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Adobe FrameMaker

Adobe FrameMaker is a document processor designed for writing and editing large or complex documents, including structured documents. It was developed by Frame Technology Corporation, bought by Adobe. FrameMaker became an Adobe product in 1995. Adobe added SGML support, which morphed into today's XML support. In April 2004, Adobe stopped supporting FrameMaker for the Macintosh; this reinvigorated rumors surfacing in 2001 that product development and support for FrameMaker were being wound down. Adobe denied these rumors in 2001 releasing FrameMaker 8 at the end of July 2007, FrameMaker 9 in 2009, FrameMaker 10 in 2011, FrameMaker 11 in 2012, FrameMaker 12 in 2014, FrameMaker in June 2015, FrameMaker 2017 in January 2017, FrameMaker 2019 in August 2018. FrameMaker has two ways of approaching documents: unstructured. Structured FrameMaker is used to achieve consistency in documentation within industries such as aerospace, where several models of the same complex product exist, or pharmaceuticals, where translation and standardization are important requirements in communications about products.

Structured FrameMaker uses SGML and XML concepts. The author works with an EDD, a FrameMaker-specific DTD; the EDD defines the structure of a document where meaningful units are designated as elements nested in each other depending on their relationships, where the formatting of these elements is based on their contexts. Attributes or Metadata can be added to these elements and used for single source publishing or for filtering elements during the output processes; the author can view the conditions and contexts in a tree-like structure derived from the grammar or as formatted in a typical final output form. Unstructured FrameMaker uses tagged paragraphs without any imposed logical structure, except that expressed by the author’s concept, topic organization, the formatting supplied by paragraph tags; when a user opens a structured file in unstructured FrameMaker, the structure is lost. MIF is a markup language; the purpose of MIF is to represent FrameMaker documents in a simple, ASCII-based format, which can be produced or understood by other software systems and by humans.

Any document that can be created interactively in FrameMaker can be represented and in MIF. All versions of FrameMaker can export documents in MIF, can read MIF documents, including documents created by an earlier version or by another program. While working on his master's degree in astrophysics at Columbia University, Charles "Nick" Corfield, a mathematician alumnus of the University of Cambridge, decided to write a WYSIWYG document editor on a Sun-2 workstation, he got the idea from his college roommate at Columbia, Ben Meiry, who went to work at Sun Microsystems as a technical consultant and writer, saw that there was a market for a powerful and flexible desktop publishing product for the professional market. The only substantial DTP product at the time of FrameMaker's conception was Interleaf, which ran on Sun workstations in 1981. Meiry saw an opportunity for a product to compete with Interleaf, enlisted Corfield to program it, assisted him in acquiring the hardware and technical connections to get him going in his Columbia University dorm room.

Corfield programmed his algorithms quickly. After only a few months, Corfield had completed a functional prototype of FrameMaker; the prototype caught the eyes of salesmen at the fledgling Sun Microsystems, which lacked commercial applications to showcase the graphics capabilities of their workstations. They got permission from Corfield to use the prototype as demoware for their computers, hence, the primitive FrameMaker received plenty of exposure in the Unix workstation arena. Steve Kirsch realized the potential of the product. Kirsch used the money he earned from Mouse Systems to fund a startup company, Frame Technology Corp. to commercialize the software. Corfield chose to sue Meiry for release of rights to the software so they could more obtain additional investment capital with Kirsch. Meiry had little means to fight a lengthy and expensive lawsuit with Corfield and his new business partners, he chose to release his rights to FrameMaker and move on. Written for SunOS on Sun machines, FrameMaker was a popular technical writing tool, the company was profitable early on.

Because of the flourishing desktop publishing market on the Apple Macintosh, the software was ported to the Mac as its second platform. In the early 1990s, a wave of UNIX workstation vendors—Apollo, Data General, MIPS, Motorola and Sony—provided funding to Frame Technology for an OEM version for their platforms. At the height of its success, FrameMaker ran on more than thirteen UNIX platforms, including NeXT Computer's NeXTSTEP and IBM's AIX operating systems. Sun Microsystems and AT&T were promoting the OPEN LOOK GUI standard to win over Motif, so Sun contracted Frame Technology to implement a version of FrameMaker on their PostScript-based NeWS windowing system; the NeWS version of FrameMaker was released to those customers adopting the OPEN LOOK standards. At this point, FrameMaker was considered an extraordinary product for its day, enabling authors to produce structured documents with relative ease, but giving users a great deal of typographical control in a reason

List of songs recorded by Dido

English singer-songwriter Dido has recorded songs for her four studio albums and collaborated with other artists for duets and featured songs on their respective albums. After collaborating with her brother, Rollo Armstrong, on his band's successful debut album Reverence, she opted to pursue a solo career, signing a record deal with Arista Records the following year, her first studio album, No Angel, was released in 1999 in the United States. A modest commercial hit, its sales were boosted after its lead single, "Here with Me", became the theme song of the television series Roswell and its third single, "Thank You", was featured on the soundtrack to Sliding Doors and was sampled by American rapper Eminem in his hit song "Stan". No Angel received critical acclaim, has sold over 12 million copies, becoming certified platinum twelve times, it topped music charts in thirteen countries and became the best-selling debut by any female British artist. In 2003, Arista Records released Life for Rent, it experienced commercial success, became the fastest-selling album by a female solo artist in UK history.

Its lead single, "White Flag", was nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance and won the BRIT Award for Best British Single and the Ivor Novello Award for International Hit of the Year. During a five-year hiatus, Dido moved from London to Los Angeles to write and record her third album, Safe Trip Home, released in 2008, it was the first to feature co-producer Jon Brion. Its first official single was "Don't Believe in Love". In 2010, Dido collaborated with composer A. R. Rahman and recorded "If I Rise" for the film 127 Hours earning an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song. Dido planned to follow up with Safe Trip Home quickly with her fourth studio album, Girl Who Got Away, but a pregnancy delayed its release to 2013

Paul R. Hill

Paul Richard Hill was a renowned mid–twentieth-century American aerodynamicist. He was a leading research and development engineer and manager for NASA and its predecessor, NACA between 1939 and 1970, retiring as Associate Chief, Applied Materials and Physics Division at the NASA Langley Research Centre, he is arguably most known today as the author of Unconventional Flying Objects: a Scientific Analysis. Hill was born in Odebolt, Iowa in February 1909. After graduating with a B. S. in mechanical engineering from University of California, Berkeley in 1936 he was Professor of Aeronautics at the Polytechnic College of Engineering in Oakland, California for three years before joining the National Advisory Committee of Aeronautics in 1939. He continued to work in a range of senior R&D management roles when NACA became the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in 1958 at the NASA Langley Research Center. Hill was married to Frances Hoback Hill, they had Julie M. Hill. Paul Richard Hill died on April 9, 1990 in the James River Regional Convalescent Centre, Newport News, Virginia, USA.

The Paul R Hill Special Collection is held by the Archives of American Aerospace. He was awarded NASA's Exceptional Service Medal in 1969; this award was "… granted for significant achievement or service characterized by unusual initiative or creative ability that demonstrates substantial improvement in engineering, administative space flight, or space-related endeavors which contribute to NASA programs". In 1970 Hill received a citation for outstanding scientific leadership for "directing research applicable to space laboratories and other spacecraft." During the second world war Hill co-authored a number of technical NACA papers, focusing on aerodynamic aspects of aircraft performance. Hill was involved in NACA collaboration with the Republic Aircraft Company, assisting in the design of the successful P-47 fighter. Hill's specific role was in the aerodynamic design. In the immediate post war period Hill made a number of significant contributions to the development of ram jet technology, including establishing and supervising the Wallops Island ram jet test flight programme and authoring the first NACA technical paper on ram jet technology.

By the early 1950s, in part inspired by his personal interest in the'flying saucer' or'UFO' phenomenon, Hill began experimenting in his own time with kinesthetically controlled flying platforms. This led to an official project, which Hill initiated with Charles Zimmerman, independently working on similar concepts for some time; this project designed and test flew such platforms in collaboration with the United States Air Force, the Royal Canadian Airforce and the US Office of Naval Research. The increased understanding of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of such platforms informed future design work for the Lunar Landing Module, other VTOL designs and experiments with disc shaped aircraft in the period. In the early 1950s Hill was part of a specially-assembled advisory panel of "great men". In addition to Hill, who at this time headed NACA's Pilotless Aircraft Division, the "great men" listed by Dr Robert F Brodsky of Sandia Labs in his memoir were Jack Northrop, George Schairer, Ira H. Abbott, Ed Heinemann, Dr. Alex Charters, Al Sibilia, Dr. Charles Poor, "several other distinguished engineers".

It was Hill and Charters, whom Brodsky called the "heroes". Hill's specific contribution was in diagnosing the aerodynamic problems in the bomb design, though Brodsky acknowledges that at the time they were ignored until a year when the Sandia scientists realized they were right. "Both experts were correct, but they were too far ahead of us technically". In 1956 the US Air Force established project HYWARDS, with the aim of developing a hypersonic design capable of up to Mach 12, as a successor to the X-15; the aerospace historian, James Hansen notes that a number of NACA engineers joined the initial HYWARDS study group at Langley Research Centre "notably Paul Hill and propulsion…". Hill made a number of important contributions in the design of hypersonic wind tunnels. By 1959 Hill became involved in research for a future lunar mission. A lunar study group was established under the leadership of Clint Brown who asked for the participation of six of "Langley's most thoughtful analysts: David Adamson, Supersonic Aerodynamics Division.

Houbolt, Dynamic Loads Division. This was one of many study groups to examine a lunar mission during the period, with arguably its major contribution being in initiating the concept of rendezvous in orbit between a lander and a main spacecraft.". Space station research began in earnest at NASA-Langley in the early 1960s and Hill played a prominent role; the historian James Hansen describes Hill as one of two " key members of Langley's early space station research", with again much of Hill's pioneering work feeding into developments."Of all those who contributed to the Moon decision, the ones farthest in the background were the engineers of Langley and Goddard and Marshall, many of whom devoted their lives to spaceflight, d

2002 Irish general election

The 2002 Irish general election was held on Friday, 17 May just over three weeks after the dissolution of the 28th Dáil on Thursday, 25 April by President Mary McAleese, at the request of the Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern. The newly elected members of the 29th Dáil assembled on 6 June; the general election took place in 42 parliamentary constituencies throughout Ireland for 165 seats in the lower house of parliament, Dáil Éireann. The general election was significant for a number of reasons: The election was considered a success for Fianna Fáil, with the party coming within a handful of seats from achieving an overall majority; the only high-profile loss was Mary O'Rourke losing her seat in Westmeath. The re-election of the Fianna Fáil–Progressive Democrats government, the first occasion since 1969 that an Irish government won re-election; the meltdown in Fine Gael support, which saw the main opposition party drop from 54 to 31 seats, lose all but three seats in Dublin. The failure of the Labour Party, contrary to all expectations, to increase its seat total.

In the year, Ruairi Quinn stepped down as leader of the Labour Party. He was replaced by Pat Rabbitte, one of four Democratic Left TDs who joined in a merger with Labour in 1999; the most high-profile loss for the party was the defeat of former leader Dick Spring in Kerry. The success of the Green Party, which increased its TDs from two to six, including its first Teachta Dála outside of Dublin; the electoral success of Sinn Féin, which increased its seat number from one to five. The election of a large number of independent candidates. Contrary to what opinion polls and political pundits were predicting, the Progressive Democrats kept all of their seats, picked up four more, it was the first time. They were used in three constituencies: Dublin West and Meath; the most noticeable feature of the election was the collapse in Fine Gael's vote. It suffered its second worst electoral result with several prominent members failing to get re-elected, including: Alan Dukes – former party leader Jim Mitchell – deputy leader Nora Owen – former deputy leader and former Minister for Justice Austin Currie – former presidential candidate Jim Higgins – former Chief Whip Alan Shatter – front bench member Deirdre Clune – front bench member Michael Creed – front bench member Frances Fitzgerald – front bench memberThe party's losses were pronounced in Dublin, where just three TDs were returned, fewer than Fianna Fáil, the Progressive Democrats or the Greens.

The reasons for the drop in support for Fine Gael are many and varied: There was an element of bad luck in some losses, the proportion of seats they lost was much greater than the proportion of votes. In 2002, the Irish economy was booming, unemployment was low, the outgoing government was a stable one that had lasted its full term. No other opposition party, noticeably Labour, would agree to a pre-election pact with Fine Gael, sensing the unpopularity of the party; this meant. In contrast, the two parties of the outgoing government fought the election on a united front; the Fine Gael party was poorly organised in Dublin, morale was low. The political landscape had changed in Ireland since Fine Gael's heyday in the 1980s; the Progressive Democrats and the Green Party in particular ate into Fine Gael's middle class support, anti-Fianna Fáil voters had a much wider range of parties to choose from. All 4 of the extra seats won by the Green Party were at the expense of Fine Gael, as were 3 out of 4 of the Progressive Democrats' gains.

Toward the end of the campaign, Michael McDowell warned that because Fianna Fáil were so high in the opinion polls, they could form a government by themselves. This led to a significant shift to the Progressive Democrats at the last minute, many Fine Gael voters voted strategically for the Progressive Democrats to avoid a single-party Fianna Fáil government. In the immediate aftermath of the election, Fine Gael leader Michael Noonan announced his resignation from the leadership and Enda Kenny was chosen as the new leader in the subsequent election. Fianna Fáil and Progressive Democrats majority coalition government formed. Democratic Left, which won 4 seats in 1997, merged with the Labour Party in 1999. Independents include Independent Fianna Fáil; the following changes took place as a result of the election: 22 outgoing TDs retired 143 TDs stood for re-election 110 of those were re-elected 33 failed to be re-elected 55 successor TDs were elected 47 were elected for the first time 8 had been TDs There were 7 successor female TDs, replacing 6 outgoing, increasing the total number by 1 to 22 There were changes in 38 of 42 constituencies contestedOutgoing TDs are listed in the constituency they constested in the election.

For some, such as Marian McGennis, this differs from the constituency they represented in the outgoing Dáil. Where more than one change took place in a constituency the concept of successor is an approximation for presentation only. A summary of the cross-party seat transfers is: Government of the 29th Dáil Members of the 29th Dáil Ministers of State of the 29th Dáil Members of the 22nd Seanad Mitchell, Paul. "Fianna Fáil still dominant in the coalition era: The Irish general election of May 2002". West European Politics. 26: 174–183. Doi:10.1080/01402380512331341171

Families and How to Survive Them

Families and How to Survive Them is a bestselling self-help book co-authored by the psychiatrist and psychotherapist Robin Skynner and the comedian John Cleese. It was first published in 1983, is illustrated throughout by the cartoonist J. B. Handelsman; the book takes the form of a series of dialogues between Skynner, playing the role of therapist, Cleese, who adopts the role of inquisitive lay person. The book was serialised as a six-part radio series for the UK BBC station BBC Radio 4, with each episode being 30 minutes long; this was in the form of a convivial conversation between Cleese and Skynner and following the same structure as the book, albeit in an abridged form. It was subsequently released on Compact Cassette and Compact Disc in a modified form, its sequel is Life. The book is a description and analysis of how and why we fall in love, how we develop from babies to adolescents to adults, how during this development we so become "stuck" in childlike behaviour, how all these things are influenced by previous generations in our families.

The authors themselves have said that the aim of the book was "to make intelligible and accessible the psychological aspects of how families behave and function, what makes some work and others fail, how families can move up the scale towards greater health and happiness". The motivation behind it was to "make available to the general public, in a way, easy to absorb, those aspects of psychological knowledge we had found most helpful ourselves towards making life more understandable and enjoyable". Families and How to Survive Them may be said to have arisen from two sources – an earlier book, One Flesh, Separate Persons: Principles of Family and Marital Therapy by Skynner, work carried out by Skynner at the Institute of Family Therapy in London in the 1970s. Cleese, who attended a lengthy course of group therapy at the institute in the mid seventies, was so impressed by what he experienced that, motivated by a desire to spread what lay behind the therapy to a wider audience, proposed to Skynner that they write a book summarising and outlining the principles involved.

Chapter 1: Why Did I Have to Marry You? Chapter 2: I'm God, Let's Leave it Like That – In the extensive further reading section at the end of the book, Skynner acknowledges that this chapter "depends on the ideas of Melanie Klein, founder of The English School of Psychoanalysis". Chapter 3: The Astonishing Stuffed Rabbit Chapter 4: Who's in Charge Here? Chapter 5: What are You Two Doing in There? Robin Skynner, John Cleese. Families and How to Survive Them. Mandarin. ISBN 978-0-413-56520-4. Robin Skynner. One Flesh, Separate Persons: Principles of Family and Marital Psychotherapy. Constable. ISBN 978-0-09-460710-1. Robin Skynner, John Cleese. Life and How to Survive It. Methuen Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-413-66030-5

Capital punishment in Idaho

Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the U. S. state of Idaho. When the prosecution seeks the death penalty, the sentence is decided by the jury and must be unanimous. In case of a hung jury during the penalty phase of the trial, a life sentence is issued if a single juror opposed death; the power of clemency belongs to the Idaho Commission of Parole. Lethal injection is the only method of execution authorized by statutes. Men on death row are incarcerated in Idaho Maximum Security Institution near Kuna, women in Pocatello Women's Correctional Center. First-degree murder can be punished with death if it involves any of the following aggravating factors: The defendant was convicted of another murder. Under Title 18, Chapter 45, Section 05 of the Idaho Statutes, the death penalty can applied for kidnapping in the first-degree, provided that the kidnapping involved any of the following aggravating factors: The victim of the kidnapping was subjected by the kidnapper or those acting in concert with him to torture, maiming or the intentional infliction of grievous mental or physical injury.

Idaho statutes provides the death penalty for perjury causing execution of an innocent person as well. The death penalty can be applied in any case for perjury causing execution of an innocent person and no aggravated factors have to be proven in order for the death penalty to be given. Idaho executed 14 men, all by hanging, before its admission to the Union in 1890. Another 12 men were executed, again by hanging, between that time and 1957. Idaho has never executed a woman. There were no executions between 1957 and 1972, when the United States Supreme Court decision Furman v. Georgia struck down all death penalty statutes across the United States and created an effective moratorium on executions. Idaho passed new statutes on July 7, 1973, the 1976 case Gregg v. Georgia lifted the moratorium. Firing squad was the state's sole method of execution between that time and the 1978 adoption of lethal injection as a second option. In 2009 the firing squad option was removed; this left lethal injection as the sole execution method.

List of people executed in Idaho List of death row inmates in Idaho Crime in Idaho Law of Idaho List of Idaho's pre-1972 executions Idaho execution chamber photo