Admiralty scaffolding known as Obstacle Z.1 or sometimes given as beach scaffolding or anti-tank scaffolding, was a British design of anti-tank and anti-boat obstacle made of tubular steel. It was deployed on beaches of southern England, eastern England and the south western peninsula during the invasion crisis of 1940-1941. Scaffolding was used, though more sparingly, inland. Of a number of similar designs, by far the most common was designated obstacle Z.1. This design comprised upright tubes 9 feet high and 4 feet 10 inches apart, these were connected by up to four horizontal tubes; each upright was braced at about 45 °, to the rear. 20-foot wide sections were preassembled and carried to the sea to be placed in position at the half tide mark as an obstacle to boats. However, trials found that a 250-ton barge at 5 1⁄2 knots or an 80-ton trawler at 7 1⁄2 knots would pass through the obstacle as if it were not there and a trawler pulled out one bay with an attached wire rope. Tests in October 1940, confirmed that tanks could only break through with difficulty, as a result Z.1 was adopted as an anti-tank barrier for beaches thought suitable for landing tanks.
As an anti-tank barrier it was placed at or just above the high water point where it would be difficult for tanks to get enough momentum to break through the barrier. In some places, two sets of scaffolding were set up, one in the water against boats and one at high water against tanks; the problem of securing the barriers on sand was overcome by the development of the sword picket by Stewarts & Lloyds – this device was known at the Admiralty as the Wallace Sword. Barriers varying in length from a couple of hundred feet to three miles were constructed consuming 50% of Britain's production of scaffolding steel at an estimated cost of £6,600 per mile. Despite this, many miles of Admiralty scaffolding were erected using more than 15,000 miles of scaffolding tube. After the war, the scaffolding got in the way of swimmers. Soon, the scaffolding was removed for scrap and any remaining traces are now rare, but are revealed by storms. British anti-invasion preparations of World War II British hardened field defences of World War II Foot, William.
Beaches, fields and hills... the anti-invasion landscapes of England, 1940. Council for British Archaeology. ISBN 1-902771-53-2. Ruddy, Austin. British Anti-Invasion Defences 1940–1945. Official Handbook of the Pillbox Study Group. Historic Military Press. ISBN 1-901313-20-4. Wills, Henry. Pillboxes: A Study of UK Defences. Leo Cooper. ISBN 0-436-57360-1. "The National Archives". Repository of UK government records. Archived from the original on 17 February 2007. Retrieved 19 February 2007. Mark Harrison. "Forgotten Frontline". Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2010
The 158-Pound Marriage is the third novel by American author John Irving. The book explores the sexual revolution-era trend of "swinging" via a glimpse into the lives of two couples in a small New England college town who enter casually into such an affair, with disastrous consequences; the narrator is a college professor and a unsuccessful author of historical novels. While doing research in Vienna, Austria, he met Utch, an orphaned survivor of the German occupation and the Russian siege at the end of World War II. At the opening of the novel, the narrator and Utch are married with two children and live a placid existence until, at a faculty party, they become acquainted with Severin Winter, a Viennese-born professor of German and coach of the school's wrestling team, his wife Edith, a WASP from a privileged background, an aspiring fiction writer; the narrator begins a mentor-protégé relationship with Edith, soon the couples are sharing dinners and play dates with their children. As the narrator becomes more attracted to Edith, Utch begins to fall for Severin, the couples begin trading spouses for sexual encounters at the end of their dinner dates.
At first the affairs proceed smoothly, with emotional conflict submerged beneath sexual curiosity, but soon enough, obsessive love rears its ugly head, the narrator begins to discover that the Winters have not been honest with him and his wife about their motives for entering the affair. It is revealed that sometime prior to the events of the novel Severin had an affair with a teacher at the school, when Edith discovered this she became furious and depressed. In an attempt to provide her with some emotional leverage against him, Severin arranged for Edith to become sexually involved with the narrator, while he himself would sleep with Utch; this foursome soon thereafter fragments. The narrator and Utch, are a different story; the narrator had developed genuine feelings for Edith, while she did seem to reciprocate them, at least to a small degree, he is left despondent after she ends their liaison to salvage her marriage to Severin. For her own part Utch had fallen in love with Severin, she is left devastated upon learning he did not feel the same for her.
Utch leaves and takes their children with her, returning to her native Austria to sort out her feelings. Edith and Severin move to Austria, though it is revealed through letters that Utch writes her husband that she and the Winters do not interact with each other; the novel ends with a small bit of hope for the narrator and Utch when she mails him his passport, indicating she is now ready to mend their relationship. The sport of wrestling featured prominently—the novel's title refers to the 158-pound weight class, which Severin considers the most elite competitive weight—and a subplot emerges involving Winter's protégé, a peculiar wrestling prodigy from Iowa who transfers to Winter's college because of its superior biology department and becomes a pawn in the fallout of the two couples' swinging relationship
Chery Jaguar Land Rover is an automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Changshu, China. A 50:50 joint venture between UK-headquartered Jaguar Land Rover, itself a subsidiary of Tata Motors of India. Chery Jaguar Land Rover's first assembly plant is in Changshu, with production having commenced in October 2014. Chery and Jaguar Land Rover were first reported to be in discussions about the possible creation of a Chinese joint venture manufacturing company in August 2010. In March 2012, Chery and Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to invest an initial US$2.78 billion in a new Mainland China-based joint venture to manufacture Jaguar and Land Rover vehicles and engines, as well as the establishment of a research and development centre and the creation of a new automobile marque. The establishment of the joint venture received the formal approval of the National Development and Reform Commission in November 2012. Construction of Chery Jaguar Land Rover's first assembly plant began in Changshu in the same month, with a planned completion date of July 2014.
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