Adobe Photoshop is a raster graphics editor developed and published by Adobe Inc. for Windows and macOS. It was created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since the software has become the industry standard not only in raster graphics editing, but in digital art as a whole; the software's name has thus become a generic trademark, leading to its usage as a verb although Adobe discourages such use. Photoshop can edit and compose raster images in multiple layers and supports masks, alpha compositing and several color models including RGB, CMYK, CIELAB, spot color, duotone. Photoshop uses its own PSB file formats to support these features. In addition to raster graphics, this software has limited abilities to edit or render text and vector graphics, as well as 3D graphics and video, its feature set can be expanded by plug-ins. Photoshop's naming scheme was based on version numbers. However, in October 2002, each new version of Photoshop was designated with "CS" plus a number. Photoshop CS3 through CS6 were distributed in two different editions: Standard and Extended.
With the introduction of the Creative Cloud branding in June 2013, Photoshop's licensing scheme was changed to that of software as a service rental model. Photoshop was bundled with additional software such as Adobe ImageReady, Adobe Fireworks, Adobe Bridge, Adobe Device Central and Adobe Camera RAW. Alongside Photoshop, Adobe develops and publishes Photoshop Elements, Photoshop Lightroom, Photoshop Express, Photoshop Fix, Photoshop Sketch and Photoshop Mix; as of November 2019, Adobe has released a full version of Photoshop for the iPad, while limited, Adobe plans to bring more features to Photoshop for iPad. Collectively, they are branded as "The Adobe Photoshop Family". Photoshop was developed in 1987 by two brothers Thomas and John Knoll, who sold the distribution license to Adobe Systems Incorporated in 1988. Thomas Knoll, a Ph. D. student at the University of Michigan, began writing a program on his Macintosh Plus to display grayscale images on a monochrome display. This program caught the attention of his brother John, an Industrial Light & Magic employee, who recommended that Thomas turn it into a full-fledged image editing program.
Thomas took a six-month break from his studies in 1988 to collaborate with his brother on the program. Thomas renamed the program ImagePro, but the name was taken; that year, Thomas renamed his program Photoshop and worked out a short-term deal with scanner manufacturer Barneyscan to distribute copies of the program with a slide scanner. During this time, John traveled to Silicon Valley and gave a demonstration of the program to engineers at Apple and Russell Brown, art director at Adobe. Both showings were successful, Adobe decided to purchase the license to distribute in September 1988. While John worked on plug-ins in California, Thomas remained in Ann Arbor writing code. Photoshop 1.0 was released on February 1990 for Macintosh exclusively. The Barneyscan version included advanced color editing features that were stripped from the first Adobe shipped version; the handling of color improved with each release from Adobe and Photoshop became the industry standard in digital color editing. At the time Photoshop 1.0 was released, digital retouching on dedicated high-end systems cost around $300 an hour for basic photo retouching.
The list price of Photoshop 1.0 for Macintosh in 1990 was $895. Photoshop was only available on Macintosh. In 1993, Adobe chief architect Seetharaman Narayanan ported Photoshop to Microsoft Windows; the Windows port led to Photoshop reaching a wider mass market audience as Microsoft's global reach expanded within the next few years. Photoshop files have default file extension as. PSD, which stands for "Photoshop Document." A PSD file stores an image with support for most imaging options available in Photoshop. These include layers with masks, text, alpha channels and spot colors, clipping paths, duotone settings; this is in contrast to many other file formats that restrict content to provide streamlined, predictable functionality. A PSD file has a maximum height and width of 30,000 pixels, a length limit of two gigabytes. Photoshop files sometimes have the file extension. PSB, which stands for "Photoshop Big". A PSB file extends the PSD file format, increasing the maximum height and width to 300,000 pixels and the length limit to around 4 Exabytes.
The dimension limit was chosen arbitrarily by Adobe, not based on computer arithmetic constraints but for ease of software testing. PSD and PSB formats are documented; because of Photoshop's popularity, PSD files are used and supported to some extent by most competing software, including Open-source / Free software such as GIMP. The. PSD file format can be exported to and from Adobe's other apps like Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Premiere Pro, After Effects. Photoshop functionality can be extended by add-on programs called Photoshop plugins. Adobe creates some plugins, such as Adobe Camera Raw, but third-party companies develop most plugins, according to Adobe's specifications; some are free
The Seven Deadly Sins the Movie: Prisoners of the Sky is a 2018 Japanese animated fantasy film based on The Seven Deadly Sins manga series written and illustrated by Nakaba Suzuki. The film was released on August 18, 2018 in Japan and released on November 29, 2018 in South Korea by MJ Pictures, worldwide by Netflix on December 31, 2018. A manga by the series' original author Nakaba Suzuki and a light novel of film adaptation by Shuka Matsuda was released on August 18, 2018 in Japan; the story takes place in a time when non-humans alike lived in the same society. The Kingdom of Liones was annihilated thanks to the evildoings of the Demon Clan, but were saved thanks to the efforts of the Kingdom’s third Princess, a band of strong yet terrible knights known as the Seven Deadly Sins. With peace returning to Lion Kingdom following it nearly annihilated by the Demon Race and the Seven Deadly Sins decide to celebrate the King’s birthday with numerous dishes being prepared in the Boar Hat tavern; the Deadly Sins' leader Meliodas and his talking pig companion Hawk search for Skyfish for a recipe, ending up above the clouds and in front of the Sky Palace after stumbling across a well in the nearby forest which they discover is a portal.
Living in the Sky Castle are a race of winged people known as the Celestials, descendants of the Goddess Race who hold watch over an Indura-type demon sealed in their land since the Ancient War's end 3,000 years ago. But when a group of demons calling themselves The Six Knights of Black attack the Celestials and release the Indura, forcing a Celestial youth named Solaad unintentionally bring Meliodas and Hawk to his people's land while he left to find the legendary white pig ‘Oshiro’ whose power was used to seal the evil. Solaad ends up meeting the other Deadly Sins, who mistook him for Meliodas due to their similar appearances, but manages to convince them to come with him while Meliodas went through a similar case of mistaken identity with the Celestials; as the Seven Deadly Sins face the Six Knights of Black with support by the Celestials' warriors, it is revealed that the Knights of Black's leader Bellion is an upper-class demon, denied membership into the Ten Commandments by Meliodas in the past.
Meliodas ends up being mortally injured by the Winged Sword, a sacred sword forged to harm demons. But Solaad, trusting the Seven Deadly Sins' insistence that Meliodas is a good person, removes the sword and revives Meliodas. Solaad uses the Winged Sword and the combined power of his people, the Sins, Elizabeth to destroy the Indura; the Sins are hailed as heroes and celebrate with the Celestials before taking a Skyfish and returning to Liones on Hawk's Mother, revealed to have been'Oshiro' the entire time. Some time King is presented with the cooked Skyfish and is appalled by its horrible taste as Meliodas cooked it. Hawk ends up assuming a Skyfish form to his shock, it is directed by Yasuto Nishikata and written by Makoto Uezu, featuring an original story by Nakaba Suzuki and Noriyuki Abe serving as chief director. The other main staff members returned from the anime series to reprise their roles in the film; the movie features three original characters called Solaad and Bellion. Kim Morrissy of Anime News Network rated "B-" for Prisoners of the Sky by praising for best action animation & choreography in the series, great use of comic relief characters, some clever uses of the series lore but criticized for lackluster story & side characters underdevelopment.
Morrissy concluded, "All in all, The Seven Deadly Sins: Prisoners of the Sky is a serviceably popcorn film that delivers about as much as you'd reasonably expect from a shonen filler film." On opening weekend, The Seven Deadly Sins the Movie: Prisoners of the Sky opened in Japan in 271 theaters and sold 169,000 tickets to rank #5 at Domestic Box Office with opening ¥196 million. The anime film dropped from #5 to #10 in its second weekend the film earned 85,164,700 yen from Friday to Sunday, earned a cumulative total of 427,180,300 yen. Box Office Mojo stated. However, after ranking fifth in its first weekend and 10th in its second weekend, "The Seven Deadly Sins the Movie: Prisoners of the Sky" dropped off from the top 10 in its third weekend; the film still earned 51,475,900 Yen from Friday to Sunday, has earned a cumulative total of 549,019,700 Yen and completed its theatrical run at Domestic Market. Outside of Japan, the anime film opened at #30 in South Korea on 29 November 2018 with opening around $3,376 and total box office earnings closed at $74,059 on 14 December 2018.
Prisoners of the Sky was released in theaters in Japan on August 18, 2018 and in South Korea on November 29, 2018. The release of DVD and blu-ray in Japan by A-1 Pictures is scheduled for February 27, 2019 as per official site. A dubbed version by Netflix was released worldwide on December 31, 2018. Official website The Seven Deadly Sins the Movie: Prisoners of the Sky at Anime News Network's encyclopedia
Michèle Bernstein is a French novelist and critic, most remembered as a member of the Situationist International from its foundation in 1957 until 1967, as the first wife of its most prominent member, Guy Debord. Bernstein was born in Paris, of Russian descent. In 1952, bored by her studies at the nearby Sorbonne, she began to frequent Chez Moineau, a bar at 22 rue du Four. There she encountered a circle of artists, writers and petty criminals who were beginning to establish themselves as the Letterist International. With one of these, Patrick Straram, she toured Le Havre in August 1952, in order to see the places upon which Jean-Paul Sartre's Nausea had been modelled. On 17 August 1954, she married another member of the group, Guy Debord, took a more active role in contributing to its publications. Bernstein recalls that Debord had earlier tried to pick her up in a café in front of the Sorbonne, but that she had shaken her cigarette and said something disparaging. However, they first became friends, lovers:'I did love him, I am sorry he is not here with us now'.
The Letterist International were concerned with transcending traditional artistic activities to produce'situations' for themselves. By 1957, most of the members of the Letterist International had either quit or been forcibly excluded, the remnants opted to fuse with two other groups to form the Situationist International. Bernstein and Debord visited Cosio di Arroscia in July 1957: the Situationist International came into being there on 28 July; the other two groups involved were the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus and the London Psychogeographical Committee. The former was an offshoot of the earlier CoBrA group of artists. Thereafter, Bernstein contributed a number of articles to the situationists' journal, Internationale situationniste, either alone or in collaboration with the other members. In the journal's first issue, Bernstein wrote an essay entitled "No Useless Leniency" in which she argues for the complicated necessity of splits and schisms within the Situationist International.
"It is necessary to recognize when an encounter in a concrete collective task becomes impossible," at which point the collective must be dissolved or reorganize. The radical political work of the International, Bernstein argues, "should not be subject to the same weaknesses" and "modes of continuity or looseness" as friendship, despite the unavoidable friendships that develop within the group. In her estimation, personal relationships must always remain secondary to the larger Situationist effort. Bernstein published two détourned novels through Buchet/Chastel, whose moderate success helped her convince her publisher to publish Debord's major theoretical text, The Society of the Spectacle, despite its non-commercial nature. In All The King's Horses and The Night, Bernstein tells the same story in two different ways, adapting the plot of Les Liaisons dangereuses to create a'roman à clef despite itself' featuring characters based on herself and his lover Michèle Mochot. All The Kings Horses deliberately mimics the style popularized Francoise Sagan in her novel Bonjour Tristesse, which scandalized France when it was awarded the Prix des Critiques.
The Night détourns of the avant-garde nouveau-roman style of Alain Robbe-Gillet. Bernstein claims the novels were written as a joke to make money at a time when she and her husband'were rather skint.' All the King's Horses has been translated into English by John Kelsey The Night has been translated into English by Clodagh Kinsella. She contributed an article on the situationists to the Times Literary Supplement. According to the French philosopher and occasional associate of the Situationist International, Henri Lefebvre, she supported the Situationists financially, by writing horses' horoscopes for racing magazines. Though Bernstein did work a variety of jobs to support herself and Debord, she has claimed the comment about writing horses' horoscopes was a joke. During the first ten years of its existence, the Situationists continued the work of the Letterist International, extended them in new directions. Feeling that they had adequately transcended art, the group began to take on much more of a socio-political character, as they sought to realise their philosophy.
Their greatest moment came in the uprising of May 1968, which they might not have caused but which they encouraged. Bernstein herself, had retired from the group the previous year, her marriage to Debord had broken down. The marriage was dissolved on 5 January 1972, he proceeded to marry Alice on 5 August. A few years Bernstein happened to encounter Ralph Rumney. Rumney, notwithstanding his presence at the foundation of the Situationist International, had been excluded after only about nine months, they had not seen one another for some twenty years, but they fell in together again and got married. Rumney speculated that her primary reason for marrying him was to get British citizenship. In any case, they seemed happy together, remained close, just as Bernstein did with Debord himself after the split, she settled in Salisbury, Engl