The Admiralty known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy first in the Kingdom of England in the Kingdom of Great Britain, from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire. Exercised by a single person, the Lord High Admiral, the Admiralty was, from the early 18th century onwards invariably put "in commission" and exercised by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, who sat on the Board of Admiralty. In 1964, the functions of the Admiralty were transferred to a new Admiralty Board, a committee of the tri-service Defence Council of the United Kingdom and part of the Navy Department of the Ministry of Defence; the new Admiralty Board meets only twice a year, the day-to-day running of the Royal Navy is controlled by a Navy Board. It is common for the various authorities now in charge of the Royal Navy to be referred to as simply'The Admiralty'; the title of Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom was vested in the monarch from 1964 to 2011.

The title was awarded to Duke of Edinburgh by Queen Elizabeth II on his 90th birthday. There continues to be a Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom and a Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, both of which are honorary offices; the office of Admiral of England was created around 1400. King Henry VIII established the Council of the Marine—later to become the Navy Board—in 1546, to oversee administrative affairs of the naval service. Operational control of the Royal Navy remained the responsibility of the Lord High Admiral, one of the nine Great Officers of State; this management approach would continue in force in the Royal Navy until to 1832. King Charles I put the office of Lord High Admiral into commission in 1628, control of the Royal Navy passed to a committee in the form of the Board of Admiralty; the office of Lord High Admiral passed a number of times in and out of commission until 1709, after which the office was permanently in commission. In this organization a dual system operated the Lord High Admiral Commissioners of the Admiralty exercised the function of general control of the Navy and they were responsible for the conduct of any war, while the actual supply lines and services were managed by four principal officers, the Treasurer, Comptroller and Clerk of the Acts, responsible individually for finance, supervision of accounts and maintenance of ships, record of business.

These principal officers came to be known as the Navy Board responsible for'civil administration' of the navy, from 1546 to 1832. This structure of administering the navy lasted for 285 years, the supply system was inefficient and corrupt its deficiencies were due as much to its limitations of the times they operated in; the various functions within the Admiralty were not coordinated and lacked inter-dependency with each other, with the result that in 1832, Sir James Graham abolished the Navy Board and merged its functions within those of the Board of Admiralty. At the time this had distinct advantages. In 1860 saw big growth in the development of technical crafts, the expansion of more admiralty branches that began with age of steam that would have an enormous influence on the navy and naval thought. Between 1860 and 1908, there was no real study of strategy and of staff work conducted within the naval service. All the Navy's talent flowed to the great technical universities; this school of thought for the next 50 years was technically based.

The first serious attempt to introduce a sole management body to administer the naval service manifested itself in the creation of the Admiralty Navy War Council in 1909. It was believed by officials within the Admiralty at this time that the running of war was quite a simple matter for any flag officer who required no formal training. However, this mentality would be questioned with the advent of the Agadir crisis, when the Admiralty's war plans were criticized. Following this, a new advisory body called the Admiralty War Staff was instituted in 1912, headed by the Chief of the War Staff, responsible for administering three new sub-divisions responsible for operations and mobilisation; the new War Staff had hardly found its feet and it continually struggled with the opposition to its existence by senior officers they were categorically opposed to a staff. The deficiencies of the system within this department of state could be seen in the conduct of the Dardanelles campaign. There were no mechanisms in place to answer the big strategic questions.

A Trade Division was created in 1914. Sir John Jellicoe came to the Admiralty in 1916, he re-organized the war staff as following: Chief of War Staff, Intelligence, Signal Section, Trade. It was not until 1917 that the admiralty department was again properly reorganized and began to function as a professional military staff. In May 1917, the term "Admiralty War Staff" was renamed and that department and its functional role were superseded by a new "Admiralty Naval Staff". Appointed was a new post, that of

Rochester crime family

The Rochester crime family was a criminal organization based in Rochester, New York. It was considered a part of the American Cosa Nostra known as the Mafia; the Rochester family's first well known official boss was Constenze "Stanley" Valenti. In 1957, after the Apalachin Conference and his brother Frank were both jailed for civil contempt, because they refused to answer questions about the meeting. In 1958, Stan was sentenced to 16 months in prison, Jake Russo became the next boss. In 1964, Frank Valenti returned to Rochester with his brother Stan, Pittsburgh associate Angelo Vaccaro. Frank became an associate in the Pittsburgh crime family in John LaRocca's family. Stan Valenti was married to Antonio Ripepi's daughter, a capo in the Pittsburgh family; this time, Frank Valenti was taking over the Rochester family. By the end of the year, Russo went missing and his body has never been found. In 1970, Valenti wiped out the last Russo soldier Billy Lupo. Frank Valenti told Buffalo crime family boss Stefano "The Undertaker" Magaddino that Rochester would become an independent family.

Prior to this, Rochester was just a crew. Valenti created a well-organized crime family by promoting Samuel Russotti to underboss, Rene Picarreto to consigliere and Salvatore Gingello, Dominic Celestino, Thomas Didio, Angelo Vaccaro and Dominic Chirico as his capos, his most trusted ally was capo Chirio. He divided up the family's illegal activities of gambling, loan sharking, insurance fraud, arson and weapon trafficking among his capos to ensure peace. Valenti created a master plan in 1970 called "The Columbus Day Bombings", he set up a special crew to bomb various churches and public buildings to draw the heat away from the family. In 1972, Valenti was approached by his underboss Samuel "Red" Russotti, his consigliere Rene Piccarreto, powerful capo Salvatore "Sammy G" Gingello; the three asked him to step down as boss. Valenti felt that the Pittsburgh family would the Chirico crew up with muscle. Unknown to him was that his consigliere, had made a secret alliance with members of the Bonanno crime family.

Valenti's most trusted capo and bodyguard, Domenic Chirico, was killed on Augustine Street. Instead of fighting he was allowed to move to Phoenix and retire. After retiring Valenti was arrested and convicted of extortion, he died on September 20, 2008. After Valenti fled the city, Samuel Russotti became boss, Piccarreto remained as consigliere, Gingello became the underboss; the family was strong until January 1977 when the police fabricated evidence to indict all the upper echelon. The convictions put Russotti, Gingello, Thomas Marotta and Eugene DeFrancesco away for murdering Vincent Massaro with a 25 years to life sentenced; when this happened, Thomas Didio became the acting boss. Russotti thought he would be able to manipulate Didio, but he just created a monster. Didio began demoting all the Russotti loyalist while receiving advice from imprisoned former boss Valenti; when the truth came out about the fabricated evidence, all the top guys got out of prison. This created an "A team and B Team" war.

Part of the "A team" was Russotti, Gingello, Richard Marino, Thomas Marotta and others. Part of the "B Team" was Rosario Chirico, Stan Valenti, Angelo Vaccaro and others. On April 23, 1978, Salvatore "Sammy G" Gingello was killed when a bomb was detonated when he entered his car, parked across from the Stillson St. restaurant, Ben's Cafe Society. On July 6, 1978 Thomas Didio was murdered by a gunman, using a machine gun. After these two murders the FBI decided it was time to crack down on the situation, with RICO coming into play they took down most of the remaining key players. In 1988, Angelo Amico and Loren Piccarreto were both indicted under the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act. Angelo Amico was the acting boss, Loren Piccarreto was the underboss.?–1958 – Constenze "Stanley" Valenti – imprisoned 1958–1964 – Jake Russo – murdered 1964–1972 – Frank Valenti – retired, died on September 20, 2008 1972–1993 – Samuel "Red" Russotti – imprisoned in 1984. Joseph "Spike" LaNovara - former soldier.

He was a part of Frank Valenti's regime and became an informer in the early 1970s after facing murder charges. Angelo Monachino - former soldier, it is believed he participated in the December 1970 murder of William Constable. He owned. Monachino served as an accomplice in the murder of Jimmy "the Hammer" Massaro, as he allowed the murder to take place inside of a garage located at his business property, he agreed to become an informer in 1975. In September 1975, he was arrested along with former Rochester mob boss Frank Valenti, Jimmy Massaro, murdered in November 1973, were accused of burning down a warehouse and receiving $80,000 insurance money in September 1971. Anthony Oliveri -

Flexion test

A flexion test is a preliminary veterinary procedure performed on a horse during a prepurchase or a lameness exam. The purpose is to accentuate any pain that may be associated with a joint or soft-tissue structure, allowing the practitioner to localize a lameness to a specific area, or to alert a practitioner to the presence of sub-clinical disease that may be present during a pre-purchase exam; the animal's leg is held in a flexed position for 30 seconds to up to 3 minutes, the horse is trotted off and its gait is analyzed for abnormalities and unevenness. Flexions stretch the joint capsule, increase intra-articular and subchondral bone pressure, compress surrounding soft tissue structures, which accentuates any pain associated with these structures. An increase in lameness following a flexion test suggests that those joints or surrounding soft tissue structures may be a source of pain for the horse; the horse may be lame for several minutes following the procedure. Flexion tests are considered positive if lameness is increased, although lameness is forgiven for the first few steps following flexion.

The horse's response should be recorded. This allows comparison in lameness. In addition to watching for lameness in the flexed limb, the examiner looks for lameness in the standing, contralateral limb. An increase in lameness associated with the contralateral limb can suggest certain causes pain, such as bilateral hock or carpal disease; the distal limb flexion applies the most pressure to the fetlock and coffin joints. This flexion is performed by pulling the toe of the hoof backward towards the cannon bone, holding sustained pressure on the joints; the fetlock and phalanges may be somewhat isolated by changing technique, but these joints are never isolated from the others in the hind limbs. False positive results from this flexion are common in the front fetlock joints; the carpal flexion test is performed by pulling the cannon bone up towards the radius. In a normal horse, the heels of the foot should contact the animal’s elbow. Positive results are strongly supportive of carpal disease, but negative results do not rule it out.

Elbow flexion is only performed when joint abnormality is found during physical examination. Flexion may be performed by lifting the forelimb so that it is parallel to the ground, while allowing the knee and distal limb to hang free to help prevent pressure on these joints. Elbow flexion produces some flexion in the shoulder, these joints are difficult to localize. There are two main methods of upper forelimb flexion; the first method involves pulling the limb forward, so that the elbow flexes and the shoulder extends. This method tends to place more strain on the structures of the caudal elbow and cranial shoulder, is best at localizing lameness to the bicipital bursa or the supraglenoid tubercle of the scapula, but places strain on the biceps and triceps muscles and tendons, the olecranon; the alternative method involves pulling the limb caudally, which flexes the shoulder and extends the elbow. Hock flexion is always accompanied by flexion of the fetlock and hip joints, so a positive flexion does not indicate hock pain.

A marked response is more common with stifle pain, rather than hock pain. The flexion is performed by pulling the cannon bone upward so that the upper joints of the leg flex, while avoiding flexion of the fetlock joint or significant pressure on the flexor tendons. A flexion test that produces lameness on the contralateral, standing limb occurs with sacroiliac disease; the navicular wedge test is used to localize any cause of lameness in the heel of the hoof. A wedge is placed directly under the frog. A second method, involving placing the hoof on a wedge so the toe is lifted up relative to the heel, subsequently increases deep digital flexor tendon tension and pressure on the navicular bone. In both cases, the opposite limb is held off the ground to force weight onto the affected limb; the horse is held in this position for 1 minute trotted off as in other flexion tests. Flexion tests are rather nonspecific. So while they can help localize a lameness issue to one particular leg, or to a few joints in the leg, they can not pinpoint it.

Additionally, flexion tests affect not only the joints that are being flexed, but the surrounding soft tissue structures around the joint. Flexion tests may produce false positives and false negatives. Both the force applied and the time a flexion test is performed can affect outcome. For this reason, it is best if the same person performs flexions of a joint on both legs, for the same amount of time, to help standardize the response; the degree of lameness can increase with repeated flexions. Certain areas, such as tissues of the fetlock joint, are more sensitive to flexion tests over other tissues, such as those in the pastern and hoof; the flexion test is less useful to evaluate for subclinical joint disease, since a significant number of sound, unaffected horses can produce positive results. Additionally, forelimb flexion tests have been shown to have poor predictive value for future soundness or unsoundness, are best interpreted in cases of clinical lameness, joint effusion, reduced range of motion, or pain on palpation.

A positive response to forelimb flexion tests is one reason horses may be deemed unsuitable for purchase during the prepurchase exam. The wide