Peruvian War of Independence
The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, continuing with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, culminating in 1826 with the Siege of Callao. The wars of independence took place with the background of the 1780–1781 uprising by indigenous leader Túpac Amaru II and the earlier removal of Upper Peru and the Río de la Plata regions from the Viceroyalty of Peru; because of this the viceroy had the support of the "Lima oligarchy," who saw their elite interests threatened by popular rebellion and were opposed to the new commercial class in Buenos Aires. During the first decade 1800s Peru had been a stronghold for royalists, who fought those in favor of independence in Peru, Bolivia and Chile. Among the most important events during the war was the proclamation of independence of Peru by José de San Martín on 28 July 1821; the Peninsular War central authority in the Spanish Empire was lost and many regions established autonomous juntas.
The viceroy of Peru, José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa was instrumental in organizing armies to suppress uprisings in Upper Peru and defending the region from armies sent by the juntas of the Río de la Plata. After success of the royalist armies, Abascal annexed Upper Peru to the viceroyalty, which benefited the Lima merchants as trade from the silver-rich region was now directed to the Pacific; because of this, Peru remained royalist and participated in the political reforms implemented by the Cádiz Cortes, despite Abascal's resistance. Peru was represented at the first session of the Cortes by seven deputies and local cabildos became elected. Therefore, Peru became the second to last redoubt of the Spanish Monarchy in South America, after Upper Peru. Peru succumbed to patriot armies after the decisive continental campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar; some of the early Spanish conquistadors that explored Peru made the first attempts for independence from the Spanish crown. They tried to liberate themselves from the Viceroyalty.
Throughout the eighteenth century, there were several indigenous uprisings against colonial rule and their treatment by the colonial authorities. Some of these uprisings became true rebellions; the Bourbon Reforms increased the unease, the dissent had its outbreak in the Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II, repressed, but the root cause of the discontent of the indigenous people remained dormant. It is debated whether these movements should be considered as precedents of the emancipation, led by chiefs, Peruvian towns, other countries in the American continent; the independence of Peru was an important chapter in the Hispano-American wars of independence. The campaign of Sucre in Upper Peru concluded in April 1825, in November of the same year Mexico obtained the surrender of the Spanish bastion of San Juan de Ulúa in North America; the Spanish strongholds in Callao and Chiloé in South America fell in January 1826. Spain renounced all their continental American territories ten years in 1836 leaving little of its vast empire intact.
Despite the royalist tendencies of Peru, junta movements did emerge fomented by the approach of patriot armies from Buenos Aires. There were two short-lived uprisings in the southern city of Tacna in 1811 and 1813. One significant movement, led by Natives in Huánuco, began on 22 February 1812, it involved various leaders, including curacas and township magistrates, but was suppressed within a few weeks. More enduring was the rebellion of Cuzco from 1814 to 1815; the rebellion began in a confrontation between the Constitutional Cabildo and the Audiencia of Cuzco over the administration of the city. Cabildo officials and their allies were arrested by the Audiencia. Criollo leaders appealed to retired brigadier Mateo Pumacahua, curaca of Chinchero, decades earlier had been instrumental in suppressing the rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. Pumacahua joined the Criollo leaders in forming a junta on 3 August in Cuzco, which demanded the complete implementation of the liberal reforms of the Spanish Constitution of 1812.
After some victories in southern Peru and Upper Peru, the rebellion was squashed by mid-1815 when a combined strength of royal forces and loyal curacas, among which were the Catacora and Apo Cari took Cuzco and executed Pumacahua. After the squashing of the aforementioned rebellion, the Viceroy of Peru organised two expeditions. In 1814, the first expedition was successful in reconquering Chile after winning the Battle of Rancagua. In 1817 following the royalist defeat in the Battle of Chacabuco, the second expedition against the Chilean Patriots in 1818 was an attempt to restore the monarchy, it was successful in the Second Battle of Cancha Rayada, the expedition was defeated by José de San Martín in the Battle of Maipú. To begin the liberation of Peru and Chile signed a treaty on 5 February 1819 to prepare for the invasion. General José de San Martín believed that the liberation of Argentina wouldn't be secure until the royalist stronghold in Peru was defeated. Following the Battle of Maipú and the subsequent liberation of Chile, the patriots began the preparations for an amphibious assault force to liberate Peru.
The costs were to be assumed by both Chile and Argentina, however the Chilean government under Bernardo O'Higgins ended up assuming most of costs of the campaign. Nonetheless, it was determined that the land army was to
National Office of Electoral Processes
The National Office of Electoral Processes is the body in charge of organizing elections in Peru. Created in 1993, during the government of Alberto Fujimori, it is headquartered in the Jesús María District in Lima, its current National Chief is Adolfo Carlo Magno Castillo Meza. ONPE is an autonomous body of the State, it forms the electoral system of Peru, along with the National Jury of Elections and the National Registry of Identification and Civil Status. 1. Organizing all electoral processes and other popular consultations. Thus, ONPE has the duty, whenever the President of Peru calls for elections, to organize them and guarantee their transparency and legitimacy. 2. Designing the voting ballots, electoral acts and any other relevant material, in order to ensure the respect for the citizen's will. ONPE is in charge of carrying out lotteries to determine the order of candidates or options on the respective ballot. 1. National Chief 2. Advisor Cabinet Chief 3. Information and Electoral Education Manager 4.
Electoral Administration Manager 5. Supervision of Party Funds Manager 6. General Secretaríat 7. Juridical Counsel Manager 8. Planning and Electoral Development Manager 9. Systems and Electoral Informatics Manager 10. Administration and Finance Manager 11. Electoral Upbringing and Training Manager 12. Electoral Organization and Regional Coordination Manager 13. Institutional Control Manager 14. Public Barrister To ensure the respect for the popular will, to promote the free electoral participation by the citizens, to contribute to the democratic consolidation of the country. To be the maximum and autonomous authority, specialized in planning and execution of electoral processes, a model within the region for its technology and innovative electoral mechanisms. Elections in Peru National Office of Electoral Processes
Politics of Peru
The politics of the Republic of Peru takes place in a framework of a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Peru is both head of state and head of government, of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Government. Legislative power is vested in the Congress; the Judiciary is independent of the legislature. The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Peru as "flawed democracy" in 2016. According to Latinobarómetro's surveys, Peruvians have the worst image of their political system with Hondurans and Mexicans with Latin Americans; the historian Antonio Zapata describes Peru as a "right-wing country", the only left-wing government in contemporary history being that of Juan Velasco Alvarado, author of agrarian reform and the nationalization of strategic sectors1. All major media and political parties are in favour of economic liberalism. In 1924, from Mexico, university reform leaders in Peru, forced into exile by the government founded the American People's Revolutionary Alliance, which had a major influence on the country's political life.
APRA is thus a political expression of the university reform and workers' struggles of the years 1918-1920. The movement draws its influences from the Mexican revolution and its 1917 Constitution on issues of agrarianism and indigenism, to a lesser extent from the Russian revolution. Close to Marxism, it moves away from it on the question of class struggle and on the importance given to the struggle for the political unity of Latin America. In 1928, the Peruvian Socialist Party was founded, notably under the leadership of José Carlos Mariátegui, himself a former member of APRA. Shortly afterwards, in 1929, the party created the General Confederation of Workers; the Republic of Peru is in a state of ongoing democratization. Led by President Martin Vizcarra, the new government is expected to be accountable. A rubberstamp body, Peru's unicameral Congress is emerging as a strong counterbalance to the once-dominant executive branch, with increased oversight and investigative powers; the executive branch and Congress are attempting to reform the judicial branch and rife with corruption.
During the government of Fujimori the 1979 Constitution was changed after the Fujimori's self-coup where the president dissolved the Congress and established the new 1993 Constitution. One of the changes to the 1979 Constitution was the possibility of the president's immediate reelection which made possible the reelection of Fujimori in the next years. After the Fujimori era and Fujimori's resign, the transition government of Valentín Paniagua changed the article 112 and called new elections in 2001 where Alejandro Toledo was elected. After that, Peru has had all presidents democratically elected. Under the current constitution, the President is the head of government. All citizens above the age of eighteen are entitled and in fact compelled to vote; the first and second vice presidents are popularly elected but have no constitutional functions unless the president is unable to discharge his duties. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, individually and collectively responsible both to the president and the legislature.
All presidential decree laws or draft bills sent to Congress must be approved by the Council of Ministers. The legislative branch consists of a unicameral Congress of 130 members. Elected for a five-year term by proportional representation In addition to passing laws, Congress ratifies treaties, authorizes government loans, approves the government budget; the president has the power to block legislation with. Template:Peruvian legislative election, 2016 The judicial branch of government is headed by a 16-member Supreme Court seated in Lima; the National Council of the Judiciary appoints judges to this court. The Constitutional Court interprets the constitution on matters of individual rights. Superior courts in regional capitals review appeals from decisions by lower courts. Courts of first instance are located in provincial capitals and are divided into civil and special chambers; the judiciary has created several temporary specialized courts in an attempt to reduce the large backlog of cases pending final court action.
Peru's legal system is based on civil law system. Peru has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. In 1996 a human rights ombudsman's office was created to address human rights issues. Peru's territory, according to the Regionalization Law, passed on 18 November 2002, is divided into 25 regions; these regions are subdivided into provinces. There are 1747 districts in Peru. Lima Province is not part of any political region. Leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path Abimael Guzmán. Both Shining Path & MRTA are considered terrorist organizations. In the early 1970s and 1980s many grass-roots organizations emerged in Peru, they were concerned with problems of poverty reduction. After 2000 they played an important role in the decentralisation process, their hope was that power would be divided between nat
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Decentralisation is the process by which the activities of an organization those regarding planning and decision making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group. Concepts of decentralization have been applied to group dynamics and management science in private businesses and organizations, political science and public administration, economics and technology; the word "centralization" came into use in France in 1794 as the post-French Revolution French Directory leadership created a new government structure. The word "decentralization" came into usage in the 1820s. "Centralization" entered written English in the first third of the 1800s. In the mid-1800s Tocqueville would write that the French Revolution began with "a push towards decentralization... in the end, an extension of centralization." In 1863 retired French bureaucrat Maurice Block wrote an article called "Decentralization" for a French journal which reviewed the dynamics of government and bureaucratic centralization and recent French efforts at decentralization of government functions.
Ideas of liberty and decentralization were carried to their logical conclusions during the 19th and 20th centuries by anti-state political activists calling themselves "anarchists", "libertarians", decentralists. Tocqueville was an advocate, writing: "Decentralization has, not only an administrative value, but a civic dimension, since it increases the opportunities for citizens to take interest in public affairs, and from the accumulation of these local, persnickety freedoms, is born the most efficient counterweight against the claims of the central government if it were supported by an impersonal, collective will." Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, influential anarchist theorist wrote: "All my economic ideas as developed over twenty-five years can be summed up in the words: agricultural-industrial federation. All my political ideas boil down to a similar formula: political federation or decentralization."In early twentieth century America a response to the centralization of economic wealth and political power was a decentralist movement.
It blamed large-scale industrial production for destroying middle class shop keepers and small manufacturers and promoted increased property ownership and a return to small scale living. The decentralist movement attracted Southern Agrarians like Robert Penn Warren, as well as journalist Herbert Agar. New Left and libertarian individuals who identified with social and political decentralism through the ensuing years included Ralph Borsodi, Wendell Berry, Paul Goodman, Carl Oglesby, Karl Hess, Donald Livingston, Kirkpatrick Sale, Murray Bookchin, Dorothy Day, Senator Mark O. Hatfield, Mildred J. Loomis and Bill Kauffman. Leopold Kohr, author of the 1957 book The Breakdown of Nations – known for its statement "Whenever something is wrong, something is too big" – was a major influence on E. F. Schumacher, author of the 1973 bestseller Small is Beautiful: Economics As. In the next few years a number of best-selling books promoted decentralization. Daniel Bell's The Coming of Post-Industrial Society discussed the need for decentralization and a "comprehensive overhaul of government structure to find the appropriate size and scope of units", as well as the need to detach functions from current state boundaries, creating regions based on functions like water, transport and economics which might have "different'overlays' on the map."
Alvin Toffler published The Third Wave. Discussing the books in a interview, Toffler said that industrial-style, top-down bureaucratic planning would be replaced by a more open, decentralized style which he called "anticipatory democracy". Futurist John Naisbitt's 1982 book "Megatrends" was on The New York Times Best Seller list for more than two years and sold 14 million copies. Naisbitt's book outlines 10 "megatrends", the fifth of, from centralization to decentralization. In 1996 David Osborne and Ted Gaebler had a best selling book Reinventing Government proposing decentralist public administration theories which became labeled the "New Public Management". Stephen Cummings wrote. In 1983 Diana Conyers asked if decentralization was the "latest fashion" in development administration. Cornell University's project on Restructuring Local Government states that decentralization refers to the "global trend" of devolving responsibilities to regional or local governments. Robert J. Bennett's Decentralization, Intergovernmental Relations and Markets: Towards a Post-Welfare Agenda describes how after World War II governments pursued a centralized "welfarist" policy of entitlements which now has become a "post-welfare" policy of intergovernmental and market-based decentralization.
In 1983, "Decentralization" was identified as one of the "Ten Key Values" of the Green Movement in the United States. According to a 1999 United Nations Development Programme report: "large number of developing and transitional countries have embarked on some form of decentralization programmes; this trend is coupled with a growing interest in the role of civil society and the private sector as partners to governments in seeking new ways of service delivery... Decentralization of governance and the strengthening of local governing capacity is in part a function of broader societal trends; these include, for example, the growing distrust of government the spectacular demise of some of the most centralized regimes in the world and the emerging separat
Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Peru)
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Peru is the statal entity of the Executive in charge of prepare and execute the foreign politics of the Peruvian State. It works in coordination with Peruvian ambassadors and consuls with accrediting in different countries and with international organizations. In the same way, it coordinates, attends to and treats with accrediting embassies before the Peruvian State in Lima, with foreign consulates accrediting in different cities of the country and with international organizations that have seat or representatives in Lima; the present minister is Néstor Popolizio Bardales. Official Website
Lima is the capital and the largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers, in the central coastal part of the country, overlooking the Pacific Ocean. Together with the seaport of Callao, it forms a contiguous urban area known as the Lima Metropolitan Area. With a population of more than 9 million, Lima is the most populous metropolitan area of Peru and the third-largest city in the Americas, behind São Paulo and Mexico City. Lima was founded by Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes in the agricultural region known by the Indians as Limaq, name that acquired over time, it became most important city in the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian War of Independence, it became the capital of the Republic of Peru. Around one-third of the national population lives in the metropolitan area. Lima is home to one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the New World; the National University of San Marcos, founded on 12 May 1551, during the Spanish colonial regime, is the oldest continuously functioning university in the Americas.
Nowadays the city is considered as the political, cultural and commercial center of the country. Internationally, it is one of the thirty most populated urban agglomerations in the world. Due to its geostrategic importance, it has been defined as a "beta" city. Jurisdictionally, the metropolis extends within the province of Lima and in a smaller portion, to the west, within the constitutional province of Callao, where the seaport and the Jorge Chávez airport are located. Both provinces have regional autonomy since 2002. In October 2013, Lima was chosen to host the 2019 Pan American Games, it hosted the United Nations Climate Change Conference in December 2014 and the Miss Universe 1982 contest. According to early Spanish articles the Lima area was once called Itchyma, after its original inhabitants; however before the Inca occupation of the area in the 15th century, a famous oracle in the Rímac valley had come to be known by visitors as Limaq. This oracle was destroyed by the Spanish and replaced with a church, but the name persisted: the chronicles show "Límac" replacing "Ychma" as the common name for the area.
Modern scholars speculate that the word "Lima" originated as the Spanish pronunciation of the native name Limaq. Linguistic evidence seems to support this theory as spoken Spanish rejects stop consonants in word-final position. Non-Peruvian Spanish speakers may mistakenly define the city name as the direct Spanish translation of "lime", the citrus fruit; the city was founded in 1535 under the name City of the Kings because its foundation was decided on 6 January, date of the feast of the Epiphany. This name fell into disuse and Lima became the city's name of choice; the river that feeds Lima is called Rímac and many people erroneously assume that this is because its original Inca name is "Talking River". However, the original inhabitants of the valley were not Incas; this name is an innovation arising from an effort by the Cuzco nobility in colonial times to standardize the toponym so that it would conform to the phonology of Cuzco Quechua. As the original inhabitants died out and the local Quechua became extinct, the Cuzco pronunciation prevailed.
Nowadays, Spanish-speaking locals do not see the connection between the name of their city and the name of the river that runs through it. They assume that the valley is named after the river; the Flag of Lima has been known as the "Banner of Peru's Kings' City". It is embroidered in the center is its coat of arms. Lima's anthem was heard for the first time on 18 January 2008, in a formal meeting with important politicians, including Peruvian President Alan García, other authorities; the anthem was created by Euding Maeshiro and record producer Ricardo Núñez. In the pre-Columbian era, what is now Lima was inhabited by indigenous groups under the Ychsma policy, incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 15th century. In 1532 a group of Spanish conquistadors, led by Francisco Pizarro, defeated the Inca ruler Atahualpa and took over his empire; as the Spanish Crown had named Pizarro governor of the lands he conquered, he chose the Rímac Valley to found his capital on 18 January 1535, as Ciudad de los Reyes.
In August 1536, rebel Inca troops led by Manco Inca Yupanqui besieged the city but were defeated by the Spaniards and their native allies. Lima gained prestige after being designated capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru and site of a Real Audiencia in 1543. During the next century it flourished as the centre of an extensive trade network that integrated the Viceroyalty with the rest of the Americas and the Far East. However, the city was not free from dangers; the 1687 Peru earthquake destroyed most of the city buildings. In 1746, another p