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Admiral (Royal Navy)

Admiral is a senior rank of the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom, which equates to the NATO rank code OF-9, outranked only by the rank of admiral of the fleet. Royal Navy officers holding the ranks of rear admiral, vice admiral and admiral of the fleet are sometimes considered generically to be admirals; the rank of admiral is the highest rank to which a serving officer in the Royal Navy can be promoted, admiral of the fleet being in abeyance except for honorary promotions of retired officers and members of the Royal Family. The equivalent rank in the British Army and Royal Marines is general. King Henry III of England appointed the first known English Admiral Sir Richard de Lucy on 29 August 1224. De Lucy was followed by Sir Thomas Moulton in 1264, who held the title of Keeper of the Sea and Sea Ports. Moulton was succeeded as Admiral of the Sea of the King of England. In 1286 he was appointed Admiral of the Navy, holding the rank of admiral until 1294 and serving under King Edward I of England.

As the English Navy was expanding towards the end of the thirteenth century, new appointments of admirals with specific administrative and geographic responsibilities were created. Sir John de Botetourt was appointed Admiral of the North in 1294; this position existed until 1412. In 1294, the king appointed Sir William de Laybourne to the dual commands of Admiral of the South, Admiral of the West; the first royal commission as Admiral to a naval officer was granted in 1303 to Gervase Alard. By 1344 it was only used as a rank at sea for a captain in charge of fleets. In 1364 the office of Admiral of the North and West was created until 1414. Beginning in 1408 these admirals' responsibilities were absorbed by the office of the High Admiral of England and Aquitaine leading to a centralized command by 1414. In 1412 the Admiral of the Narrow Seas was established until 1413, it was revived on a more permanent basis from 1523, until lapsing again in 1688. In Elizabethan times the fleet grew large enough to be organised into squadrons.

The squadron's admiral flew a red ensign, the vice admirals white, the rear admirals blue on the aft mast of his ship. As the squadrons grew, each was commanded by an admiral and the official ranks became admiral of the white and so forth, however each admirals command flags were different and changed over time; the Royal Navy has had vice and rear admirals appointed to the post since at least the 16th century. When in command of the fleet, the admiral would be in either the lead or the middle portion of the fleet; when the admiral commanded from the middle portion of the fleet his deputy, the vice admiral, would be in the leading portion or van. Below him was another admiral at the rear of the fleet, called rear admiral. Promotion up the ladder was in accordance with seniority in the rank of post-captain, rank was held for life, so the only way to be promoted was for the person above on the list to die or resign. In 1747 the Admiralty restored an element of merit selection to this process by introducing the concept of yellow admirals, being captains promoted to flag rank on the understanding that they would retire on half-pay.

This was the navy's first attempt at superannuating older officers. They were assigned to shore-based administrative roles, such as commander of a port or commissioner of one of the Royal Dockyards. During the Interregnum, the rank of admiral was replaced by that of general at sea. In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one man per rank, although the rank of admiral of the red was always filled by only one man and was known as Admiral of the Fleet. After the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 the rank of admiral of the red was introduced; the number of officers holding each rank increased throughout the 18th and early 19th centuries. In 1769 there were 29 admirals of various grades. Thereafter the number of admirals was reduced and in 1853 there were 79 admirals. Although admirals were promoted according to strict seniority, appointments to command were made at the discretion of the Board of Admiralty; as there were invariably more admirals in service than there were postings, many admirals remained unemployed in peacetime.

The organisation of the fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864. The Red Ensign was allocated to the Merchant Navy, the White Ensign became the flag of the Royal Navy, the Blue Ensign was allocated to the naval reserve and naval auxiliary vessels; the 18th- and 19th-century Royal Navy maintained a positional rank known as port admiral. A port admiral was a veteran captain who served as the shore commander of a British naval port and was in charge of supplying and maintaining the ships docked at harbour; the problem of promoting by seniority was well illustrated by the case of Provo Wallis who served for 96 years. When he died in 1892 four admirals under him could be promoted. By request of Queen Victoria, John Edmund Commerell became Admiral of the Fleet rather than Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey, who as senior active admiral nearing the age limit would customarily have received the promotion. All these younger men would d

Seewoosagur Ramgoolam

Seewoosagur Ramgoolam was a Mauritian politician and philanthropist. He was a leader in the Mauritian independence movement, served as the first Chief Minister and Prime Minister of Mauritius, as well as its Governor-General, he was the Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 1976 to 1977. As the leader of the Labour Party, Ramgoolam fought for the rights of labourers and led Mauritius to independence in 1968. After his tertiary studies in London, a fervent defendant of the British administration and its empire, started calling for mass movement in order to obtain equal treatment, consideration and chances for all Mauritians through his authorship in a newspaper, his views changed due to then-fate of the Indo-Mauritian community, oppressed and ill-treated by the elite. He joined the Labour Party to align himself with other members who were asking for equal rights and adequate working conditions for workers, he took leadership of the fight fought by other party members including Dr. Maurice Cure, Emmanuel Anquetil, Dr. R. Seeneevasen and Dr. Hassenjee.

He cooperated with the Independent Forward Block led by the Bissoondoyal brothers and the Committee D'action Musulmane led by Abdool Razack Mohamed to form the Independence Party. This movement led to Independence after the 1967 Mauritian general election. A few years he formed a national government with opposition party Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate in order to prevent the collapse of the fragile Mauritian economy and social order; the PMSD was the same nationalist and only party which led an intense campaign against Independence until 1968 and was led by Gaetan Duval. Ramgoolam has been praised for his work for free education & free healthcare, he is criticized for accepting the unlawful excision of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territories by the British government. However official colonial documents, declassified in the UK revealed that Ramgoolam acted under duress; the British evicted all the natives of the archipelago to mainland Mauritius and Seychelles to allow American to build a military base on the biggest island of the Archipelago, Diego Garcia.

He is criticized for the poor performance of his last government which lacked extreme economic growth and led to the country being on the verge of bankruptcy. Due to the extreme poor performance of his government, his party lost the 1982 general elections with a heavy defeat when none of his candidates were elected to parliament, he himself lost his seat leading to the downfall of the Labour Party. He supported the newly formed party named MSM and its leader Anerood Jugnauth in the 1983 elections; the Labour Party became a minority party in a coalition government and Ramgoolam was appointed as Governor-General, position he held until his death. As Mauritius' first Prime Minister, he played a crucial role in shaping modern Mauritius' government, political culture and foreign policy, he worked for the emancipation of the Mauritian population, established free universal education and free health care services, introduced old age pensions. He is known as the "Father of the Nation", his son, Navin Ramgoolam, has had three terms as Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam known as Kewal, was born on 18 September 1900 at Belle Rive, Mauritius, in the district of Flacq. Ramgoolam was a Mauritian of Indian origin, his father, Moheeth Ramgoolam, was an Indian immigrant labourer. Moheeth came to Mauritius aged 18 in a ship called The Hindoostan in 1896, his elder brother, had left the home village of Harigaon in Bihar in search of his fortune abroad. Moheeth worked as an indentured labourer and became a Sirdar at Queen Victoria Sugar Estate; when he married Basmati Ramchurn in 1898, he moved to Belle Rive Sugar Estate. Basmati was a young widow born in Mauritius, she had two sons: Nuckchadee Heeramun and Ramlall Ramchurn. Ramgoolam had his early grounding in Hindi, Indian culture and philosophy, in the local evening school of the locality, where children of the Hindu community learnt the vernacular language and glimpses of the Hindu culture; the teacher would teach songs. Sanskrit prayers and perennial values taken from sacred scriptures like the Vedas, the Ramayana, the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita were taught.

He was a precocious student and enrolled in the neighbouring R. C. A. School, run by Madame Siris without his mother's knowledge, he learned History, Geography and French. After leaving the pre-primary school, he went to Bel Air Government School, travelling by train, until he passed the sixth standard. At the age of seven, Ramgoolam lost his father and at the age of twelve, he suffered a serious accident in a cowshed that cost him his left eye, he continued his scholarship class at the Curepipe Boys’ Government School while taking up boarding with his uncle, Harry Parsad Seewoodharry Buguth, a sworn land surveyor, in Curepipe. He would listen to the political discussions between his uncle and his circle of friends on local politics and on the current struggle for Indian independence under Mahat

Advance Thresher/Emerson-Newton Implement Company

The Advance Thresher/Emerson-Newton Implement Company buildings in Minneapolis, United States, are a pair of buildings designed by Kees and Colburn. The two buildings appear to be a single structure. However, the two buildings were built four years apart; the Advance Thresher Company building has six floors. The adjacent Emerson-Newton Plow Company building has seven floors; the architecture of the buildings was influenced by Louis Sullivan. They are ornamented with terra cotta details; the buildings were renovated into offices in the 1980s. They are listed on the National Register of Historic Places for local significance in architecture for exemplifying the Sullivanesque style influencing large industrial and commercial buildings at the turn of the 20th century. National Register of Historic Places listings in Hennepin County, Minnesota