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Admiralty law

Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes. Admiralty law consists of both domestic law on maritime activities, private international law governing the relationships between private parties operating or using ocean-going ships. While each legal jurisdiction has its own legislation governing maritime matters, the international nature of the topic and the need for uniformity has, since 1900, led to considerable international maritime law developments, including numerous multilateral treaties. Admiralty law may be distinguished from the Law of the Sea, a body of public international law dealing with navigational rights, mineral rights, jurisdiction over coastal waters, the maritime relationships between nations; the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has been adopted by 167 countries and the European Union, disputes are resolved at the ITLOS tribunal in Hamburg. Seaborne transport was one of the earliest channels of commerce, rules for resolving disputes involving maritime trade were developed early in recorded history.

Early historical records of these laws include the Rhodian law, of which no primary written specimen has survived, but, alluded to in other legal texts, the customs of the Consulate of the Sea or the Hanseatic League. In southern Italy the Ordinamenta et consuetudo maris at Trani and the Amalfian Laws were in effect from an early date. Bracton noted further that admiralty law was used as an alternative to the common law in Norman England, which required voluntary submission to it by entering a plea seeking judgment from the court. A leading sponsor of admiralty law in Europe was the French Queen Eleanor of Aquitaine. Eleanor had learned about admiralty law whilst on a crusade in the eastern Mediterranean with her first husband, King Louis VII of France. Eleanor established admiralty law on the island of Oleron, where it was published as the "Rolls of Oleron"; some time while she was in London acting as regent for her son, King Richard the Lionheart, Eleanor instituted admiralty law into England as well.

In England, a special Admiralty Court handles all admiralty cases. Despite early reliance upon civil law concepts derived from the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian, the English Admiralty Court is much a common law court, albeit a sui generis tribunal somewhat distanced from other English courts. After around 1750, as the industrial revolution took hold and English maritime commerce burgeoned, the Admiralty Court became a proactive source of innovative legal ideas and provisions to meet the new situation; the Judicature Acts of 1873-1875 abolished the Admiralty Court as such, it became conflated in the new "Probate, Divorce & Admiralty" division of the High Court. However, when the PDA was abolished and replaced by a new "Family Division", admiralty jurisdiction passed to a so-called "Admiralty Court", the QBD sitting to hear nautical cases; the Senior Courts Act 1981 clarified the "admiralty jurisdiction of the High Court", so England once again has a distinct Admiralty Court. English Admiralty courts were a prominent feature in the prelude to the American Revolution.

For example, the phrase in the Declaration of Independence "For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury" refers to the practice of the UK Parliament giving the Admiralty Courts jurisdiction to enforce The Stamp Act in the American Colonies. This power has been awarded because the Stamp Act was unpopular in America, so that a colonial jury would be unlikely to convict any colonist of its violation. However, since English admiralty courts have never had trial by jury, a colonist charged with breaching the Stamp Act could be more convicted by the Crown. Admiralty law became part of the law of the United States as it was introduced through admiralty cases arising after the adoption of the U. S. Constitution in 1789. Many American lawyers who were prominent in the American Revolution were admiralty and maritime lawyers in their private lives; those included are John Adams in Massachusetts. In 1787 John Adams, ambassador to France, wrote to James Madison proposing that the U. S. Constitution under consideration by the States, be amended to include "trial by jury in all matters of fact triable by the laws of the land and not by the laws of Nations ".

The result was the Seventh Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. Alexander Hamilton and John Adams were both admiralty lawyers and Adams represented John Hancock in an admiralty case in colonial Boston involving seizure of one of Hancock's ships for violations of Customs regulations. In the more modern era, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes was an admiralty lawyer before ascending to the bench. Matters dealt by admiralty law include marine commerce, marine navigation, maritime pollution, seafarers’ rights, the carriage by sea of both passengers and goods. Admiralty law covers land-based commercial activities that are maritime in character, such as marine insurance; some lawyers prefer to reserve the term “admiralty law” for “wet law”, use “maritime law” only for “dry law”. The doctrine of maintenance and cure is rooted in Article VI of the Rolls of Oleron promulgated in about 1160 A. D; the obligation to "cure" requires a shipowner to provide medical care free of ch

Dhour El Choueir

Dhour El Choueir is a mountain town in Lebanon located in the Matn District. It lies north of the main Beirut - Damascus highway, overlooking the city of Beirut and the Mediterranean sea, some 30 km from Beirut and 42 km from Beirut International Airport in Khalde; this mountain town is one of Mount Lebanon's favored summer resorts, known for its extraordinary fresh air and is important for its August yearly carnival, honoring Lebanon's emigrants. The inhabitants of Dhour El-Choueir are predominantly Christians, with half of the population being Eastern Orthodox, while the other half is Melkite and Maronite; the Greek Catholic monk Abdallah Zakher set up an Arabic language printing press using movable type at the monastery of Saint John at Choueir, the first homemade press in Lebanon. He cut the type molds and did the founding of the elegant typeface, he created the first true Arabic script type in the Middle East. The first book off the Zakhir press was printed in 1734, it is the birthplace of Antun Saadeh, the founder and historical leader of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party and of Tanios Bou-Nader Khneisser, the father of the Sword & Shield Folkloric Dance.

The town was on the front line during the Lebanese Civil War from 1975 to 1990. Souk El Gharb Lebanese Civil War Mountain War People's Liberation Army

Hilde Himmelweit

Hildegard Therese Himmelweit was a German social psychologist who had a major influence on the development of the discipline in Britain. Hilde Himmelweit received her PhD under Hans Eysenck at the Institute of Psychiatry, she taught at the London School of Economics from 1948-83. From 1964 she was the first Professor of Social Psychology in Britain, founding LSE's social psychology department and, in effect, establishing the discipline on the university curriculum, she enhanced our understanding of the contemporary world through her research, in particular through two studies. As director of the Nuffield Foundation television inquiry from 1954-58 she contributed to the understanding of television's impact in society, the subsequent book Television and the Child establishing her reputation in Europe and North America, her work in the field of political psychology strengthened the understanding of human decision-making by voters as she and her team studied a group of young people over a 15-year period.

The study was published as How Voters Decide in 1981. Hilde Himmelweit was highly influential in advocating a societal psychology, on which topic she co-edited a volume with George Gaskell, as well as in the establishment and development of the theory of social representations. Himmelweit, H. T. Oppenheim, A. N. & Vince, P.. Television and the child: an empirical study of the effect of television on the young. London: Published for the Nuffield Foundation by Oxford University Press. Himmelweit, H. T. Humphreys, P. & Jaeger, M.. How voters decide: a model of vote choice based on a special longitudinal study extending over fifteen years and the British election surveys of 1970-1983.. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. Himmelweit, H. T. & Gaskell, G... Societal Psychology: Implications and scope. London: Sage Publications

James C. Coomer

James C. Coomer is an American political scientist and Emeritus Professor of Political Science at Mercer University, its former Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs, he is known for his early work on the conceptual foundations of the notion of the sustainable society. Born in Evansville, Indiana in 1939, Coomer obtained his PhD in Political Science in Public Policy from the University of Tennessee-Knoxville in 1975 with the thesis, entitled "Public Administration and Organizational Behavior. American Government and Politics."Coomer had started his academic career at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville. After his graduation he was appointed Associate Professor in Public Affairs at the University of Houston, where he was chairman of its Studies of the Future program, he moved to Mercer University, where he spend the rest of his career. There Coomer served as Professor of Political Science and as Senior Vice President for Academic Affairs. After his retirement he was appointed Emeritus Professor of Political Science, published some poetry.

His research interests in those days were in the fields of anticipatory governance, both policy making and impact assessments. Coomer als served as staff officer to the Mayor of a large metropolitan city and to a US Senator in Washington, D. C. In 1991 he was awarded the Best Fictional Short Story by the Gulf Coast Writers Association for his short story "Destiny." Coomer's early research interests were in the field of "social and political consequences of rapid change in the society. In 1979 Coomer edited the volume "The Quest for a Sustainable Society," with contributions by Coomer, Paul R. Ehrlich, Arthur A. Few Jr. Michael Gibbons, Tom Stonier, Robert L. Chianese, James Garbarino, Anne H. Ehrlich, George Modelski, Dillard B. Tinsley, Edward T. Clark Jr. and W. John Coletta, David Hopcraft, Kathryn Cousins. In his first essay "The Nature of the Quest for a Sustainable Society," Coomer introduced the concept of a sustainable society as a thing man encounters: One of the unique qualities that separates man from the other animals on this planet is his capacity for self- transcendence: the ability to make himself his own object.

Man can stand "outside himself" and evaluate in which direction he is moving. He can assess the impact upon those things which are around hima and can adapt to changes either self-generated or externally imposed; those changes in man's environment that are self-generated can be examined to determine if the changes are beneficial or detrimental to his existence. If beneficial, the change is held to be an advancement. In his capacity to transcend himself, man has learned that some changes in his environment which were once embraced as beneficial have, over time, become catastrophic. Upon learning this, man has attempted to find an equitable relationship with the physical environment so that he will not generate changes that may impair that which sustains him. Seeking that equitable relationship is the perpetual for a sustainable society..."Subsequently, Coomer explained a series of attributes of the sustainable society: sustainable society is one that lives within the self-perpetuating limits of its environment.

That society, contrary to some popular opinion, is not a "no-growth" society. It is, rather, it is not a society. It is, rather, a society that l0oks for alternative ways of growing; the sustainable society recognizes that there is one primary environment - the physical environment - within which all other environments function. All other environments - political, economic, to name three major ones - exist within and act upon the primary environment. In the 1979 volume "The Quest for a Sustainable Society" Dillard B. Tinsley presented the essay "Business Organizations in the Sustainable Society", in which he stipulated the need for a clear picture of how businesses will operate in a sustainable society. Tinsley wrote: "Successful transition to a sustainable society will require meaningful participation by all segments of society. If the varied talents and resources of the business community are to be mobilized in this transition, business managers must be given a clear picture of how businesses will operate in a sustainable society.

It is not enough to assert that the economy as a whole will be structured in a particular manner or that resources will be allocated according to certain priorities. Business managers desire to know how the values and operations of their organizations will be affected. How will business interact with its customers?"There was a main problem with the state of business process modelling in those days, which Tinsley underlined: "At present, the limited models of business operations in a sustainable society do not address these questions regarding specific employee and customer interactions." A new characterization was needed to picture the operations of the business organization in a sustainable society. One of the scientists that would go down this road is the Swedish organizational theorist Håkan Håkansson. Coomer, James C. and Charlie B. Tyer. Nashville metropolitan government: The first decade. Bureau of Public Administration, University of Tennessee, 1974. James C. Coomer ed. Quest for a Sustainable Society: Pergamon Policy Studies on Business and Economics.

New York: Pergamon Press. Articles, a selectionHill, Kim Quaile, James C. Coomer. "Local politicians and their attitudes to planning." Long Range Planning 10.6: 57-61. Coomer, James C. "Solving Energy Dilemma." Futurist 11.4: 228-230. Coomer, J. C.. "Th

Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service

The Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering Shropshire, including Telford and Wrekin, in the West Midlands region of England. Shropshire's Fire and Rescue Service is provided by 512 full-time and retained firefighters based at 23 fire stations around the county, they deploy 46 operational vehicles and a number of specialist appliances. Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is governed by elected Council representatives from Shropshire's two unitary councils, Shropshire Council and Telford and Wrekin Council, together these representatives make up the Shropshire and Wrekin Fire Authority, chaired by an elected Ccuncillor, the current Chair is Councillor Eric Carter. Day-to-day operational control of the service is vested in Rod Hammerton. Within the organisation the CFO has full responsibility for the service and manages Finance and Resources; the remainder of executive duties fall to the senior management team, consisting of: Deputy Chief Fire Officer Andy Johnson, who responsible for Community Safety, Service Delivery and Operations Assistant Chief Fire Officer Dave Myers, responsible for Human Resources, Development, Performance Review and Risk and Communications Technology and Chaplaincy Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service is one of the highest performing UK fire services, achieving high marks in external audits carried out by the Audit Commission.

Water Ladder: P1/P3 Rescue Pump: P2 Light 4x4 Pump: S6 Light 6x6 Pump: S6 Light Pumping Unit: W3 Water Carrier: W1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Incident Support Unit: S1 Heavy Rescue Unit: R1 Water Rescue Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: B1 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1/C2/C3 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Rapid Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover: T7/T8/T9^For Pods: Environmental Protection Unit: H1 Bulk Foam Unit: S3 Heavy Pumping Unit: W1 Hose Layer Unit: W2 High Volume Pump: W1 High Volume Hose Layer: W2^ Prime Mover Callsign when not carrying Pods CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service West Mercia Police West Mercia Search and Rescue West Midlands Ambulance Service List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Shropshire Fire and Rescue Service

Ria Visser

Adriana Johanna "Ria" Visser is a former ice speed skater from the NetherlandsVisser participated in six World Allround Speed Skating Championships, performing best at her first attempt in 1979, when she came in 6th. In 1979 and 1980 she won the bronze medal in the World Junior Speed Skating Championships. At the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid she won the silver medal in the women's 1500 metres, finishing just behind her Dutch teammate Annie Borckink. At the 1984 Winter Olympics she did not reach higher than a 13th place. Unlike in international events, Visser was successful at the Dutch National Allround Championships, winning the event five times and coming in second twice. Only Stien Kaiser has been more successful at the national level. In the 1990s she became a TV commentator for the Dutch sports programme NOS Studio Sport. Ria Visser at Ria Visser at