Duchy of Schleswig
The Duchy of Schleswig was a duchy in Southern Jutland covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark. The territory has been divided between the two countries since 1920, with Northern Schleswig in Denmark and Southern Schleswig in Germany; the region is called Sleswick in English. The area's traditional significance lies in the transfer of goods between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea, connecting the trade route through Russia with the trade routes along the Rhine and the Atlantic coast. Roman sources place the homeland of the tribe of Jutes north of the river Eider and that of the Angles south of it; the Angles in turn bordered the neighbouring Saxons. By the early Middle Ages, the region was inhabited by three groups: Danes, who lived north of the Danevirke and the Eckernförde Bay, North Frisians, who lived in most of North Frisia, including on the North Frisian Islands, Saxons, who lived in the area south of the Danes and the Frisians.
During the 14th century, the population on Schwansen began to speak Low German alongside Danish, but otherwise the ethno-linguistic borders remained remarkably stable until around 1800, with the exception of the population in the towns that became German from the 14th century onwards. During the early Viking Age, Haithabu – Scandinavia's biggest trading centre – was located in this region, the location of the interlocking fortifications known as the Danewerk or Danevirke, its construction, in particular its great expansion around 737, has been interpreted as an indication of the emergence of a unified Danish state. In May 1931, scientists of the National Museum of Denmark announced that they had unearthed eighteen Viking graves with the remains of eighteen men in them; the discovery came during excavations in Schleswig. The skeletons indicated; each of the graves was laid out from east to west. Researchers surmised that the bodies were entombed in wooden coffins but only the iron nails remained.
Towards the end of the Early Middle Ages, Schleswig formed part of the historical Lands of Denmark as Denmark unified out of a number of petty chiefdoms in the 8th to 10th centuries in the wake of Viking expansion. The southern boundary of Denmark in the region of the Eider River and the Danevirke was a source of continuous dispute; the Treaty of Heiligen was signed in 811 between the Danish King Hemming and Charlemagne, by which the border was established at the Eider. During the 10th century, there were several wars between East Denmark. In 1027, Conrad II and Canute the Great again fixed their mutual border at the Eider. In 1115, King Niels created his nephew Canute Lavard – a son of his predecessor Eric I – Earl of Schleswig, a title used for only a short time before the recipient began to style himself Duke. In the 1230s, Southern Jutland was allotted as an appanage to Abel Valdemarsen, Canute's great-grandson, a younger son of Valdemar II of Denmark. Abel, having wrested the Danish throne to himself for a brief period, left his duchy to his sons and their successors, who pressed claims to the throne of Denmark for much of the next century, so that the Danish kings were at odds with their cousins, the dukes of Slesvig.
Feuds and marital alliances brought the Abel dynasty into a close connection with the German Duchy of Holstein by the 15th century. The latter was a fief subordinate to the Holy Roman Empire; these dual loyalties were to become a main root of the dispute between the German states and Denmark in the 19th century, when the ideas of romantic nationalism and the nation-state gained popular support. The title of Duke of Schleswig was inherited in 1460 by the hereditary kings of Norway, who were regularly elected kings of Denmark and their sons; this was an anomaly -- a king holding a ducal title of which he as king was the liege lord. The title and anomaly survived because it was co-regally held by the king's sons. Between 1544 and 1713/20, the ducal reign had become a condominium, with the royal House of Oldenburg and its cadet branch House of Holstein-Gottorp jointly holding the stake. A third branch in the condominium, the short-lived House of Haderslev, was extinct in 1580 by the time of John the Elder.
Following the Protestant Reformation, when Latin was replaced as the medium of church service by the vernacular languages, the diocese of Schleswig was divided and an autonomous archdeaconry of Haderslev created. On the west coast, the Danish diocese of Ribe ended about 5 km north of the present border; this created a new cultural dividing line in the duchy because German was used for church services and teaching in the diocese of Schleswig and Danish was used in the diocese of Ribe and the archdeaconry of Haderslev. This line corresponds remarkably with the present border. In the 17th century a series of wars between Denmark and Sweden—which Denmark lost—devastated the region economically. However, the nobility responded with a new agricultural system. In the period 1600 to 1800 the region experienced the growth of manorialism of the sort common in the rye-growing regions of eastern Germany; the manors were large holdings with the work done by feudal peasant farmers. They specialized in high quality dairy products.
Feudal lordship was combined with technical modernization, the distinct
Eutin is the district capital of Eastern Holstein county located in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein. As of 2015, the town had some 17,000 inhabitants; the name Eutin is of Slavic origin. Its meaning is not quite clear; the Slavic Obotrites tribe settled eastern Holstein in the 7th/8th centuries A. D. and built a castle on Pheasant Island in the lake now called the Großer Eutiner See. The Slavonic settlement of Utin was populated in the twelfth century by Dutch settlers. In 1156 Eutin became a market town. Town rights were granted in the year 1257, it became the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck, as Lübeck itself was an imperial free city. When the bishopric was secularized in 1803, Eutin became part of the Duchy of Oldenburg; as a result of the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, Eutin passed from the Free State of Oldenburg to the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein. After World War II, it became part of the modern Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein. Eutin is birthplace of composer Carl Maria von Weber.
To honor him, an open-air theater was built in the park of Eutin Castle in 1951, operas are performed there in July and August during the Eutin Opera Summer Festival. The seating capacity of this open-air venue is about 2000; the festival includes music students in Eutin as well as students from the University of Kansas in Lawrence, Kansas, US, the twin city of Eutin. Eutin hosts an annual Blues Festival at the beginning of summer. Local musicians, as well as up and coming blues artists from around the world, come to play at this three-day outdoor blues festival, which takes place in the market place in the center of town; as the costs are covered by sponsoring, public funding and volunteer helpers, admission is free. Eutin is surrounded by a number of lakes of the Holsteinische Schweiz, including the Großer Eutiner See, Kleiner Eutiner See and Ukleisee. Many of the lakes are surrounded by forests. Popular activities on these lakes include boating, rowing and fishing. Schleswig-Holstein Eutin, is known for its numerous rapeseed fields, which are used for biofuel production.
Wind turbines are a common sight in this rural region. Constructed as a functioning windmill in 1850 by Carl Friedrich Trahn, Die alte Mühle now serves as a bar and restaurant. Tom Buk-Swienty historian and writer Wilhelm Dittmann, politician Peter Engel, writer Vadim Glowna, actor Ulf Kämpfer, Lord Mayor in Kiel Christian Klees, Olympic winner 1996 in Atlanta Friedrich Kühn, most General of the Panzertruppe Heinrich Limpricht, chemist Nicholas Mercator, born in Eutin or near Cismar Adolf Pansch, anatomist and polar explorer Axel Prahl, film actor Daniel Richter, artist Johann Friedrich Julius Schmidt and geologist Ralph Schumacher and behavioral scientist Jonathan Stock, journalist Peter Thoms and jazz musician Peter Friedrich Ludwig Tischbein, German chief forester and paleontologist Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg, philosopher Friedrich August Ukert, geographer, librarian Lars Unger, former footballer Stefan Vogenauer, legal scientist Carl Maria von Weber, composer Dirk von Zitzewitz, racing driver Wincent Weiss, singer Matthias Claudius, poet Emanuel Geibel, lyricist Lotte Herrlich, photographer Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi and writer Johann Heinrich Voss and poet Johann Wilhelm Petersen, theologian Hans-Heinrich Sievert and Olympic athlete Johann Heinrich Wilhelm Tischbein, painter Ferdinand Tönnies, lived from 1901 to 1921 in the Auguststraße 8 Wilhelm Wisser, high school professor and oral researcher Eutin is twinned with: Nykøbing Falster, Denmark Putbus auf Rügen, Germany Lawrence, Kansas, USEach summer and Eutin take part in an exchange program, where high-school students from Lawrence and college students from the University of Kansas have some weeks in Eutin, while German students from Eutin come to Lawrence to study.
The University of Kansas has established an internship exchange program with Eutin. In addition to Standard German, Low German is commonly used in Eutin. A common greeting among the citizens is "moin", to which one replies with "moin moin". Utin Bridegroom's Oak Official website Website of the Eutin Opera Summer Festival View of Eutin from a live webcam on top of the Water Tower
Church of Sweden
The Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran national church in Sweden. A former state church, headquartered in Uppsala, with 6.0 million baptised members at year end 2017 it is the largest Christian denomination in Sweden. It is the largest Lutheran denomination in Europe and the third-largest in the world after the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania. A member of the Porvoo Communion, the Church professes the Lutheran branch of Christianity, it is composed of thirteen dioceses, divided into parishes. It is an open national church which, working with a democratic organisation and through the ministry of the church, covers the whole nation; the Primate of the Church of Sweden is the Archbishop of Uppsala — Antje Jackelén, Sweden's first female archbishop. Today, the Church of Sweden is an Evangelical Lutheran church, it is liturgically and theologically "high church", having retained priests and the Mass during the Swedish Reformation. In common with other Evangelical Lutheran churches, the Church of Sweden maintains the historical episcopate.
Some Lutheran churches have congregational polity or modified episcopal polity without Apostolic succession, but the historic episcopate is maintained in Sweden and the other Lutheran nations of the Porvoo Communion. The Church of Sweden is known for its liberal position in theological issues the question of homosexuality; when Eva Brunne was consecrated as Bishop of Stockholm in 2009, she became the first lesbian bishop in the world. Despite a significant yearly loss of members, its membership of 5,993,368 people accounts for 59.3% of the Swedish population. Until 2000 it held the position of state church; the high membership numbers are because until 1996 all newborn children were made members, unless their parents had cancelled their membership. 2% of the church's members attend Sunday services. According to a Gallup poll conducted in 2009, 17% of the Swedish population considered religion as an important part of their daily life. King Gustav I Vasa instigated the Church of Sweden in 1536 during his reign as King of Sweden.
This act separated the church from its canon law. In 1571, the Swedish Church Ordinance became the first Swedish church order following the Reformation; the Church of Sweden became Lutheran at the Uppsala Synod in 1593 when it adopted the Augsburg Confession to which most Lutherans adhere. At this synod, it was decided that the church would retain the three original Christian creeds: the Apostles', the Athanasian, the Nicene. In 1686, the Riksdag of the Estates adopted the Book of Concord, although only certain parts, labelled Confessio fidei, were considered binding, the other texts explanatory. Confessio dei included the three aforementioned Creeds, the Augsburg Confession and two Uppsala Synod decisions from 1572 and 1593. During the 19th and 20th centuries, a variety of teachings were approved directed towards ecumenism: 1878 development of the Catechism the Uppsala Creed of 1909, preparing for Eucharistic communion with the Church of England the constitutions of World Council of Churches the constitutions of Lutheran World Federation Church of Sweden's official response to the "Lima document" a Council of the Bishops Letter in Important Theological Questions the 1995 Treaty of Communion with the Philippine Independent ChurchIn practice, the Lutheran creed texts play a minor role, instead the parishes rely on Lutheran tradition in coexistence with influences from other Christian denominations and diverse ecclesial movements such as Low Church, High Church and Laestadianism, which locally might be established, but which have little nationwide influence.
During the 20th century the Church of Sweden oriented itself towards liberal Christianity and human rights. In 1957, the church assembly rejected a proposal for ordination of women, but the Riksdag changed the law in spring 1958 and forced the church assembly to accept the new law in autumn 1958. Since 1960, women have been ordained as priests, since 1994, men who oppose collaboration with women priests have not been allowed ordination. A proposal to perform same-sex weddings was approved on October 22, 2009 by 176 of 249 voting members of the Church of Sweden Synod. In 2000 the Church of Sweden ceased to be a state church, but there remains a strong tradition of community connection with churches in relation to rites of passage, with many infants baptized and teenagers confirmed for families without formal church membership. While some Swedish areas had Christian minorities in the 9th century, Sweden was, because of its geographical location in northernmost Europe, not Christianized until around AD 1000, around the same time as the other Nordic countries, when the Swedish King Olof was baptized.
This left only a modest gap between the Christianization of Scandinavia and the Great Schism, however there are some Scandinavian/Swedish saints who are venerated eagerly by many Orthodox Christians, such as St. Olaf. However, Norse paganism and other pre-Christian religious systems survived in the territory of what is now Sweden than that; the Christian church in Scandinavia was governed by the archdiocese of Bremen. In 1104 an archbishop for all Scandinavia was installed in Lund. Uppsala was
Frederick I of Sweden
Frederick I was prince consort of Sweden from 1718 to 1720, King of Sweden from 1720 until his death and Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1730. He ascended the throne following the death of his brother-in-law absolutist Charles XII in the Great Northern War, the abdication of his wife, Charles's sister and successor Ulrika Eleonora, after she had to relinquish most powers to the Riksdag of the Estates and thus chose to abdicate, his powerless reign saw his family's elimination from the line of succession after the parliamentary government dominated by pro-revanchist Hat Party politicians ventured into a war with Russia, which ended in defeat and the Russian tsarina Elizabeth demanding Adolph Frederick of Holstein-Gottorp to be instated following the death of the king. He was the son of Charles I, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, Princess Maria Amalia of Courland. In 1692 the young prince made his Grand Tour to the Dutch Republic, in 1695 to the Italian Peninsula and he studied in Geneva. After this he had a military career, leading the Hessian troops as Lieutenant General in the War of Spanish Succession on the side of the Dutch.
He was defeated in 1703 in the Battle of Speyerbach, but participated the next year in the great victory in the Battle of Blenheim. In 1706 he was again defeated by the French in the Battle of Castiglione. Both in 1716 and 1718 he joined the campaign of Charles XII of Sweden against Norway, was appointed Swedish Generalissimus, he married his second wife, Princess Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden, in 1715. He was granted the title Prince of Sweden, with the style Royal Highness by the estates, was prince consort there during Ulrika Eleonora's rule as queen regnant from 1718 until her abdication in 1720, he is the only Swedish prince consort. Frederick I had much influence during the reign of his spouse; some historians have suggested that the stray bullet which killed his brother-in-law Charles XII of Sweden in 1718 was fired by Frederick's aide. Charles had been an demanding ruler. Frederick succeeded Ulrika Eleonora on the throne upon her abdication in his favor in 1720, elected by the Swedish Estates.
The defeats suffered by Charles XII in the Great Northern War ended Sweden's position as a first-rank European power. Under Frederick, this had to be accepted. Sweden had to cede Estonia and Livonia to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, in 1721. Frederick I was a active and dynamic king at the beginning of his 31-year reign, but after the aristocracy had regained power during the wars with Russia, he became not so much powerless as uninterested in affairs of state. In 1723, he tried to strengthen royal authority, but after he failed, he never had much to do with politics, he did not sign official documents. He devoted most of his time to love affairs, his marriage to Queen Ulrika Eleonora was childless, but he had several children by his mistress, Hedvig Taube. In 1723 Frederick rewarded the military inventor Sven Åderman with the estate of Halltorps on the island of Öland, for improving the rate of fire of the musket; as a king, he was not respected. When he was crowned, it was said of him: "King Charles we buried, King Frederick we crown – the clock has now passed from twelve to one".
It is said about him, that although a lot of great achievements in the country's development happened during his reign, he never had anything to do with them himself. When he died, Carl Gustaf Tessin said about him: Under the reign of King Frederick, science has developed – he never bothered to read a book; the merchant business has flourished – he has never encouraged it with a single coin. The Stockholm Palace has been built – he has never been curious enough to look at it. Neither did he have anything to do with the founding of the first Swedish speaking theater at Bollhuset during his reign. One of his few important policies was the banning of duels. On 23 February 1748 Frederick I instituted the three Swedish royal orders of the Seraphim, of the Sword and of the North Star, the three principal Swedish orders of chivalry. Frederick became Landgrave of Hesse only ten years after becoming King of Sweden, he appointed his younger brother William governor of Hesse. As Landgrave, Frederick is not seen as a success.
Indeed, he did concentrate more on Sweden, due to his negotiated, compromise-like ascension to the throne there, he and his court had a low income. The money for that expensive court since the 1730s came from wealthy Hesse, this means that Frederick behaved like an absentee landlord and drained Hessian resources to finance life in Sweden. Frederick's father, Charles I of Hesse-Kassel, had been the state's most successful ruler, rebuilding the state over his decades-long rule by means of economic and infrastructure measures and state reform, as well as tolerance, such as attracting, for economic purposes, the French Huguenots, his brother the governor, who would succeed Frederick as Landgrave William VIII of Hesse-Kassel, though by background a distinguished soldier, was a great success locally. There are few physical remainders of Frederick in Hesse today. Through Euphemia of Sweden, one of King Frederick's ancestors was King Magnus III. On 31 May 1700, he married his first wife, Louise Dorothea, Princess of Prussia, daughter of Frederick I of Prussia (1657
Gustav III of Sweden
Gustav III note on dates was King of Sweden from 1771 until his assassination in 1792. He was the eldest son of Adolf Frederick, King of Sweden and Queen Louise Ulrika, a first cousin of Empress Catherine the Great of Russia by reason of their common descent from Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin, his wife Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. Gustav was a vocal opponent of what he saw as the abuse of political privileges seized by the nobility since the death of King Charles XII. Seizing power from the government in a coup d'état, called the Swedish Revolution, in 1772 that ended the Age of Liberty, he initiated a campaign to restore a measure of Royal autocracy, completed by the Union and Security Act of 1789, which swept away most of the powers exercised by the Swedish Riksdag during the Age of Liberty, but at the same time it opened up the government for all citizens, thereby breaking the privileges of the nobility. A bulwark of enlightened despotism, Gustav spent considerable public funds on cultural ventures, which were controversial among his critics, as well as military attempts to seize Norway with Russian aid a series of attempts to re-capture the Swedish Baltic dominions lost during the Great Northern War through the failed war with Russia.
Nonetheless, his successful leadership in the Battle of Svensksund averted a complete military defeat and signified that Swedish military might was to be countenanced. An admirer of Voltaire, Gustav legalized Catholic and Jewish presence in Sweden and enacted wide-ranging reforms aimed at economic liberalism, social reform and the restriction, in many cases, of torture and capital punishment; the much-praised Freedom of the Press Act of 1766 was curtailed, however, by amendments in 1774 and 1792 extinguishing independent media. Following the uprising against the French monarchy in 1789, Gustav pursued an alliance of princes aimed at crushing the insurrection and re-instating his French counterpart, King Louis XVI, offering Swedish military assistance as well as his leadership, he was mortally wounded by a gunshot in the lower back during a masquerade ball as part of an aristocratic-parliamentary coup attempt, but managed to assume command and quell the uprising before succumbing to septicemia 13 days a period during which he received apologies from many of his political enemies.
Gustav's immense powers were placed in the hands of a regency under his brother Prince Carl and Gustaf Adolf Reuterholm until his son and successor Gustav IV Adolf reached adulthood in 1796. The Gustavian autocracy thus survived until 1809, when his son was ousted in another coup d'état, which definitively established parliament as the dominant political power. A patron of the arts and benefactor of arts and literature, Gustav founded the Swedish Academy, created a national costume and had the Royal Swedish Opera built. In 1772 he founded the Royal Order of Vasa to acknowledge and reward those Swedes who had contributed to advances in the fields of agriculture and commerce. In 1782, Gustav III was the first formally neutral head of state in the world to recognize the United States during its war for independence from Great Britain. Swedish military forces were engaged in the thousands on the side of the colonists through the French expedition force. Through the acquisition of Saint Barthélemy in 1784, Gustav enabled the restoration, if symbolic, of Swedish overseas colonies in America, as well as great personal profits from the transatlantic slave trade.
Gustav III was known in Sweden and abroad by his Royal Titles, or styles: Gustav, by the Grace of God, of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends King, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, Heir to Norway and Duke of Schleswig-Holstein and Dithmarschen, Count of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, etc. etc. Gustav was born in Stockholm, he was placed under the tutelage of Hedvig Elisabet Strömfelt until the age of five educated under the care of two governors who were among the most eminent Swedish statesmen of the day: Carl Gustaf Tessin and Carl Fredrik Scheffer. Nonetheless, he owed most of what shaped him during his early education to the poet and historian Olof von Dalin. State interference with his education as a young child caused significant political disruptions within the royal family. Gustav's parents taught him to despise the governors imposed upon him by the Riksdag, the atmosphere of intrigue and duplicity in which he grew up made him precociously experienced in the art of dissimulation.
His most hostile teachers were amazed by his combination of natural gifts. Moreover, he possessed as a boy the charm of manner, to make him so fascinating and so dangerous in life, coupled with a strong dramatic instinct that won him an honourable place in Swedish literature. On the whole, Gustav can not be said to have been well educated, his enthusiasm for the ideas of the French enlightenment was as sincere as that of his mother, if more critical. Gustav married Princess Sophia Magdalena, daughter of King Frederick V of Denmark, by proxy in Christiansborg Palace, Copenhagen, on 1 October 1766 and in person in Stockholm on 4 November 1766. Gustav was first impressed by Sophia Magdalena's beauty, but her silent nature made her a disappointment in court life; the match was not a happy one, owing to an incompatibility of temperament, but still more to the interference of Gustav's jealous mother, Queen Louisa Ulrika. The marriage produced two children: Crown Prince Gustav Adolf, Prince Carl Gustav, Duk
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg and Catherine of Sweden. After his father's death he succeeded him as Pfalzgraf, he was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor, Charles XI. Charles X Gustav was the second Wittelsbach king of Sweden after the childless king Christopher of Bavaria and he was the first king of the Swedish Caroline era, which had its peak during the end of the reign of his son, Charles XI, he led Sweden during the Second Northern War. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland before ascending to the Swedish throne, his numbering as Charles X derives from a 16th-century invention. The Swedish king Charles IX chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden; this king was the fourth actual King Charles, but has never been called Charles IV. In his early childhood raised in the Swedish court alongside his cousin Queen Christina he received an excellent civil education.
Charles X learned the art of war under Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld and at Jankowitz. From 1646 to 1648 he frequented the Swedish court as a prospective husband of his cousin the queen regnant, Christina of Sweden, but her insurmountable objection to wedlock put an end to these anticipations, to compensate her cousin for a broken half-promise she declared him her successor in 1649, despite the opposition of the Privy Council headed by Axel Oxenstierna. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany; the conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia in October 1648 prevented him from winning the military laurels he is said to have desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had an opportunity to learn diplomacy, a science he is described as having mastered. As the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen.
He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland until the abdication of Christina on 5 June 1654 called him to the throne. Charles Gustav was crowned on 7 June 1654; the beginning of Charles X's reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords and on the rallying of all the forces of the nation round his standard for a new policy of conquest. On the recommendation of his predecessor, he contracted a political marriage on 24 October 1654 with Hedwig Eleonora, the daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp, he was hoping to secure a future ally against Denmark. The Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions: war, the restitution of the alienated crown lands. Over three days a secret committee presided over by the King decided the war question: Charles X persuaded the delegates that a war against Poland appeared necessary and might prove advantageous. In 1659 he proclaimed severe punishment for anyone hunting in the royal game reserve in Ottenby, Öland, where he had built a long dry-stone wall separating the southern tip of the island.
On 10 July 1655, Charles X left Sweden to engage in a war against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, in what became the Second Northern War. By the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on 1 July 1655. On 21 July 1655 Swedish army under Arvid Wittenberg crossed into Poland and proceeded towards the encampment of the Greater Poland Levy of the Nobility encamped among the banks of the Noteć river, with some regular infantry for support. On 25 July the Polish noble levy army capitulated, the voivodeships of Poznań and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish King. Thereupon the Swedes occupied the whole of Greater Poland; the Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland of the House of Vasa fled to Silesia after his armies had suffered defeats. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, including the majority of the famous Winged Hussars.
Many Poles saw Charles X Gustav as a strong monarch who could be a more effective leader than John II Casimir. Meanwhile, Charles X Gustav pressed on towards Kraków, which the Swedes captured after a two months' siege; the fall of Kraków followed a capitulation of the Polish Royal armies, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland herself. On 18 November 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Częstochowa, but the Poles defended it and after a seventy days’ siege the Swedish besiegers had to retire with great loss; this success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as his mercenaries barbaric, his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country. In the beginning of 1656 King John II Casimir returned from exile and the reorganised Polish army, increased in numbers.
By this time Charles had discovered that he could more defeat the Poles than conquer Poland. What is described as his chief object, the con
Absolute monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the monarch holds supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs. These are hereditary monarchies. In contrast, in constitutional monarchies, the head of state's authority derives from and is bounded or restricted by a constitution or legislature; some monarchies have a weak or symbolic legislature and other governmental bodies the monarch can alter or dissolve at will. Countries where monarchs still maintain absolute power are: Brunei, Saudi Arabia, Vatican City and the individual emirates composing the United Arab Emirates, which itself is a federation of such monarchies – a federal monarchy. In Ancient Egypt, the Pharaoh wielded absolute power over the country and was considered a living god by his people. In ancient Mesopotamia, many rulers of Assyria and Sumer were absolute monarchs as well. In ancient and medieval India, rulers of the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya Empires, as well as other major and minor empires, were considered absolute monarchs.
In the Khmer Empire, the kings were called "Devaraja" and "Chakravartin", exercised absolute power over the empire and people. Throughout Imperial China, many emperors and one empress wielded absolute power through the Mandate of Heaven. In pre-Columbian America, the Inca Empire was ruled by a Sapa Inca, considered the son of Inti, the sun god and absolute ruler over the people and nation. Korea under the Joseon dynasty and short-lived empire was an absolute monarchy. In the Ottoman Empire, many sultans wielded absolute power through heavenly mandates reflected in their title, the "Shadow of God on Earth". Throughout much of European history, the divine right of kings was the theological justification for absolute monarchy. Many European monarchs, such as those of Russia, claimed supreme autocratic power by divine right, that their subjects had no rights to limit their power. James VI of Scotland and his son Charles I of Scotland and England tried to import this principle. Charles I's attempt to enforce episcopal polity on the Church of Scotland led to rebellion by the Covenanters and the Bishops' Wars fears that Charles I was attempting to establish absolutist government along European lines was a major cause of the English Civil War, despite the fact that he did rule this way for 11 years starting in 1629, after dissolving the Parliament of England for a time.
By the 19th century, the Divine Right was regarded as an obsolete theory in most countries in the Western world, except in Russia where it was still given credence as the official justification for the Tsar's power until February Revolution in 1917. There is a considerable variety of opinion by historians on the extent of absolutism among European monarchs. Some, such as Perry Anderson, argue that quite a few monarchs achieved levels of absolutist control over their states, while historians such as Roger Mettam dispute the concept of absolutism. In general, historians who disagree with the appellation of absolutism argue that most monarchs labeled as absolutist exerted no greater power over their subjects than any other non-absolutist rulers, these historians tend to emphasize the differences between the absolutist rhetoric of monarchs and the realities of the effective use of power by these absolute monarchs. Renaissance historian William Bouwsma summed up this contradiction: Nothing so indicates the limits of royal power as the fact that governments were perennially in financial trouble, unable to tap the wealth of those ablest to pay, to stir up a costly revolt whenever they attempted to develop an adequate income.
Though some historians doubt if he had, Louis XIV of France is said to have proclaimed "L'état, c'est moi". Although criticized for his extravagances, such as the Palace of Versailles, he reigned over France for a long period, some historians consider him a successful absolute monarch. More revisionist historians have questioned whether Louis' reign should be considered'absolute', given the reality of the balance of power between the monarch and the nobility; the King of France concentrated in his person legislative and judicial powers. He was the supreme judicial authority, he could condemn people to death without the right of appeal. It was both his duty to stop them from being committed. From his judicial authority followed his power both to annul them. One of his steps in creating an absolute monarchy in France was to build the Palace of Versailles, where he lived with many of his nobles and other important people, in order to control and watch over them. Absolutism was underpinned by a written constitution for the first time in Europe in 1665 Kongeloven of Denmark-Norway, which ordered that the Monarch "shall from this day forth be revered and considered the most perfect and supreme person on the Earth by all his subjects, standing above all human laws and having no judge above his person, neither in spiritual nor temporal matters, except God alone".
This law authorized the king to abolish all other centers of power. Most important was the abolition of the Council of the Realm. In Brandenburg-Prussia, the concept of absolute monarch took a notable turn from the above with its emphasis on the monarch as the "first servant of the state", but it echoed many of the important characteristics of Absolutism. Frederick William, known as the Great Elector, used the uncertainties of the final stages of the Thirty Years' War to consolidate his territories into the dominant kingdom in northern Germany, whilst increasing his power over his subjects