A connoisseur is a person who has a great deal of knowledge about the fine arts, cuisines, or an expert judge in matters of taste. In many areas the term now has an air of pretension, may be used in a ironic sense, but in the art trade connoisseurship remains a crucial skill for the identification and attribution to individual artists of works by the style and technique, where documentary evidence of provenance is lacking; the situation in the wine trade is similar, for example in assessing the potential for ageing in a young wine through wine tasting. "The ability to tell instinctively who painted a picture is defined as connoisseurship". Connoisseurs evaluate works of art on the basis of their experience of the style and technique of artists. Judgment informed by intuition is essential, but it must be grounded in a thorough understanding of the work itself. On the basis of empirical evidence, refinement of perception about technique and form, a disciplined method of analysis, the responsibility of the connoisseur is to attribute authorship, validate authenticity and appraise quality.
These findings are crucial for the valuation of works, can be collected and organized into a catalogue raisonné of the work of a single artist or a school. In his Meaning in the Visual Arts, Erwin Panofsky explains the difference between a connoisseur and an art historian: "The connoisseur might be defined as a laconic art historian, the art historian as a loquacious connoisseur." The English dealer and art historian, Philip Mould says, "it is about noticing things which have specific characteristics of the artists involved, as opposed to general characteristics of the era". He points out the importance of condition and understanding what the artist painted, his colleague, Bendor Grosvenor takes the view that connoisseurship is learned by looking at paintings and cannot be taught in the classroom. He believes that it has become unfashionable in the world of art history and as a result, activities such as producing a catalogue raisonné are undervalued by the art history establishment. Svetlana Alpers confirms the art historians reservations that the identification of individual style in works is "essentially assigned to a group of specialists in the field known as conoisseurs".
Nonetheless, Christie's Education offers an MA in the History of Art and the Art Market that includes a seminar on connoisseurship. This covers "the critical skills needed to look at art, write about art and evaluate works, including handling and viewing art objects and visiting artists’ studios, conservation labs and museums." During the 18th century, the term was used as a synonym for a still vaguer man of taste or a pretend critic. In 1760, Oliver Goldsmith said, "Painting is and has been and now will someday become the sole object of fashionable care. In 1890, Giovanni Morelli wrote, "art connoisseurs say of art historians that they write about what they do not understand; the attributions of painted pottery were an important project to the History of Ancient Art and Classical Archeology. Two specialists were the most important authorities in archaeological connoisseurship: John Davidson Beazley and Arthur Dale Trendall. Connoisseur is used in the context of gastronomy, i.e. in connection with fine food, wine, coffee and many other products whose consumption can be pleasing to the senses.
Enthusiast Beck, James H. From Duccio to Raphael: Connoisseurship in Crisis. Friedländer, Max J. On Art and Connoisseurship, trans. Tancred Borenius. L'art du connaisseur = The art of connoisseurship. Robinson, Terry F. "Eighteenth-Century Connoisseurship and the Female Body" Oxford Handbooks Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 10 May 2017. Scallen, Catherine B. Rembrandt and the Practice of Connoisseurship. Trummers and Koenraad Jonckheere, eds. Art market and connoisseurship: a closer look at paintings by Rembrandt and their contemporaries
Leipzig University, in Leipzig in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, is one of the world's oldest universities and the second-oldest university in Germany. The university was founded on December 2, 1409 by Frederick I, Elector of Saxony and his brother William II, Margrave of Meissen, comprised the four scholastic faculties. Since its inception, the university has engaged in teaching and research for over 600 years without interruption. Famous alumni include Leibniz, Leopold von Ranke, Friedrich Nietzsche, Robert Schumann, Richard Wagner, Tycho Brahe, Georgius Agricola, Angela Merkel and the nine Nobel laureates associated with the university; the university was modelled on the University of Prague, from which the German-speaking faculty members withdrew to Leipzig after the Jan Hus crisis and the Decree of Kutná Hora. The Alma mater Lipsiensis opened in 1409, after it had been endorsed by Pope Alexander V in his Bull of Acknowledgment on, its first rector was Johann von Münsterberg. From its foundation, the Paulinerkirche served as the university church.
After the Reformation, the church and the monastery buildings were donated to the university in 1544. In order to secure independent and sustainable funding, the university was endowed with the lordship over 9 villages east of Leipzig, it kept this status for nearly 400 years. As many European universities, the university of Leipzig was structured into colleges responsible for organising accommodation and collegiate lecturing. Among the colleges of Leipzig were the Small College, the Large College, the Red College, the College of our Lady and the Pauliner-College. There were private residential halls; the colleges had jurisdiction over their members. The college structure was abandoned and today only the names survive. During the first centuries, the university grew and was a rather regional institution; this changed, during the 19th century when the university became a world-class institution of higher education and research. At the end of the 19th century, important scholars such as Bernhard Windscheid and Wilhelm Ostwald taught at Leipzig.
Leipzig University was one of the first German universities to allow women to register as "guest students". At its general assembly in 1873, the Allgemeiner Deutscher Frauenverein thanked the University of Leipzig and Prague for allowing women to attend as guest students; this was the year that the first woman in Germany obtained Johanna von Evreinov. Until the beginning of the Second World War, Leipzig University attracted a number of renowned scholars and Nobel Prize laureates, including Paul Ehrlich, Felix Bloch, Werner Heisenberg and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Many of the university's alumni became important scientists. Under Nazi rule many Jews' degrees were cancelled. Noteworthy Nazis, such as Max Clara taught at the university and were appointed to positions with great authority; the university was kept open throughout World War II after the destruction of its buildings. During the war the acting rector, Erich Maschke, described the continuation of the university in a memo on May 11, 1945, announcing the vote for a new rector: Since 4 December 1943 a fixed determination not to abandon the Leipzig University in the most difficult hour of its more than five-hundred-year history has bonded the professors with each other and with the students.
The special task of repairing the damage caused by air attacks has now broadened out to the more general duty to save the continuity of our university and preserve its substance, at the least its indestructible kernel, through the crisis that has now reached its fullest stage. After the destruction of most of the buildings and the majority of its libraries, this kernel is represented by the professoriate alone; this is. By the end of the war 60 per cent of the university's buildings and 70 per cent of its books had been destroyed; the university reopened after the war on February 5, 1946, but it was affected by the uniformity imposed on social institutions in the Soviet occupation zone. In 1948 the elected student council was disbanded and replaced by Free German Youth members; the chairman of the Student Council, Wolfgang Natonek, other members were arrested and imprisoned, but the university was a nucleus of resistance. Thus began the Belter group, with flyers for free elections; the head of the group, Herbert Belter, was executed in 1951 in Moscow.
The German Democratic Republic was created in 1949, in 1953 for Karl Marx Year the University was renamed by its government the Karl Marx University, Leipzig after Karl Marx. In 1968, the damaged Augusteum, including Johanneum and Albertinum and the intact Paulinerkirche, were demolished to make way for a redevelopment of the university, carried out between 1973 and 1978; the dominant building of the university was the University Tower, built between 1968 and 1972 in the form of an open book. In 1991, following the reunification of Germany, the University's name was restored to the original Leipzig University; the reconstruction of the University Library, damaged during the war and in the GDR secured, was completed in 2002. With the delivery of the University Tower to a private user, the university was forced to spread some faculties
Gustav Adolf Michaelis
Gustav Adolf Michaelis was a German obstetrician, a native of Kiel. He studied medicine in Göttingen under surgeon Konrad Johann Martin Langenbeck and obstetrician Friedrich Benjamin Osiander serving as director of the Obstetric Hospital and the School of Midwifery at Kiel, he was the father of archaeologist Adolf Michaelis. Michaelis was a pioneer of scientific obstetrics, remembered for his work in the field of pelvimetry, he performed extensive research on difficulties associated with a "narrow pelvis" and its relationship to childbirth, of which he documented in a treatise called Das Enge Becken: Nach eigenen Beobachtungen und Untersuchungen. After being informed of Ignaz Semmelweis' theory of prophylaxis for prevention of puerperal fever, Michaelis was one of the first obstetricians to adopt the practice of compulsory chlorine handwashing, he became depressed over the number of women who had died from puerperal fever due to unsanitary obstetrical practices, on 8 August 1848, Michaelis committed suicide in Lehrte, Germany.
After his death, his position at Kiel was filled by Carl Conrad Theodor Litzmann. Today, the "Michaelis Midwifery School" at the University of Kiel is named in his honor; the rhombus of Michaelis, named after him, is a contour in the coccyx/sacrum region, rhombus-shaped. Sometimes it is referred to as the "quadrilateral of Michaelis". Parts of this article are based on a translation of the equivalent article from the German Wikipedia. Biography of Gustav Adolf Michaelis Dorlands Medical Dictionary
The study of Roman sculpture is complicated by its relation to Greek sculpture. Many examples of the most famous Greek sculptures, such as the Apollo Belvedere and Barberini Faun, are known only from Roman Imperial or Hellenistic "copies". At one time, this imitation was taken by art historians as indicating a narrowness of the Roman artistic imagination, but, in the late 20th century, Roman art began to be reevaluated on its own terms: some impressions of the nature of Greek sculpture may in fact be based on Roman artistry; the strengths of Roman sculpture are in portraiture, where they were less concerned with the ideal than the Greeks or Ancient Egyptians, produced characterful works, in narrative relief scenes. Examples of Roman sculpture are abundantly preserved, in total contrast to Roman painting, widely practiced but has all been lost. Latin and some Greek authors Pliny the Elder in Book 34 of his Natural History, describe statues, a few of these descriptions match extant works. While a great deal of Roman sculpture in stone, survives more or less intact, it is damaged or fragmentary.
Most statues were far more lifelike and brightly colored when created. Early Roman art was influenced by the art of Greece and that of the neighbouring Etruscans, themselves influenced by their Greek trading partners. An Etruscan speciality was near life size tomb effigies in terracotta lying on top of a sarcophagus lid propped up on one elbow in the pose of a diner in that period; as the expanding Roman Republic began to conquer Greek territory, at first in Southern Italy and the entire Hellenistic world except for the Parthian far east and patrician sculpture became an extension of the Hellenistic style, from which Roman elements are hard to disentangle as so much Greek sculpture survives only in copies of the Roman period. By the 2nd century BCE, "most of the sculptors working at Rome" were Greek enslaved in conquests such as that of Corinth, sculptors continued to be Greeks slaves, whose names are rarely recorded. Vast numbers of Greek statues were imported to Rome, whether as booty or the result of extortion or commerce, temples were decorated with re-used Greek works.
A native Italian style can be seen in the tomb monuments of prosperous middle-class Romans, which often featured portrait busts, portraiture is arguably the main strength of Roman sculpture. There are no survivals from the tradition of masks of ancestors that were worn in processions at the funerals of the great families and otherwise displayed in the home, but many of the busts that survive must represent ancestral figures from the large family tombs like the Tomb of the Scipios or the mausolea outside the city; the famous "Capitoline Brutus", a bronze head of Lucius Junius Brutus is variously dated, but taken as a rare survival of Italic style under the Republic, in the preferred medium of bronze. Stern and forceful heads are seen in the coins of the consuls, in the Imperial period coins as well as busts sent around the Empire to be placed in the basilicas of provincial cities were the main visual form of imperial propaganda; the Tomb of Eurysaces the Baker, a successful freedman has a frieze, an unusually large example of the "plebeian" style.
The Romans did not attempt to compete with free-standing Greek works of heroic exploits from history or mythology, but from early on produced historical works in relief, culminating in the great Roman triumphal columns with continuous narrative reliefs winding around them, of which those commemorating Trajan and Marcus Aurelius survive in Rome, where the Ara Pacis represents the official Greco-Roman style at its most classical and refined. Among other major examples are the earlier re-used reliefs on the Arch of Constantine and the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius, Campana reliefs were cheaper pottery versions of marble reliefs and the taste for relief was from the imperial period expanded to the sarcophagus. All forms of luxury small sculpture continued to be patronized, quality could be high, as in the silver Warren Cup, glass Lycurgus Cup, large cameos like the Gemma Augustea, Gonzaga Cameo and the "Great Cameo of France". For a much wider section of the population, moulded relief decoration of pottery vessels and small figurines were produced in great quantity and considerable quality.
After moving through a late 2nd century "baroque" phase, in the 3rd century, Roman art abandoned, or became unable to produce, sculpture in the classical tradition, a change whose causes remain much discussed. The most important imperial monuments now showed stumpy, large-eyed figures in a harsh frontal style, in simple compositions emphasizing power at the expense of grace; the contrast is famously illustrated in the Arch of Constantine of 315 in Rome, which combines sections in the new style with roundels in the earlier full Greco-Roman style taken from elsewhere, the Four Tetrarchs from the new capital of Constantinople, now in Venice. Ernst Kitzinger found in both monuments the same "stubby proportions, angular movements, an ordering of parts through symmetry and repetition and a rendering of features and drapery folds through incisions rather than modelling... The hallmark of the style
Alexander Christian Leopold Conze was a German archaeologist, who specialized in ancient Greek art. He was a native of Hanover, studied at the universities of Göttingen and Berlin. In 1855 he obtained his doctorate at Berlin as a student of Eduard Gerhard. In 1863 he became an associate professor at the University of Halle, from 1869 to 1877, he served as a professor of archaeology at the University of Vienna. In the 1870s, he performed two archaeological explorations at Samothrace. In 1876, with Otto Hirschfeld, he organized the Archaeologic-Epigraphic Seminar at the university. In 1877 he succeeded Karl Bötticher as director of the Berlin Antikensammlung, In 1887, he became Secretariat of the German Archaeological Institute. In 1878 with engineer Carl Humann, he began excavation at Pergamon in Asia Minor, a project that lasted until 1886. With Wilhelm Dörpfeld, he started a second archaeological dig at Pergamon in 1900. At Pergamon and Humann uncovered one of the greatest archaeological treasures of Hellenistic civilization, the Pergamon Altar, which today is housed at the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Conze died in Berlin. Reise auf den Inseln des thrakischen Meeres (Travel to the islands of the Thracian Sea, 1860. Reise auf der Insel Lesbos, 1865. Die Bedeutung der klassischen Archäologie. Wien 1869 Zur Geschichte der Anfänge der griechischen Kunst. Wien 1870–1873. Heroen- und Göttergestalten der griechischen Künste. Wien 1874. Römische Bildwerke einheimischer Fundorte in Österreich. Wien 1872–78. Archäologische Untersuchungen auf Samothrake. Über griechische Grabreliefs, 1877. Die Ergebnisse der Ausgrabung zu Pergamon 1880-1881, 1882. Works by or about Alexander Conze at Internet Archive
Quintus Horatius Flaccus, known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. The rhetorician Quintilian regarded his Odes as just about the only Latin lyrics worth reading: "He can be lofty sometimes, yet he is full of charm and grace, versatile in his figures, felicitously daring in his choice of words."Horace crafted elegant hexameter verses and caustic iambic poetry. The hexameters are amusing yet serious works, friendly in tone, leading the ancient satirist Persius to comment: "as his friend laughs, Horace slyly puts his finger on his every fault, his career coincided with Rome's momentous change from a republic to an empire. An officer in the republican army defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC, he was befriended by Octavian's right-hand man in civil affairs and became a spokesman for the new regime. For some commentators, his association with the regime was a delicate balance in which he maintained a strong measure of independence but for others he was, in John Dryden's phrase, "a well-mannered court slave".
Horace can be regarded as the world's first autobiographer – In his writings, he tells us far more about himself, his character, his development, his way of life than any other great poet in antiquity. Some of the biographical writings contained in his writings can be supplemented from the short but valuable "Life of Horace" by Suetonius, he was born on 8 December 65 BC in the Samnite south of Italy. His home town, lay on a trade route in the border region between Apulia and Lucania. Various Italic dialects were spoken in the area and this enriched his feeling for language, he could have been familiar with Greek words as a young boy and he poked fun at the jargon of mixed Greek and Oscan spoken in neighbouring Canusium. One of the works he studied in school was the Odyssia of Livius Andronicus, taught by teachers like the'Orbilius' mentioned in one of his poems. Army veterans could have been settled there at the expense of local families uprooted by Rome as punishment for their part in the Social War.
Such state-sponsored migration must have added still more linguistic variety to the area. According to a local tradition reported by Horace, a colony of Romans or Latins had been installed in Venusia after the Samnites had been driven out early in the third century. In that case, young Horace could have felt himself to be a Roman though there are indications that he regarded himself as a Samnite or Sabellus by birth. Italians in modern and ancient times have always been devoted to their home towns after success in the wider world, Horace was no different. Images of his childhood setting and references to it are found throughout his poems. Horace's father was a Venutian taken captive by Romans in the Social War, or he was descended from a Sabine captured in the Samnite Wars. Either way, he was a slave for at least part of his life, he was evidently a man of strong abilities however and managed to gain his freedom and improve his social position. Thus Horace claimed to be the free-born son of a prosperous'coactor'.
The term'coactor' could denote various roles, such as tax collector, but its use by Horace was explained by scholia as a reference to'coactor argentareus' i.e. an auctioneer with some of the functions of a banker, paying the seller out of his own funds and recovering the sum with interest from the buyer. The father spent a small fortune on his son's education accompanying him to Rome to oversee his schooling and moral development; the poet paid tribute to him in a poem that one modern scholar considers the best memorial by any son to his father. The poem includes this passage: If my character is flawed by a few minor faults, but is otherwise decent and moral, if you can point out only a few scattered blemishes on an otherwise immaculate surface, if no one can accuse me of greed, or of prurience, or of profligacy, if I live a virtuous life, free of defilement, if I am to my friends a good friend, my father deserves all the credit... As it is now, he deserves from me unstinting praise. I could never be ashamed of such a father, nor do I feel any need, as many people do, to apologize for being a freedman's son.
Satires 1.6.65–92 He never mentioned his mother in his verses and he might not have known much about her. She had been a slave. Horace left Rome after his father's death, continued his formal education in Athens, a great centre of learning in the ancient world, where he arrived at nineteen years of age, enrolling in The Academy. Founded by Plato, The Academy was now dominated by Epicureans and Stoics, whose theories and practises made a deep impression on the young man from Venusia. Meanwhile, he mixed and lounged about with the elite of Roman youth, such as Marcus, the idle son of Cicero, the Pompeius to whom he addressed a poem, it was in Athens too that he acquired deep familiarity with the ancient tradition of Greek lyric poetry, at that time the preserve of grammarians and academic specialists. Rome's troubles following the assassination of Julius Caesar were soon to catch up with him. Marcus Junius Brutus came to Athens seeking support for the republican cause. Brutus was fêted around town in grand receptions and he made a point of attending academic lectures, all the while recruiting supporter
Palais Universitaire, Strasbourg
The Palais Universitaire in Strasbourg is a large, neo-Renaissance style building, constructed between 1879 and 1884 under the direction of the German architect Otto Warth. It was inaugurated in 1884 by Emperor of Germany. Through Avenue de la Liberté, it faces the monumental former imperial palace; the building served for several decades as the centre of the new imperial University of Strasbourg. The old university transferred from the buildings that it had occupied for centuries at the Jean Sturm Gymnasium to the new ones located in the Neustadt; the architect, Otto Warth, from Karlsruhe, was young when he was entrusted with the design of the building. He had just returned from a one-year study visit to Italy, his passion for Italian classical architecture is reflected in some of the Italianate features of the Palais. One of the most distinctive features of the building is the Aula, which measures 25 m by 29 m and 16 m high, which Warth modeled on the Villa Garzoni in Pontecasale, Candiana.
It is decorated with a monumental seated statue of Ramses II, 2.15 m high, brought in 1933 by Pierre Montet. In 2012, the Aula was dedicated to Marc Bloch, former professor at the university, shot by the Nazis in 1944; the Palais is striking for the statuary of its façades, which pay hommage to a number of scientists, theologians and thinkers with Germanic connections, thirty-six in all, including Luther, Calvin, Kant, Lessing, Gauss. Two allegorical statues representing Germania and Argentina, the former removed in 1918 and the latter destroyed in 1945, were replaced in their respective niche on the façade in 2014, after having been restored and/or replicated based on photos. On 21 May 1990, the Aula and the main stairways were classified as a monument historique; the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe held its first session in this building, from 8 August to 10 September 1949. The Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, reputedly the oldest university press in France, has had its headquarters in the building since it was founded in 1920.
The Palace's basement houses the Gypsothèque de Strasbourg known as Musée des moulages. This classical cast collection was initiated with the founding of the Kaiser-Wilhelms-Universität in 1872 by Adolf Michaelis, a distinguished classical scholar and art history pioneer. Next to casts of works like Harmodius and Aristogeiton, Apollo Belvedere, Aphrodite of Cnidus and the metopes of the Parthenon, the museum displays casts of works by Antoine Bourdelle; the collection is the second largest cast collection in France and the largest university cast collection of France. The collections were moved into the Palace's basement in 1939, with the outbreak of World War II, have stayed there since, although plans have periodically been made to move them into a separate building. Media related to Palais universitaire de Strasbourg at Wikimedia Commons Palais Universitaire on archi-strasbourg.org Strasbourg University Press