Padasjoki is a municipality of Finland. It is part of the Päijänne Tavastia region; the municipality has a population of 2,952 and covers an area of 729.85 square kilometres of which 206.68 km2 is water. The population density is 5.64 inhabitants per square kilometre. The municipality is unilingually Finnish. Padasjoki is known as a summer cottage municipality. By number, it has more holiday homes than permanent residents; the earliest information on the administrative parish of Padasjoki is from 1442. Most of the villages of Padasjoki date from the Middle Ages, being mentioned in sources from the 15th century. In February, Padasjoki hosts 7.5km long annual full moon skiing event and competition on the frozen Lake Päijänne. In March there is another skiing event on Lake Päijänne called Postihiihto. Week before midsummer. During the first weekend of July Sahtimarkkinat a home-brewed beer market is been held in Padasjoki village centre; the Padasjoki Marina loans itself every second year as the starting point for a sailing competition.
Enni Ids Cabin The Granary Museum The Palsa Mill Museum The Torittu Village Smithy Museum Gallery Pikantti Ala-Savi’s Art Ars Arrakoski Ars Auttoinen Päijänne National Park Evo Hiking Area Media related to Padasjoki at Wikimedia Commons Municipality of Padasjoki – Official website
Finnish is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. Finnish is one of the two official languages of Finland. In Sweden, both Standard Finnish and Meänkieli, a Finnish dialect, are spoken; the Kven language, a dialect of Finnish, is spoken in Northern Norway by a minority group of Finnish descent. Finnish is a member of the Finnic language family and is typologically between fusional and agglutinative languages, it modifies and inflects nouns, pronouns and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence. Finnish is a member of the Finnic group of the Uralic family of languages; the Finnic group includes Estonian and a few minority languages spoken around the Baltic Sea. Finnish demonstrates an affiliation with other Uralic languages in several respects including: Shared morphology: case suffixes such as genitive -n, partitive -a / -ä, essive -na / -nä plural markers -t and -i- possessive suffixes such as 1st person singular -ni, 2nd person singular -si. various derivational suffixes Shared basic vocabulary displaying regular sound correspondences with the other Uralic languages (e.g. kala'fish' ~ North Saami guolli ~ Hungarian hal.
Several theories exist as to the geographic origin of the other Uralic languages. The most held view is that they originated as a Proto-Uralic language somewhere in the boreal forest belt around the Ural Mountains region and/or the bend of the middle Volga; the strong case for Proto-Uralic is supported by common vocabulary with regularities in sound correspondences, as well as by the fact that the Uralic languages have many similarities in structure and grammar. The Defense Language Institute in Monterey, United States classifies Finnish as a level III language in terms of learning difficulty for native English speakers. Finnish is spoken by about five million people. There are notable Finnish-speaking minorities in Sweden, Russia, Brazil and the United States; the majority of the population of Finland, 90.37% as of 2010, speak Finnish as their first language. The remainder speak Swedish and other languages, it is spoken as a second language in Estonia by about 167,000 people. Finnish is one of two official languages of Finland and one of the official languages in the European Union since 1995.
Finnish language started to gain its role during the Grand Duchy of Finland, along with the nationalistic Fennoman movement, obtained its official status in the Finnish Diet of 1863. It enjoys the status of an official minority language in Sweden. Under the Nordic Language Convention, citizens of the Nordic countries speaking Finnish have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any interpretation or translation costs. Concerns have been expressed about future status of Finnish language in Sweden; the Finnic languages evolved from the Proto-Finnic language after Sámi was separated from it around 1500–1000 BCE. Current models assume three or more hypothetical Proto-Finnic proto-dialects evolving over the first millennium BCE. Birch bark letter 292 from the early 13th century is the first known document in any Finnic language; the first known written example of Finnish was found in a German travel journal dating back to c.1450: Mÿnna tachton gernast spuho somen gelen emÿna daÿda.
According to the travel journal, a Finnish bishop, whose name is unknown, was behind the above quotation. The contextually erroneous accusative case in gelen and the lack of the conjunction mutta seem to indicate a foreign speaker with an incomplete grasp of Finnish grammar, as errors with the numerous noun cases are typical of those learning Finnish. Finnish priestdom at the time was Swedish-speaking. During the Middle Ages, when Finland was under Swedish rule, Finnish was an oral language. At the time the language of large-scale business was Middle Low German, the language of administration Swedish, religious activities were held in Latin; this left few possibilities for Finnish-speakers to use their mother tongue in situations other than daily chores. From a Swedish perspective, Finnish was considered an inferior language and in practice Finns lacked societal rights because they could not represent themselves in any official situation with their language. Swedes strove to obviate Finnish via clerk schools and Church service, by moving Swedish-speaking people to Finnish-speaking areas.
The first comprehensive writing system for Finnish was created by Mikael Agricola, a Finnish bishop, in the 16th century. He based his orthography on Swedish and Latin, his ultimate plan was to translate the Bible, but first he had to define rules on which the Finnish standard language still relies with respect to spelling. Agricola's written language was based on western dialects of Finnish, his intention was that each phoneme should correspond to one letter. Yet, Agricola was failed to achieve uniformity; this is why he might use di
A librarian is a person who works professionally in a library, providing access to information and sometimes social or technical programming to users. In addition, librarians provide instruction on information literacy. Traditionally, a librarian is associated with collections of books, as demonstrated by the etymology of the word "librarian"; the role of a librarian is continually evolving to meet technological needs. A modern librarian may deal with provision and maintenance of information in many formats, including: books. A librarian may provide other information services, including: information literacy instruction. Appreciation for librarians is included by authors and scholars in the acknowledgment sections of books; the Sumerians were the first to train clerks to keep records of accounts. "Masters of the books" or "Keepers of the Tablets" were scribes or priests who were trained to handle the vast amount and complexity of these records. The extent of their specific duties is unknown. Sometime in the 8th century BC, King of Assyria, created a library at his palace in Nineveh in Mesopotamia.
Ashurbanipal was the first individual in history to introduce librarianship as a profession. We know of at least one "keeper of the books", employed to oversee the thousands of tablets on Sumerian and Babylonian materials, including literary texts. All of these tablets were cataloged and arranged in logical order by subject or type, each having an identification tag; the Great Library of Alexandria, created by Ptolemy I after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC, was created to house the entirety of Greek literature. It was notable for its famous librarians: Demetrius, Eratosthenes, Aristophanes and Callimachus; these scholars contributed to the collection and cataloging of the wide variety of scrolls in the library's collection. Most notably, Callimachus created what is considered to be the first subject catalogue of the library holdings, called the pinakes; the pinakes contained 120 scrolls arranged into ten subject classes. The librarians at Alexandria were considered the "custodians of learning".
Near the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire, it was common for Roman aristocrats to hold private libraries in their home. Many of these aristocrats, such as Cicero, kept the contents of their private libraries to themselves, only boasting of the enormity of his collection. Others, such as Lucullus, took on the role of lending librarian by sharing scrolls in their collection. Many Roman emperors included public libraries into their political propaganda to win favor from citizens. While scholars were employed in librarian roles in the various emperors' libraries, there was no specific office or role that qualified an individual to be a librarian. For example, Pompeius Macer, the first librarian of Augustus' library, was a praetor, an office that combined both military and judicial duties. A librarian of the same library was Gaius Julius Hyginus, a grammarian. Christian monasteries in Europe are credited with keeping the institution of libraries alive after the fall of the Roman Empire.
It is during this time. Within the monasteries, the role of librarian was filled by an overseer of the scriptorium where monks would copy out books cover to cover. A monk named Anastasias who took on the title of Bibliothecarius following his successful translations of the Greek classicists. During this period, the lectern system, in which books were chained to desks for security, was introduced. Classification and organization of books during this period was done by subject and alphabetically, with materials inventoried using basic check lists. In the period, individuals known as librarius began more formal cataloguing and classification. In the 14th century, universities began to reemerge which had employed librarians. At the same time royalty and jurists began to establish libraries of their own as status symbols. King Charles V of France began his own library, he kept his collection as a bibliophile, an attribute, connected to librarians of this time; the Renaissance is considered to be a time of aristocratic enthusiasm for libraries.
During this period, great private libraries were developed in Europe by figures such as Petrarch and Boccaccio. These libraries were sponsored by popes and nobility who sent agents throughout Western Europe to locate manuscripts in deteriorating monastic libraries; as a result, Renaissance libraries were filled with a wealth of texts. While materials in these libraries were restricted, the libraries were open to the public. Librarians were needed to organize libraries to meet public needs. A tool to achieve these organizational goals, the first library catalog, appeared in 1595. During the 16th century, the idea of creating a Bibliotheca Universalis, a universal listing of all printed books, emerged from well-established academics and librarians: Conrad Gessner, Gabriel Naudé, John Dury, Gottfried Leibniz; the four l
Diet of Porvoo
The Diet of Porvoo, was the summoned legislative assembly to establish the Grand Principality of Finland in 1809 and the heir of the powers of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates. The session of the Diet lasted from March to July 1809. During the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia, the four Estates of Russian occupied Finland were assembled at Porvoo by Tsar Alexander I, the new Grand Prince of Finland, between 25 March and 19 July 1809; the central event at Porvoo was the sovereign pledge and the oaths of the Estates in Porvoo Cathedral on 29 March. Each of the Estates swore their oaths of allegiance, committing themselves to accepting the Emperor as Grand Prince of Finland as the true authority, to keeping the constitution and the form of government unchanged. Alexander I subsequently promised to govern Finland in accordance with its laws and let the Finnish keep their religion and rights; this was thought to mean that the emperor confirmed the Swedish Instrument of Government from 1772 as the constitution of Finland, although it was interpreted to mean respecting the existing codes and statutes.
The diet had required that it would be convened again after the Finnish War, which separated Finland from Sweden, had been concluded. On 17 September the same year, the conflict was settled by the Treaty of Fredrikshamn but it would be another five decades until the Finnish Estates would be called again. During the rise of Finnish nationalism in the 19th century, it was claimed that the Diet implied that a Treaty between States had been signed at the Diet between Finland and Russia. According to Emeritus Professor Jussila of Helsinki University, it is true that Alexander said that Finland had been raised to the status of a nation among nations, but the claim of a Treaty between equals was a device invented for the political realities of the struggle for independence. Diet had participants from different estates as follows: Nobility 75 representatives, chairman lantmarskalk count Robert Wilhelm De Geer. Clergy 8 representatives, chairman bishop of Turku Jakob Tengström Burghers 20 representatives, chairman merchant Kristian Trapp, Turku Peasants 31 representatives, chairman Pehr Klockars UusikaarlepyyOut of 205 noble families 130 were not represented in the diet, 60 of the representatives did not attend the opening ceremony.
The burghers were represented by merchants. Diet of Finland Parliament of Finland Senate of Finland Governor-General of Finland Finnish nobility Finnish House of Knights and Nobility Kingdom of Finland History of the Finnish Parliament - Official site Kejsarens tal vid lantdagens avslutande den 19 juli 1809 - in Swedish at Wikisource The Porvoo Diet 1809 - The Beginning of Autonomous Finland Porvoo Town The Diet of Porvoo 1809
Laukaa is a municipality of Finland. It is part of the Central Finland region; the municipality has a population of 18,899 and covers an area of 825.59 square kilometres of which 177.09 km2 is water. The population density is 29.14 inhabitants per square kilometre. Laukaa's neighbouring municipalities are Hankasalmi, Jyväskylä, Toivakka, Uurainen and Äänekoski; the municipality is unilingually Finnish. There are all together 129 lakes in Laukaa. Biggest lakes in Laukaa are Lievestuoreenjärvi, Leppävesi and Lake Uurainen. Lankamaa, Leppävesi, Metsolahti, Simuna, Tiituspohja, Vehniä, Vihtavuori and Äijälä. Saraakallio, the largest Stone Age rock painting site of Fennoscandia is located in Laukaa; the paintings consists of over 100 figures. The oldest paintings are about 6 600 years old; the most common themes in Saraakallio paintings are deer and boat figures. Saraakallio rock paintings are made by using red paint, made of hematite-containing soil mixed with blood and eggs. Three of the five locks on the Keitele Canal are located in Laukaa.
The canal route combines Lake Keitele. The canal route was finished in 1994, its original purpose was serving log floating. Nowadays the route is used by inland boaters; the construction of the canal was executed by the Russian Zarubezhtransstroi Company on a "turn key" basis in 1990-1994. The total length of the Keitele-Paijanne canal is 48 km out. Rest of the route follows river's natural water flow. Kuusankoski and Kapeenkoski are famous recreational fishing places; the local theatre, Kuusan Kanavateatteri, Kuusa Canal Theatre, is active all year round giving performances in the restored building dating from the year 1914. In summer the Kuusa Canal forms a unique backdrop setting for the outdoor stage; the seating area is covered with a canopy. Laukaa Museum Village, Kalluntalo, is an open-air museum located in the centre of Laukaa, on the southern hillside of the Laukaa church; the premises of the open-air museum include a croft, a main residential building from the 18th century, six other wooden folk buildings from the Laukaa area.
Hartikka Stone Age Residential Area is located in 10 km from the centre of Laukaa. The items found in the area in graves, are estimated to be from the time period of 6000 to 4000 B. C. and indicate. One of the oldest church sites and graveyards in Central Finland, Hartikan kirkkomaa, is located right next to the Stone Age residential area of Hartikka. Croft of Hartikka, Hartikan Torppa, a home museum at Laukkavirta Village. Dugout Museum, Korsumuseo, in Peurunka. Kankaanpää Home Museum at Laukaan Asemankylä; the museum buildings and items on display are from the 19th century farm house residence. The following places are twinned with Laukaa: Modum, Norway Stevns Municipality, Denmark Östra Göinge Municipality, Sweden Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia Rõngu Parish, Estonia Oskar Kaipio Hannes Valkama Jalmari Kovanen August Koskinen Juho Peura Aapo Harjula Otto Wille Kuusinen Hilda Hannunen Atte Muhonen Lauri Kaijalainen Asser Salo Paavo Vesterinen Sirkka Lekman Juha Kankkunen Ville Tuppurainen Media related to Laukaa at Wikimedia Commons Municipality of Laukaa – Official website