonang school of Tibetan Buddhism. Zanabazar was the son of the Tüsheet Khan Gombodorj, ruler of central Khalkha Mongolia, himself became the spiritual head of the Khalkha Mongols. On May 29, the Jebtsundamba Khutukhtu paid homage to the Kangxi Emperor in 1691 at Dolonnor. Like Zanabazar, the 2nd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu was a member of Mongolia's highest nobility and direct descendant of Genghis Khan. After Chingünjav's rebellion and the demise of the second Jebtsundamba Khutugtu, the Qianlong Emperor decreed in 1758 that all future reincarnations were to be found from among the population of Tibet; when northern Mongolia declared independence in 1911, the eighth Jebtsundamba was elevated to theocratic ruler, called Bogd Khan.
He was the head of state until his death in 1924. The communist government of the Mongolian People's Republic, which replaced the theocracy in 1924, declared that there were to be no further reincarnations. A reincarnation was in fact found at once in north Mongolia, some high lamas of the dead Khutughtu's suite went to interview the child's mother, to instruct her in the details of the life of the former incarnation, so that she could familiarize the child-candidate with the tests which he would have to undergo. Faced with the possibility of a new Khutughtu, born within Mongolia and was not a foreigner from Tibet, the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party decided in July 1925 to turn the matter over to the elderly 13th Dalai Lama in Lhasa; the Dalai Lama's decision would nonetheless be subject to new Mongolian legislation for the separation of church and state. In February 1929, the installation of any further Khutughtus was forbidden. A 9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu was installed by the 14th Dalai Lama as the head of a reinvigorated Jonang lineage.
He was born Jampal Namdol Chökyi Gyaltsen in 1932 and he died in early 2012. Despite the Chinese government's claim to have inherited the authority and ultimate decision right for the choice of successor of all high lamas in Mongolia and Tibet, the 9th Jebstundamba will be reincarnated within the independent Mongolia and the selection will be confirmed by the Dalai Lama; this puts China in a dilemma of endangering their foreign affairs with Mongolia for the choice of the next Lama or to forfeit this right that they claim to have control of religious affairs giving up their authority over the choice of the next Dalai Lama and putting their current choice of the Panchen Lama in question. Bogdo gegeen 1635–1723: Öndör Gegeen Zanabazar, 1st Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1724–1757: Luvsandambiydonmi, 2nd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1758–1773: Ishdambiynyam, 3rd Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1775–1813: Luvsantüvdenvanchug, 4th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1815–1841: Luvsanchültimjigmed, 5th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1843–1848: Luvsantüvdenchoyjijaltsan, 6th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1850–1868: Agvaanchoyjivanchugperenlaijamts, 7th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu 1870–20 May 1924: Agvaanluvsanchoyjindanzanvaanchigbalsambuu, 8th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu and Bogd Khan 1936–1 March 2012: Jambalnamdolchoyjijantsan, 9th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu On November 23, 2016 during a visit to Mongolia, the Dalai Lama announced his belief that the 10th Jebtsundamba Khutughtu had been reborn in Mongolia and that a process for identifying him had begun.
The Zanabazar quadratic script, Ragchaagiin Byambaa Online biography of Zanabazar, the first Khalkha Jebtsundamba List of the first eight Jebtsundamba Khutuktus
The name Dzungar people written as Zunghar, referred to the several Oirat tribes who formed and maintained the Dzungar Khanate in the 17th and 18th centuries. They were one of major tribes of the Four Oirat confederation, they were known as the Eleuths or Ööled, from the Qing dynasty euphemism for the hated word "Dzungar", called "Kalmyks". In 2010, 15,520 people claimed "Ööled" ancestry in Mongolia. An unknown number live in China and Kazakhstan; the Dzungars were a confederation of several Oirat tribes that emerged in the early 17th century to fight the Altan Khan of the Khalkha, the Jasaghtu Khan, the Manchu for dominion and control over the Mongolian people and territories. This confederation rose to power in what became known as Dzungaria between the Altai Mountains and the Ili River Valley; the confederation consisted of the Oöled and Khoit tribes. On, elements of the Khoshut and Torghut tribes were forcibly incorporated into the Dzungar military, thus completing the re-unification of the West Mongolian tribes.
According to oral history, the Oöled and Dörbed tribes are the successor tribes to the Naiman, a Mongol tribe that roamed the steppes of Central Asia during the era of Genghis Khan. The Oöled shared. "Zuun gar" and "Baruun gar" formed the Oirat's administrative organization. The Dzungar Olots and Choros became the ruling clans in the 17th century. In 1697, two relatives of Galdan Boshugtu Khan and Rabdan, surrendered to the Qing Kangxi Emperor, their people were organized into two Oolod banners and resettled in modern Bayankhongor Province, Mongolia. In 1731, five hundred households fled back to Dzungar territory while the remaining Oolods were deported to Hulun Buir. After 1761 some of them were resettled in Arkhangai Province; the Dzungars who lived in an area that stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day eastern Kazakhstan and from present-day northern Kyrgyzstan to southern Siberia, were the last nomadic empire to threaten China, which they did from the early 17th century through the middle of the 18th century.
After a series of inconclusive military conflicts that started in the 1680s, the Dzungars were subjugated by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in the late 1750s. Clarke argued that the Qing campaign in 1757–58 "amounted to the complete destruction of not only the Dzungar state but of the Dzungars as a people." After the Qianlong Emperor led Qing forces to victory over the Dzungar Oirat Mongols in 1755, he was going to split the Dzungar Khanate into four tribes headed by four Khans, the Khoit tribe was to have the Dzungar leader Amursana as its Khan. Amursana rejected the Qing arrangement and rebelled since he wanted to be leader of a united Dzungar nation. Qianlong issued his orders for the genocide and eradication of the entire Dzungar nation and name, Qing Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols enslaved Dzungar women and children while slaying the other Dzungars; the Qianlong Emperor ordered the genocide of the Dzungars, moving the remaining Dzungar people to the mainland and ordering the generals to kill all the men in Barkol or Suzhou, divided their wives and children to Qing forces, which were made out of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols.
Qing scholar Wei Yuan estimated the total population of Dzungars before the fall at 600,000 people, or 200,000 households. Oirat officer Saaral battled against the Oirats. In a cited account of the war, Wei Yuan wrote that about 40% of the Dzungar households were killed by smallpox, 20% fled to Russia or Kazakh tribes, 30% were killed by the Qing army of Manchu Bannermen and Khalkha Mongols, leaving no yurts in an area of several thousands li except those of the surrendered. During this war Kazakhs attacked dispersed Altays. Based on this account, Wen-Djang Chu wrote that 80% of the 600,000 or more Dzungars were destroyed by disease and attack which Michael Clarke described as "the complete destruction of not only the Dzungar state but of the Zungars as a people." Historian Peter Perdue attributed the decimation of the Dzungars to an explicit policy of extermination launched by Qianlong, but he observed signs of a more lenient policy after mid-1757. Mark Levene, a historian whose recent research interests focus on genocide, has stated that the extermination of the Dzungars was "arguably the eighteenth century genocide par excellence."
The Dzungar genocide was completed by a combination of a smallpox epidemic and the direct slaughter of Dzungars by Qing forces made out of Manchu Bannermen and Mongols. Anti-Dzungar Uyghur rebels from the Turfan and Hami oases had submitted to Qing rule as vassals and requested Qing help for overthrowing Dzungar rule. Uyghur leaders like Emin Khoja were granted titles within the Qing nobility, these Uyghurs helped supply the Qing military forces during the anti-Dzungar campaign; the Qing employed Khoja Emin in its campaign against the Dzungars and used him as an intermediary with Muslims from the Tarim Basin to inform them that the Qing were only aiming to kill Dzungars and that they would leave the Muslims alone, to convince them to kill the Dzungars themselves and side with the Qing since the Qing noted the Muslims' resentment of their former experience under Dzungar rule at the hands of Tsewang Araptan. It was not until generations that Dzungaria rebounded from the destruction and near liquidation of the Dzungars after the mass slay
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats; the Later Jin, Qing dynasty were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China. Manchus form the largest branch of the Tungusic peoples and are distributed throughout China, forming the fourth largest ethnic group in the country, they can be found in 31 Chinese provincial regions. They form the largest minority group in China without an autonomous region. Among them, Liaoning has the largest population and Hebei, Jilin, Inner Mongolia and Beijing have over 100,000 Manchu residents. About half of the population live in one-fifth in Hebei. There are a number of Manchu autonomous counties in China, such as Xinbin, Qinglong, Yitong, Weichang, Benxi, Huanren, Fengcheng and over 300 Manchu towns and townships; the Jiu Manzhou Dang contains the earliest use of Manchu.
However, the actual etymology of the ethnic name "Manju" is debatable. According to the Qing dynasty's official historical record, the Researches on Manchu Origins, the ethnic name came from Mañjuśrī; the Qianlong Emperor supported the point of view and wrote several poems on the subject. Meng Sen, a famous scholar of the Qing dynasty, too. On the other hand, he thought the name "Manchu" was related to Li Manzhu, the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, it was just the most respectful appellation in the society of the Jianzhou Jurchens in Meng's mind. Another scholar, Chang Shan, thinks. "Man" was from the word "mangga". So Manju means "intrepid arrow". There are other hypotheses, such as Fu Sinian's "etymology of Jianzhou"; the Manchus are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty in China, but as early as the semi-mythological chronicles of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors there is mention of the Sushen, a Tungusic people from the northern Manchurian region of northeast Asia, who paid bows and arrows as tribute to Emperor Shun and to the Zhou dynasty.
The Sushen used flint-headed wooden arrows, farmed and fished, lived in caves and trees. The cognates Sushen or Jichen again appear in the Shan Hai Jing and Book of Wei during the dynastic era referring to the Tungusic Mohe tribes of the far northeast; the Mohe practiced pig farming extensively and were sedentary, used both pig and dog skins for coats. They were predominantly farmers and grew soybeans, wheat and rice, in addition to hunting. In the 10th century AD, the term Jurchen first appeared in documents of the late Tang dynasty in reference to the state of Balhae in present-day northeastern China. Following the fall of Balhae, the Jurchens became vassals of the Khitan-led Liao dynasty; the Jurchens in the Yalu River region were tributaries of Goryeo since the reign of Wang Geon, who called upon them during the wars of the Later Three Kingdoms period, but the Jurchens switched allegiance between Liao and Goryeo multiple times, taking advantage of the tension between the two nations. In the year 1114, Wanyan Aguda established the Jin dynasty.
His brother and successor, Wanyan Wuqimai defeated the Liao dynasty. After the fall of the Liao dynasty, the Jurchens went to war with the Northern Song dynasty, captured most of northern China in the Jin–Song wars. During the Jin dynasty, the first Jurchen script came into use in the 1120s, it was derived from the Khitan script. The Jurchens were sedentary, settled farmers with advanced agriculture, they farmed grain and millet as their cereal crops, grew flax, raised oxen, pigs and horses. Their farming way of life was different from the pastoral nomadism of the Mongols and the Khitans on the steppes. In 1206, the Mongols, vassals to the Jurchens, rose in Mongolia, their leader, Genghis Khan, led Mongol troops against the Jurchens, who were defeated by Ögedei Khan in 1234. Under the Mongols' control, the Jurchens were divided into two groups and treated differently: the ones who were born and raised in North China and fluent in Chinese were considered to be Chinese, but the people who were born and raised in the Jurchen homeland without Chinese-speaking abilities were treated as Mongols politically.
From that time, the Jurchens of North China merged with the Han Chinese while those living in their homeland started to be Mongolized. They adopted Mongolian customs and the Mongolian language; as time went on, fewer and fewer Jurchens could recognize their own script. The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. In 1387, Ming forces defeated the Mongol commander Naghachu's resisting forces who settled in the Haixi area and began to summon the Jurchen tribes to pay tribute. At the time, some Jurchen clans were vassals to the Joseon dynasty of Korea such as Odoli and Huligai, their elites served in the Korean royal bodyguard. The Joseon Koreans tried to deal with the military threat posed by the Jurchen by using both forceful means and incentives, by launc
Jarud Banner is a banner of eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. It is under the administration of Tongliao City, 150 kilometres, the China National Highway 304 passes through the area. Jarud Banner has a monsoon-influenced, continental semi-arid climate, with cold and dry winters, somewhat humid summers, strong winds in spring; the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −12.6 °C in January to 23.9 °C in July, with the annual mean at 6.58 °C. The annual precipitation is 383 millimetres, with more than half of it falling in July and August alone. There are 2,883 hours of bright sunshine annually, with each of the winter months having over two-thirds of the possible total, this percentage falling to 54 in July. Www.xzqh.org
Zhili romanized as Chihli, was a northern province of China from the 14th-century Ming Dynasty until the region was dissolved in 1911 and converted as a province and renamed as Hebei in 1928. The name Zhili means "directly ruled" and indicates regions directly ruled by the imperial government of China. Zhili province was first constituted during the Ming Dynasty when the capital of China was located at Nanjing along the Yangtze River. In 1403, the Ming Yongle Emperor relocated the capital to Beiping, subsequently renamed Beijing; the region known as North Zhili was composed of parts of the modern provinces of Hebei, Shandong, including the provincial-level municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. There was another region located around the "reserve capital" Nanjing known as South Zhili that included parts of what are today the provinces of Jiangsu and Anhui, including the provincial-level municipality of Shanghai. During the Qing Dynasty, Nanjing lost its status of the "second capital" and Southern Zhili was reconstituted as a regular province, while Northern Zhili was renamed Zhili Province.
In the 18th century the borders of Zhili province were redrawn and spread over what is today Beijing and the provinces of Hebei, Western Liaoning, Northern Henan, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. After the collapse of Qing Dynasty, in 1911, the National Government of the Republic of China converted Zhili into a province as Zhili Province. In 1928 the National Government assigned portions of northern Zhili province to its neighbors in the north and renamed the remainder Hebei Province. Complete Map of the Seven Coastal Provinces from 1821-1850