India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Bareilly is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the geographical region of Rohilkhand; the city is 252 kilometres north of the state capital, 250 kilometres east of the national capital, New Delhi. It is the 50th-largest city in India. Bareilly figured amongst the PM Narendra Modi's ambitious 100 Smart City list in India, it is located on the Ramganga River and is the site of the Ramganga Barrage built for canal irrigation. The city is known by the name Nath Nagri and as Sanjashya; the city is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion in the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region, a list including Hissar, Patiala and Gwalior; the city is known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market. According to the epic Mahābhārata, the Bareilly region is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, referred to as'Panchali' by Kṛṣṇā.
When Yudhishthira becomes the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi becomes his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahichchhatra in Bareilly; the Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichchhatra. In a Historic book written by Pt. Jhabarmall Sharma It is believed that the descendants of Lord Shriram's son Kusha went from Ayodhya to Rohtas, Narwar and Bareilly their capital. In the 21st generation, Maharaja Nala, Soddevji made Gopachal the capital; the time of going to Gwalior to Bareilly looks like Vikrama 933. In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs; the region became part of the Muslim Turkic Delhi Sultanate for 325 years before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly foundation was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657 during the rule of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb; the region became the capital of Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to East India Company and becoming an integral part of India.
The region has acted as a mint for a major part of its history. From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is rich; the extensive remains of Ahichchhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichchhatra that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been yielded from Ahichchhatra, it has been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichchhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichchhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley.
On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera, Rahtuia and Sainthal. Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput; the city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596; the foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mughal governor Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the Mughals encouraged the settlements of loyal Afghans in the Bareilly region to control the rebellious Katehriya Rajputs. After the death of Emperor Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans began to settle in the villages and assimilated with the local Muslims.
These descendents of the these assimilated Afghans are known as Pathans. After the fall of the Mughal Empire, created anarchy and many Pathans migrated from the Rohilkhand region. Bareilly experienced economic stagnation and poverty due to the breakdown of trade and security, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname and Guyana as indentured labour. Under Barech at the 1761 Third Battle of Panipat, Rohilkhand blocked the expansion of the Maratha Empire into northern India. In 1772 it was invaded by the Marathas. After the war, Nawab Shuja-ud-Daula demanded payment for the nawabs' help from Barech; when his demand was refused, the nawab joined the British to invade Rohilkhand. The
Allahabad known as Prayagraj, known as Illahabad and Prayag, is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is the administrative headquarters of Allahabad district—the most populous district in the state and 13th most populous district in India—and the Allahabad division; the city is the judicial capital of Uttar Pradesh with Allahabad High Court being the highest judicial body in the state. As of 2011, Allahabad is the seventh most populous city in the state, twelfth in Northern India and thirty-eighth in India, with an estimated population of 1.11 million in the city and 1.21 million in its metropolitan region. In 2011 it was ranked the world's 40th fastest-growing city. Allahabad, in 2016, was ranked the third most liveable city in the state and sixteenth in the country; the 2016 update of the World Health Organization's Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database found Allahabad to have the third highest mean concentration of "PM2.5" particulate matter in the ambient air among all the 2972 cities tested.
The city lies close to Triveni Sangam, "three-river confluence", original name – Prayag, "place of sacrifice or offering" – which lies at the sangam of the Ganga and Sarasvati rivers, a propitious place to conduct sacrifices. It plays a central role in Hindu scriptures. Allahabad was called Kaushambi by the Kuru rulers of Hastinapur, who developed it as their capital. Since the city has been a political and administrative centre of the Doab region. In the early 17th century, Allahabad was a provincial capital in the Mughal Empire under the reign of Jahangir. Akbarnama mentions. `Abd al-Qadir Bada'uni and Nizamuddin Ahmad mention that Akbar laid the foundations of an imperial city there, called Ilahabas or Ilahabad. He was said to be impressed by its strategic location and built a fort there renaming it Ilahabas by 1584, changed to Allahabad by Shah Jahan. In 1580, Akbar created the "Subah of Ilahabas" with Allahabad as its capital. In mid-1600, Salim had made an abortive attempt to seize Agra's treasury and came to Allahabad, seizing its treasury and setting himself up as a independent ruler.
He was, reconciled with Akbar and returned to Allahabad where he stayed before returning to the royal court in 1604. In 1833 it became the seat of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces region before its capital was moved to Agra in 1835. Allahabad became the capital of the North-Western Provinces in 1858 and was the capital of India for a day; the city was the capital of the United Provinces from 1902 to 1920 and remained at the forefront of national importance during the struggle for Indian independence. Located in southern Uttar Pradesh, the city's metropolitan area covers 70.5 km2. Although the city and its surrounding area are governed by several municipalities, a large portion of Allahabad District is governed by the Allahabad City Council; the city is home to colleges, research institutions and 2 dozen central and state government offices. Allahabad has hosted cultural and sporting events, including the Indira Marathon. Although the city's economy was built on tourism, most of its income now derives from real estate and financial services.
The Allahabad district is the second-most revenue providing district in Uttar Pradesh. Prayag or Prayagraj was the ancient name of this city; the name is a sandhi of the words Pra, meaning'first' and Yag, meaning'devotion, worship or offering'. It is believed that Lord Brahma performed the first yajna in this land. Rig Veda and some Puranas mention this place as Prayag giving it a high religious value in India; the word Prayag means "Confluence of Rivers". It is here the rivers Ganga and Sarasvati meet. Prayagraj is called the "Emperor of Five Prayags". After Mughal invasion, it is said that the Mughal emperor Akbar when visited the region in 1575, was so impressed by the strategic location of the site that he ordered a fort be constructed and renamed it Ilahabas or "Abode of God" by 1584 changed to Allahabad under Shah Jahan. Speculations regarding its name however, exist; because of the surrounding people calling it Alhabas, has led to some people holding the view that it was named after Alha from Alha's story.
James Forbes' account of the early 1800s claims that it was renamed Allahabad or "abode of God" by Jahangir after he failed to destroy the Akshayabat tree. The name, predates him, with Ilahabas and Ilahabad mentioned on coins minted in the city since Akbar's rule, the latter name became predominant after the emperor's death, it has been thought to not have been named after Allah but ilaha. Shaligram Shrivastv claimed in Prayag Pradip that the name was deliberately given by Akbar to be construed as both Hindu and Muslim. Over the years, a number of attempts were made by the BJP-led governments of Uttar Pradesh to rename Allahabad to Prayagraj. In 1992, the planned rename was shelved when the chief minister, Kalyan Singh, was forced to resign following the Babri Masjid demolition. 2001 saw another attempt led by the government of Rajnath Singh. The rename succeeded in October 2018 when the Yogi Adityanath-led government changed the name of the city to Prayagraj; the city was earlier known as Prayāga, a name still used.
Prayāga is first mentioned in the Agni Purana and in Manusmriti, as the place where Brahma attended a ritual sacrifice. Excavations have revealed Northern Black Polished Ware dating to 600–700 BCE
Basti district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state, a part of Basti Division. Basti town is the district headquarters. In the freedom struggle of 1857, about 250 martyrs of Amorha State were hanged by the British Government from peepal trees located at Chhawani. Basti came from Basisth the great sage ashram situated in this area. Sher Shah Suri made a well and a sarai here and hence receiving the name. In 1801, the town Basti became a tehsil headquarter, in 1865, it was chosen as the headquarters of the newly established Basti district of Gorakhpur Commissionary. Amorha Khas is a historical place situated at a distance of 41 km from the district headquarters, its old name is Amorha, it was once a province of Raja Zalim Singh. Raja Zalim Singh's Mahal is here, old wall of mahal is still there with the mark of a bullet used by the English; the famous temple Ramrekha Mandir is here. Ramrekha Temple is one of the most ancient Hindu Mandir of Goddess Sita. Lord Shri Ram stayed here for one day during his journey of Janakpur-Ayodhya.
Lord Shri Rama and Sita with Lakshmana journeyed towards Ayodhya by the road called Ram Janki Marg near Chhawani. The district lies between the parallels of 26° 23' and 27° 30' North Latitude and 82° 17' and 83° 20' East longitude, its maximum length from north to south is about 75 km. and breadth from east to west about 70 km. The district lies between newly created district Sant Kabir Nagar on the east and Gonda on the west on the south, the Ghaghra river near Amorha Khas known as Amorha Province or State of Raja Zalim Singh separates it from the Faizabad and newly created district Ambedkar Nagar. On the north it is bounded by district Sidharth Nagar. According to the 2011 census, Basti district had a population of 2,464,464, of which only 5.6% lived in urban areas. This ranked it the 178th most populous district in India; the district had a population density of 917 inhabitants per square kilometre. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 18.21%. Basti had a sex ratio of 963 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 67.22%.
The child sex ratio of Basti was 922 females for every 1000 males. Languages spoken in the district include Bhojpuri in the eastern side; the district Basti may be considered as the demarcation of the languages Hindi. In city, due to increase in educated population, khari boli of Hindi is observed in daily conversations. During the late 1800s some 6,415 people from the district of Basti migrated through the indenture system to the Fiji Islands. A lot stayed and carried their traditions in the British Colony; the district follows a usual 10+2+3 pattern of education as elsewhere in India. Some notable schools and institutions of the district are: Kendriya Vidyalaya Sarla International Academy St. Basils School Basti town is the district headquarters of the district. Basti district, a part of Basti division, is formed of four tehsils: Basti, Harriya and Rudhauli, 15 development blocks, 139 Nyay Panchayats, two Parganas named Amorha & Nagar as well as 10 Gram Sabhas; the development blocks included are: Amorha Nagar Basti Bahadurpur Bankati Dubauliya Gaur Harraiya Kaptanganj Kudaraha Paras Rampur Ramnagar Rudhauli Saltaua Gopal Pur Sau Ghat Shubham Nagar Vikram Jot The district is noted for its cotton textiles and sugar industries.
Cottage industries and small-scale industries including the manufacturing units of brassware and carpentry goods, agricultural implements, agro-products, foot-wear, soaps and pottery are present here. Basti is known for its bamboo, eucalyptus and shisham populations. Three sugar factories are housed in the district. Sugarcane, paddy, wheat and potato are cultivated; the most of the population is depending for their livelihood on agricultural practices. The district is well connected through NH 28; the city is well connected through railways also. In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Basti one of the country's 250 most backward districts, it is one of the 34 districts in Uttar Pradesh receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme. City is known for nationwide youth organisation National Association of Youth founded by Bhavesh Kumar Pandey and run from Basti; the organization organizes Basti Mini Marathon every year since 2012. Basti railway station lies on the main line connecting Lucknow with Gorakhpur and places in Bihar and Assam in the east passes through the south of the district.
The main line has 7 railway stations which are, from east to west, Orwara, Govindnagar, Tinich and Babhnan within the district. There is a daily Intercity express between Gorakhpur, Basti and Lucknow. National Highway 28, a part of the East West Corridor project of Government of India and NHAI passes through Basti; the forest cover of the district has dwindled with increasing use of land for agriculture. There are areas with high prevalence of mango, mahua and bamboo trees; some of the wild animals of the district are the nilgai, pig, jackal, hare, wild cat and the porcupine. Several species of game birds are seen, including the peafowl, the black partridge (
Ayodhya is a city located in Ayodhya district of Uttar Pradesh, India. It shares municipal corporation with neighbouring Faizabad; the city is identified with the legendary city of Ayodhya, as such, is the birthplace of Rama and setting of the epic Ramayana. The accuracy of this identification is central to the Ayodhya dispute: modern scholars variously believe that the present-day Ayodhya is same as the legendary Ayodhya, or that the legendary city is a mythical place that came to be identified with the present-day Ayodhya only during the Gupta period around the 4th-5th century CE; the present-day city is identified as the location of Saketa, an important city of the Kosala mahajanapada in the first millennium BCE, served as its capital. The early Buddhist and Jain canonical texts mention that the religious leaders Gautama Buddha and Mahavira visited and lived in the city; the Jain texts describe it as the birthplace of five tirthankaras namely, Ajitanatha, Abhinandananatha and Anantnath, associate it with the legendary chakravartins.
From the Gupta period onwards, several sources mention Ayodhya and Saketa as the name of the same city. Owing to the belief as the birthplace of Rama, Ayodhya has been regarded as one of the seven most important pilgrimage sites for Hindus, it is believed that the birth spot of Rama was marked by a temple, said to have been demolished by the orders of the Mughal emperor Babur and a disputed mosque erected in its place. The Ayodhya dispute concerns the activism by the Hindu groups to rebuild a Grand Rama's temple at the site of Janmabhoomi; the word "Ayodhya" is a formed derivation of the Sanskrit verb yudh, "to fight, to wage war". Yodhya is the future passive participle, meaning "to be fought"; this meaning is attested by the Atharvaveda, which uses it to refer to the unconquerable city of gods. The 9th century Jain poem Adi Purana states that Ayodhya "does not exist by name alone but by the merit" of being unconquerable by enemies. Satyopakhyana interprets the word differently, stating that it means "that which cannot be conquered by sins"."Saketa" is the older name for the city, attested in Buddhist, Sanskrit and Chinese sources.
According to Vaman Shivram Apte, the word "Saketa" is derived from the Sanskrit words Saha and Aketen. The Adi Purana states that Ayodhya is called Saketa "because of its magnificent buildings which had significant banners as their arms". According to Hans T. Bakker, the word may be derived from the roots ketu. Ayodhya was stated to be the capital of the ancient Kosala kingdom in the Ramayana. Hence it was referred to as "Kosala"; the Adi Purana states that Ayodhya is famous as su-kośala "because of its prosperity and good skill". The cities of Ayutthaya, Yogyakarta, are named after Ayodhya; the earliest of the Buddhist Pali-language texts and the Jain Prakrit-language texts mention a city called Saketa as an important city of the Kosala mahajanapada. Topographical indications in both Buddhist and Jain texts suggest that Saketa is same as the present-day Ayodhya. For example, according to the Samyutta Nikaya and the Vinaya Pitaka, Saketa was located at a distance of six yojanas from Shravasti; the Vinaya Pitaka mentions that a big river was located between the two cities, the Sutta Nipata mentions Saketa as the first halting place on the southward road from Shravasti to Pratishthana.
Ancient Sanskrit-language epics, such as the Ramayana and the Mahabharata mention a legendary city called Ayodhya, the capital of the legendary Ikshvaku kings of Kosala, including Rama. Neither these texts, nor the earlier Sanskrit texts such as the Vedas, mention. Non-religious, non-legendary ancient Sanskrit texts, such as Panini's Ashtadhyayi and Patanjali's commentary on it, do mention Saketa; the Buddhist text Mahavastu describes Saketa as the seat of the Ikshvaku king Sujata, whose descendants established the Shakya capital Kapilavastu. Fourth century onwards, multiple texts, including Kalidasa's Raghuvamsha, mention Ayodhya as another name for Saketa; the Jain canonical text Jambudvipa-Pannati describes a city called Viniya as the birthplace of Lord Rishabhanatha, associates this city with Bharata Chakravartin. The index on the Jain text Paumachariya clarifies that Aojjha, Kosala-puri and Saeya are synonyms; the post-Canonical Jain texts mention "Aojjha". The Avassaganijjutti implies that that Viniya and Ikkhagabhumi were distinct cities, naming them as the capitals of Abhinamdana and Usabha respectively.
Abhayadeva's commentary on the Thana Sutta, another post-canonical text, identifies Saketa and Vinita as one city. According to one theory, the legendary Ayodhya city is same as the historical city of Saketa and the present-day Ayodhya. According to another theory, the legendary Ayodhya is a mythical city, the name "Ayodhya" came to be used for the Saketa only around the fourth century, when a Gupta emperor moved his capital to Saketa, renamed it to Ayodhya after the legendary city. Alternative, but less theories state that Saketa and
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is 378 kilometres west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres south of the national capital New Delhi, 58 kilometres south of Mathura and 125 kilometres north of Gwalior. Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, the 24th most populous in India. Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Jaipur. Agra falls within the Braj cultural region; the region around the modern city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa. However, the 11th-century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, it was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD. Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1506.
He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years and several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Between 1540 and 1556, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area, it was the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1648. Agra features a semiarid climate; the city features mild winters and dry summers and a monsoon season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India; this is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate. As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra cantonment is 53,053; the urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra city has an average literacy rate of 73%, below the national average of 74%.
Literacy rate of males is higher than that of women. The sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%. According to the 2011 census, Agra district has a population of 4,380,793 equal to the nation of Moldova or the US state of Kentucky; this gives it a ranking of 41st in India. The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre. 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus are 88.8 %. Hinduism and Jainism are the major religions in Agra city with 80.7%, 15.4% viz. 1.0% of the population adhering to them. The Catholic minority is served by its own Metropolitan Archdiocese of Agra. There was an early reference to an “Agrevana” in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” and yet Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504.
After the Sultan's death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Mughal Badshah Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526; the golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Akbar made it the eponymous seat of one of his original twelve subahs, bordering Delhi, Allahabad and Ajmer subahs. Shāh Jahān shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1648. Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna; the garden is called the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar the Great raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a centre for learning, arts and religion. Akbar built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī.
This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone. His son Jahāngīr had a love of flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653. Shāh Jahān shifted the capital to Delhi during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of Marathas and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj in 1803. In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, just two years it was witness to the Agra famine of 1837–38. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 British rule across India was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra on 11 May and on 30
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r