Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, in many navies is the highest rank. The rank is thought to have originated in Sicily from a conflation of Arabic: أمير البحر, amīr al-baḥr, "prince in Arabic; the French version—amiral without the additional d—tends to add evidence for the Arab origin. In the Commonwealth nations and the United States, a "full" admiral is equivalent to a "full" general in the army, is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet, or fleet admiral. In NATO, admirals have a rank code of OF-9 as a four-star rank; the word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, "commander of", as in amīr al-baḥr, "commander of the sea"; the term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, ruled by Arabs, at least by the early 11th century. The Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers.
Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as ammiratus ammiratorum. The Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents; the French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante. As the word was used by people speaking Latin or Latin-based languages it gained the "d" and endured a series of different endings and spellings leading to the English spelling admyrall in the 14th century and to admiral by the 16th century; the word "admiral" has come to be exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the world's navies, equivalent to the army rank of general. However, this was not always the case; the rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, several of which are extinct while others remain in use in most present day navies. The Royal Navy used the colours red and blue, in descending order to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864.
The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer. Some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian "general at sea"; the rank insignia for an admiral involves four stars or similar devices, or three stripes over a broad stripe, but there are many cases where the insignia do not involve four stars or similar devices. Post-World War II rank is Bakurocho taru kaishō or Admiral serve as Chief of Staff, Joint Staff（幕僚長たる海将） with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Comparative military ranks Laksamana, native title for naval leaders in Indonesia and Malaysia Ranks and insignia of officers of NATO Navies Admiralty Nebraska admiral Isabel Barreto, the first female admiral. "Admiral". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911. "Admiral". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
The Italian American One Voice Coalition is a nationwide anti-bias organization that defends Italian American heritage and combats all forms of bigotry through information, education and advocacy. Its goal is to project a united front in dealing with defamation and negative stereotyping of Italian American culture and heritage, it is the only national Italian American organization of its type. The'Italian American One Voice Coalition' was founded by Dr. Manny Alfano, consists of thousands of activists across the country; the mission of the Italian American One Voice Coalition is to protect the rightful representation of Italian Americans in American society and all other peoples whose heritage is damaged by unacceptable and worn out ethnic stereotyping in media, the arts and elsewhere. Italian American One Voice Coalition President Manny Alfano has dedicated himself to defending and preserving Italian American heritage and culture, he has spoken out against movies like "Don Jon," shows such as "Jersey Shore," various commercials and productions and articles in which Italian Americans are negatively portrayed.
The Italian American One Voice Coalition stands ready to combat negative Italian American stereotyping through informational meetings and protests against media outlets that continue to portray Italian culture in a bad light. It actively recruits members who are ready and willing to raise awareness of instances of Italian American bias and discrimination; the Italian American One Voice Coalition has created the first-ever nationwide "rapid response" network of defenders who respond to instances of Italian American bias and stereotyping through emails, phone calls and through social media. The Italian American One Voice Coalition works with other major Italian American organizations including UNICO National, NIAF and OSIA. ONE VOICE issues a regular email newsletter.'"The Alfano Digest”' is delivered to more than five thousand people and Italian American organizations nationwide. It is published by Chair, Manny Alfano; the Digest issues alerts on instances of bias, stereotyping and defamation and activates a network of Italian American ONE VOICE "defenders" who respond with calls, faxes and demonstrations when necessary.
The Digest contains interesting and informative Italian American cultural and heritage news and information. Some of ONE VOICE's successes have included having companies such as Ally Financial, Muller Insurance and various car dealerships across the country remove commercials defaming Italian Americans. ONE VOICE obtained an apology from Chrysler CEO Sergio Marchionne for making an insulting remark about Italians. ONE VOICE has worked to have small businesses remove offensive items to Italian Americans. ONE VOICE fought to re-instate Columbus Day as a holiday in the Paterson, NJ School District. Controversies of Jersey Shore Unico National http://iaovc.org/ https://twitter.com/IAOneVoice https://www.facebook.com/pages/Italian-American-One-Voice-Coalition/135948066450379
John Robert Thomas was a U. S. Representative from Illinois, he was appointed a U. S. District Judge in the Indian Territory, which encompassed most the eastern part of present-day Oklahoma, serving from 1898 to 1901. After statehood, he served on the Oklahoma State Code Commission, tasked with reviewing and editing the new state laws, hastily put together during the rush to statehood. After returning to his private law practice, he went to the Oklahoma state prison at McAlester to interview an inmate on January 19, 1914, when he was killed by three other inmates who shot him to death while escaping prison. Judge Thomas was the father of Carolyn T. Foreman, who married banker Grant Foreman in 1905. After their marriage and the judge's death and Grant become noted Oklahoma historians. Born in Mount Vernon, Thomas attended the common schools and Hunter Collegiate Institute, Indiana, he served in the Union Army during the Civil War, rose from the rank of private to that of captain of Company D, One Hundred and Twentieth Regiment, Indiana Volunteer Infantry.
He was wounded at the Battle of Tennessee. Wilson wrote that he never recovered from his wound. After the war, Thomas studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1869, he became city attorney of Metropolis, Illinois, 1869 and 1870 and served as State's attorney 1871-1874. Thomas was elected as a Republican to the four succeeding Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Improvements of the Mississippi River. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1888, he resumed the practice of law in Muskogee and served as a United States judge in the Indian Territory from June 30, 1897, to June 30, 1901. During this service, he handed down the first death penalty issued in the Territory. In 1899, he tried a group of white men who were arrested and convicted of torturing and murdering some Seminoles; the men were convicted of the crimes. Although he favored the two-state proposal for Oklahoma statehood, he realized that the national government, dominated by his own party, would never approve the possibility of adding four more Democratic senators in Washington D. C.
So, he supported the single-state proposal at the Republican convention. He was nominated for judge of the supreme court by the first Republican State convention of Oklahoma, but declined the nomination. Instead, he served as member of the Oklahoma State Code Commission 1908-1910, he died in McAlester, Oklahoma on January 19, 1914, was interred in Green Hill Cemetery, Oklahoma. He was reinterred in Arlington National Cemetery. According to an account by J. Stanley Clark that appeared in the Chronicles of Oklahoma in 1974, Judge Thomas had gone to the penitentiary to interview Abraham Collier, serving a seven-year sentence for larceny. While he was in the Warden's office, an attempted jailbreak occurred. Three other convicts, each armed, ordered everyone inside to stand up; when Judge Thomas reached for his cane, he was died immediately. The intruders killed Assistant Warden D. D. Oates, day sergeant, F. C. Godgrey, H. H. Dover, wounded three other people, he was the son of Major William Allen Caroline Thomas.
He married Charlotte "Lottie" Maria Culver in 1870. Their daughter, who married Grant Foreman, was an author and historian who wrote several books about Native Americans and the history of Oklahoma. A son, John R. Thomas Jr. was a "celebrated hero of the Spanish–American War with the Rough Riders." Thomas-Foreman Historic Home In 1884, while serving as US Congressman, John Robert Thomas was Grand Master for the Ancient Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Illinois. United States Congress. "John R. Thomas". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov