Adolf Stieler

Adolf Stieler was a German cartographer and lawyer who worked most of his life in the Justus Perthes Geographical Institute in Gotha. Although he studied law and would serve in government for his entire career, he maintained an interest in cartography and published many famous works, his Handatlas was the leading German world atlas until the middle of the 20th century. Stieler spent much of his early youth in Gotha. In his adolescence, he showed an affinity for map-making, an interest he maintained throughout his adult life. However, he studied law at the University of Jena and the University of Göttingen from 1793 to 1796, he served as a legation councillor in Gotha from 1813 to 1829, served the remainder of his career as a counsel to the local government until his retirement in 1835. Stieler's cartographic career began with a position as a geography teacher at a girls' school in Gotha. However, he began work with the director of the Gotha Observatory, his works during this period include publishing cartographic representations of a number of von Zach's observations.

Such illustrations were completed in von Zach's "Allgemeinen Geographischen Ephemeriden" or "General Geographical Ephemeris," published in 1798. In 1804, Stieler worked in the Geographical Institute of Weimar, continuing his goal of starting a geographical publishing business, he produced a number of regional and international maps. With von Zach, Stieler published his "Atlas Gaspari," which included maps of many European nations, including Spain and England. In 1806, his map of the East Indies was published, he would publish a 25 sheet military map of Germany, part of a larger 204 sheet work. His maps were well known for their inclusion of new information from culture, he incorporated a "System der fortwährenden Modernisierung," or "System of Ongoing Modernization," in his map creation and issuing. However, he began work on his most famous and long-lasting work, the Handatlas, in 1816 after a long hiatus from cartographic work. By 1826, when he completed the Handatlas, his career was nearing its end.

His 1836 map of Germany would remain unfinished. In addition to his contributions to cartography and law, Stieler proposed mathematical methods in the insurance industry, he founded an insurance bank in 1828 with merchant and founder of Gothaer Versicherungsbank, Ernst-Wilhelm Arnoldi. Stieler died on March 1836, in Gotha. Stieler had a significant impact on his contemporaries. Johann Christoph Bär, a protégé of Stieler's who worked at the Justus Perthes Institute, continued much of Stieler's work after his death. Stieler's "System der fortwährenden Modernisierung" for maps was incorporated into Bär's Handatlas, completed with fellow cartographer Johann Friedrich von Stülpnagel. Bär's 1833 "Das Herzogthum Gotha und umliegende Länder" explained much of Stieler's style. Stülpnagel supervised the completion of an edition of Stielers Handatlas; the Handatlas became one of his long-lasting works. Editions remained in print as late as 1945. Other works by Stieler remained in print; the Neue Kriegskarte, to which he contributed, had an edition in print as late as 1904.

Stielers Handatlas Media related to Adolf Stieler at Wikimedia Commons 1848 Schul Atlas Online at the University of Pennsylvania 95 Karte from Stieler's Handatlas, 1891 Allgemeine Geographische Ephemeriden at the Internet Archive


The ragfish is a ray-finned fish of the northern Pacific Ocean. It is the sole member of the family Icosteidae, some authorities place it into its own order Icosteiformes; the ragfish body is scaleless and limp, because of its cartilaginous skeleton and its flabby muscles. None of the fins have any spines; the dorsal and anal fins extend much of the length of the body. The coloration is a dark brown, maximum known length is 2 m. Ragfishes are found on the bottom from near the surface in the case of juveniles to 732 m down to 1,420 m, for the adults, they are said to eat jellyfishes, other fish and octopus, although recent catches show no squid beaks but large numbers of jellyfish. Ragfish are seen and little is known about them; the larvae make a remarkable transformation. Adult ragfishes were considered to be a different species, known as Acrotus willoughbyi. Cal Academy checklist report, September 2003

Split the Difference

Split the Difference is the forth studio album by English indie rock band Gomez released on 17 May 2004 by Hut Records. Production on the album was overseen by the band and Tchad Blake, known for producing albums by artists such as Tom Waits and Crowded House; the album was met with mixed critical response, with Allmusic rating it as four stars out of five and BBC Internet Music Reviews describing it as "one of the finest releases of the year so far. If you were one of those people who wrote them off two years ago, it's time to get listening again." However, the album received less than favourable reviews from a number of other sources, including Pitchfork Media and NME. "Do One" – 2:40 "These 3 Sins" – 2:37 "Silence" – 2:55 "Me, You and Everybody" – 4:24 "We Don't Know Where We're Going" – 4:42 "Sweet Virginia" – 6:06 "Catch Me Up" – 3:47 "Where Ya Going?" – 3:41 "Meet Me in the City" – 3:12 "Chicken Out" – 3:32 "Extra Special Guy" – 3:31 "Nothing Is Wrong" – 5:35 "There It Was" – 3:43 "Blind" – 4:18 "Butterfly" – 3:44 "Catch Me Up" #36 UK "Silence" #41 UK "Sweet Virginia" Split the Difference at MusicBrainz Split the Difference at Metacritic