Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible and supernatural elements. Realism has been prevalent in the arts at many periods, can be in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization. In the visual arts, illusionistic realism is the accurate depiction of lifeforms and the details of light and colour, but realist or naturalist works of art may, as well or instead of illusionist realism, be "realist" in their subject-matter, emphasize the mundane, ugly or sordid. This is typical of the 19th-century Realist movement that began in France in the 1850s, after the 1848 Revolution, social realism, regionalism, or kitchen sink realism; the Realist painters rejected Romanticism, which had come to dominate French literature and art, with roots in the late 18th century. There have been various movements invoking realism in the other arts, such as the opera style of verismo, literary realism, theatrical realism, Italian neorealist cinema.
Realism is the precise and accurate representation in art of the visual appearance of scenes and objects i.e. it is drawn in photographic precision. Realism in this sense is called naturalism, mimesis or illusionism. Realistic art was created in many periods, it is in large part a matter of technique and training, the avoidance of stylization, it becomes marked in European painting in the Early Netherlandish painting of Robert Campin, Jan van Eyck and other artists in the 15th century. However such "realism" is used to depict, for example, angels with wings, which were not things the artists had seen in real life. 19th-century Realism art movement painters such as Gustave Courbet are by no means noted for precise and careful depiction of visual appearances. It is the choice and treatment of subject matter that defines Realism as a movement in painting, rather than the careful attention to visual appearances. Other terms such as naturalism, naturalistic and "veristic" do not escape the same ambiguity, though the distinction between "realistic" and "realist" is useful, as is the term "illusionistic" for the accurate rendering of visual appearances.
The development of accurate representation of the visual appearances of things has a long history in art. It includes elements such as the accurate depiction of the anatomy of humans and animals, of perspective and effects of distance, of detailed effects of light and colour; the Art of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe achieved remarkably lifelike depictions of animals, Ancient Egyptian art developed conventions involving both stylization and idealization that allowed effective depictions to be produced widely and consistently. Ancient Greek art is recognised as having made great progress in the representation of anatomy, has remained an influential model since. No original works on panels or walls by the great Greek painters survive, but from literary accounts, the surviving corpus of derivative works it is clear that illusionism was valued in painting. Pliny the Elder's famous story of birds pecking at grapes painted by Zeuxis in the 5th century BC may well be a legend, but indicates the aspiration of Greek painting.
As well as accuracy in shape and colour, Roman paintings show an unscientific but effective knowledge of representing distant objects smaller than closer ones, representing regular geometric forms such as the roof and walls of a room with perspective. This progress in illusionistic effects in no way meant a rejection of idealism. Roman portraiture, when not under too much Greek influence, shows a greater commitment to a truthful depiction of its subjects; the art of Late Antiquity famously rejected illusionism for expressive force, a change well underway by the time Christianity began to affect the art of the elite. In the West classical standards of illusionism did not begin to be reached again until the Late medieval and Early Renaissance periods, were helped, first in the Netherlands in the early 15th century, around the 1470s in Italy, by the development of new techniques of oil painting which allowed subtle and precise effects of light to be painted using small brushes and several layers of paint and glaze.
Scientific methods of representing perspective were developed in Italy in the early 15th century and spread across Europe, accuracy in anatomy rediscovered under the influence of classical art. As in classical times, idealism remained the norm; the accurate depiction of landscape in painting had been developing in Early Netherlandish/Early Northern Renaissance and Italian Renaissance painting, was brought to a high level in 17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting, with subtle techniques for depicting a range of weather conditions and degrees of natural light. After being another development of Early Netherlandish painting, by 1600 European portraiture could give a good likeness in both painting and sculpture, though the subjects were idealized by smoothing features or giving them an artificial pose. Still life paintings, still life elements in other w
Eugen Hönig was one of Adolf Hitler's architects. In 1931 Hönig, along with other German architects such as Alexander von Senger, Konrad Nonn, German Bestelmeyer and Paul Schultze-Naumburg were deputized in the National Socialist fight against modern architecture, in a para-governmental propaganda unit called the Kampfbund deutscher Architekten und Ingenieure. Through the pages of Völkischer Beobachter these architects attacked the modern style in racist and political tones, placing much of the blame on members of the architectural group The Ring, calling Walter Gropius an "elegant salon-bolshevist", calling the Bauhaus "the cathedral of Marxism". Nazi architecture
Degenerate Art Exhibition
The Degenerate Art Exhibition was an art exhibition organized by Adolf Ziegler and the Nazi Party in Munich from 19 July to 30 November 1937. The exhibition presented 650 works of art, confiscated from German museums, was staged in counterpoint to the concurrent Great German Art Exhibition; the day before the exhibition started, Hitler delivered a speech declaring "merciless war" on cultural disintegration, attacking "chatterboxes and art swindlers". Degenerate art was defined as works that "insult German feeling, or destroy or confuse natural form or reveal an absence of adequate manual and artistic skill". One million people attended the exhibition in its first six weeks. A U. S. critic commented "there are plenty of people—art lovers—in Boston, who will side with Hitler in this particular purge". Hitler's rise to power on 30 January 1933 was followed by actions intended to cleanse the culture of so-called degeneracy: book burnings were organized and musicians were dismissed from teaching positions, museum curators were replaced by Party members.
In September 1933 the Reichskulturkammer was established, administered by Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Reichminister für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda. The arbiter of what was unacceptably "modern" was Hitler. Although Goebbels and some others admired the Expressionist works of artists such as Emil Nolde, Ernst Barlach, Erich Heckel, a faction led by Alfred Rosenberg despised the Expressionists, the result was a bitter ideological dispute, settled only in September 1934, when Hitler—who denounced modern art and its practitioners as "incompetents and madmen"— declared that there would be no place for modernist experimentation in the Reich. In the first half of 1937, preparations were underway for the Große Deutsche Kunstausstellung, to showcase art approved by the Nazis. An open invitation to German artists resulted in 15,000 works being submitted to the exhibition jury, which included allies of Goebbels; when the works they selected for the exhibition were shown to Hitler for his approval, he became enraged.
Hitler dismissed the jury and appointed his personal photographer Heinrich Hoffmann to make a new selection. In a diary entry of 4 June 1937, Goebbels conceived the idea of a separate exhibition of works from the Weimar era, which he called "the era of decay. So the people can see and understand." The art historian Olaf Peters says Goebbels' motivation in proposing the exhibition was to obscure the weakness of the works in the Great German Art Exhibition, to regain Hitler's trust after the dictator's replacement of Goebbel's jurors with Hoffmann, who Goebbels feared as a rival. On 30 June, Hitler signed an order authorizing the Degenerate Art Exhibition. Goebbels put Adolf Ziegler, the head of the Reichskammer der Bildenden Künste, in charge of a five-man commission that toured state collections in numerous cities, in two weeks seizing 5,238 works they deemed degenerate; this collection would be boosted by subsequent raids for future exhibitions. The commission focused on works by artists mentioned in avant-garde publications, was aided by some vehement opponents of modern art, such as Wolfgang Willrich.
The exhibition was prepared in haste, to be presented concurrently with the Great German Art Exhibition scheduled to open on 18 July 1937. Imitating Hitler, Ziegler delivered a mordant critique of modern art at the opening of the Degenerate Art Exhibition on 19 July 1937; the exhibition was hosted in the Institute of Archeology in the Hofgarten. The venue was chosen for its particular qualities. Many works were displayed without frames and covered by derogatory slogans. Photographs of the exhibitions had been made, as well as a catalogue, produced for the Berlin show, which accompanied the exhibition as it travelled. A film of sections of the exhibition had been produced; the Degenerate Art Exhibition included 650 paintings and prints by 112 artists German: Georg Grosz, Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Paul Klee, Georg Kolbe, Wilhelm Lehmbruck, Franz Marc, Emil Nolde, Otto Dix, Willi Baumeister, Kurt Schwitters and others. Ziegler confiscated and exhibited works of foreign artists, such as Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Piet Mondrian, Marc Chagall and Wassily Kandinsky.
A large number of works were not displayed, as the exhibition focused on German works. The exhibition lasted until 30 November 1937, 2,009,899 visitors attended it, an average of 20,000 people per day; the first three rooms were grouped thematically. The first room contained works considered demeaning of religion; the rest of the exhibit had no particular theme. There were slogans painted on the walls. For example: Insolent mockery of the Divine under Centrist rule Revelation of the Jewish racial soul An insult to German womanhood The ideal—cretin and whore Deliberate sabotage of national defense German farmers—a Yiddish view The Jewish longing for the wilderness reveals itself—in Germany the Negro becomes the racial ideal of a degenerate art Madness becomes method Nature as seen by sick minds Even museum bigwigs called this the "art of the German people" Speeches of Nazi party leaders contrasted with artist manifestos from various art movements, such as Dada and Surrealism. Next to many paintings were labels indicating how much money a museum spent t
Varnhalt is a district of Baden-Baden in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany. It has about 2,000 residents; the village is situated at an altitude of 204 meters on the western slope of the Yberg, south-west of Baden-Baden. Viticulture and the wine trade are the main sources of income of its inhabitants
Emil Nolde was a German-Danish painter and printmaker. He was one of the first Expressionists, a member of Die Brücke, was one of the first oil painting and watercolor painters of the early 20th century to explore color, he is known for his expressive choice of colors. Golden yellows and deep reds appear in his work, giving a luminous quality to otherwise somber tones, his watercolors include vivid, brooding brilliant florals. Nolde's intense preoccupation with the subject of flowers reflected his interest in the art of Vincent van Gogh. Emil Nolde was born near the village of Nolde, in the Prussian Duchy of Schleswig, he grew up on a farm. His parents, devout Protestants, were Danish peasants, he realized his unsuitability for farm life, that he and his three brothers were not at all alike. Between 1884 and 1891, he studied to become a carver and illustrator in Flensburg, worked in furniture factories as a young adult, he spent his years of travel in Munich and Berlin. In 1889, he gained entrance into the School of Applied Arts in Karlsruhe.
He was a drawing instructor at the school of the Museum of Industrial and Applied Arts in St. Gallen, from 1892 to 1898, he left this job to pursue his dream of becoming an independent artist. As a child he had loved to paint and draw, but he was 31 by the time he pursued a career as an artist; when he was rejected by the Munich Academy of Fine Arts in 1898, he spent the next three years taking private painting classes, visiting Paris, becoming familiar with the contemporary impressionist scene, popular at this time. He married Danish actress Ada Vilstrup in 1902, moved to Berlin where he would meet collector Gustav Schiefler and artist Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, both of whom would advocate his work in life. From that year, he called himself after his birthplace, he became a member of the revolutionary expressionist group Die Brücke, of Dresden, in 1906, upon the group's invitation. This association lasted only until the end of the following year, he was a member of the Berlin Secession from 1908 to 1910, but was excluded owing to a disagreement with the leadership.
He exhibited with Kandinsky’s Munich-based group Der Blaue Reiter in 1912. Nolde was a supporter of the National Socialist German Workers' Party from the early 1920s, having become a member of its Danish section, he expressed anti-semitic, negative opinions about Jewish artists, considered Expressionism to be a distinctively Germanic style. This view was shared by some other members of the Nazi party, notably Joseph Goebbels and Fritz Hippler. However, Adolf Hitler rejected all forms of modernism as "degenerate art", the Nazi regime condemned Nolde's work; until that time he had been held in great esteem in Germany. A total of 1,052 of his works were removed from museums, more than those of any other artist; some were included in the Degenerate Art exhibition of 1937, despite his protests, including a personal appeal to Nazi gauleiter Baldur von Schirach in Vienna. He was not allowed to paint—even in private—after 1941. During this period he created hundreds of watercolors, which he hid, he called them the "Unpainted Pictures".
In 1942, Nolde wrote: There is silver blue, sky blue and thunder blue. Every color holds within it a soul, which makes me happy or repels me, which acts as a stimulus. To a person who has no art in him, colors are colors, tones tones...and, all. All their consequences for the human spirit, which range between heaven to hell, just go unnoticed. After World War II, Nolde was once again honored, he died in Seebüll. Apart from paintings, Nolde's work includes many prints in color, watercolor paintings of varied subjects. A famous series of paintings covers the German New Guinea Expedition, visiting the South Seas, Siberia, Korea and China; the Schiefler catalogue raisonné of his prints describes 231 etchings, 197 woodcuts, 83 lithographs, four hectographs. Nolde's work is exhibited at major museums around the world, including Portrait of a Young Woman and a Child, Portrait of a Man, Portrait of a Young Girl at the Hermitage Museum, Saint Petersburg, Russia, his most important print, The Prophet, is an icon of 20th-century art.
Among his most important oils are Lesende junge Frau and Blumen und Wolken. Emil Nolde's work has become the focus of renewed attention after a painting entitled Blumengarten from 1917, which now hangs in the art museum Moderna Museet, Stockholm and has been valued at US$4,000,000, was discovered to have been looted from Otto Nathan Deutsch, a German-Jewish refugee whose heirs, including a Holocaust survivor, are asking for its return; the Swedish government decided in 2007. Deutsch was forced to flee Germany before World War II and left for Amsterdam in late 1938 or early 1939; the painting was sold to the Swedish museum at an auction in Switzerland, where it had resurfaced in 1967. Other important works: Lesende junge frau, 1906, oil on canvas, Kunsthalle Kiel Blumengarten, 1908, oil on canvas, Sotheby's purchaser 8
Gerdy Troost, full name Gerhardine Troost née Andresen, was a German architect and the wife of Paul Ludwig Troost. Troost was born in the daughter of an art dealer. After completing her education, she worked in her father's business, where she met Paul Ludwig Troost in 1923. In 1924, the pair moved to Munich and were married there in 1925. Through her husband, she became acquainted with Adolf Hitler in 1930 and became a member of the Nazi Party in 1932. After her husband's death in 1934, Troost ran his architectural business together with his former partner, Leonhard Gall, she supervised the construction of the Haus der Kunst, the remodeling of the Königsplatz, the construction of the Ehrentempels. She remained an architectural adviser to Hitler's circle up to the end of the war. In 1943, she received from Hitler an endowment of 100,000 Reichsmarks. Troost was one of few people who disagreed with Hitler without fear of arrest. Hitler listened to Troost about architecture. During denazification she was classified as "less responsible" by the Hauptspruchkammer and sentenced to a fine of 500 DM and a 10-year Berufsverbot.
At the end of the period, Troost resided in Schützing in Upper Bavaria. Gerdy Troost remained a friend and confidante of Winifred Wagner after 1945, she died in Bad Reichenhall at the age of 98 on 30 January 2003. Stratigakos, Despina.. Hitler at Home. Yale University Press - analyzing Troost's interior design Sabine Brantl: Haus der Kunst München. Ein Ort und seine Geschichte im Nationalsozialismus. Allitera Verlag, München 2007, ISBN 978-3-86520-242-0. Literature by and about Gerdy Troost in the German National Library catalogue Full text of Troost's book Das Bauen im Neuen Reich 1. Band Entry in the Union List of Artist Names The American Media's Awkward Fawning Over Hitler's Taste in Home Decor - Atlas Obscura
Academy of Fine Arts, Munich
The Academy of Fine Arts, Munich is one of the oldest and most significant art academies in Germany. It is located in Bavaria, Germany; the history of the academy goes back to the 18th century, before the 1770 by Elector Maximilian III. Joseph, the so-called "drawing school", which bore the name "academy" in its name; the Academy of Fine Arts was enhanced in 1808 by King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria as Royal Academy of Fine Arts. The Munich School refers to a group of painters who worked in Munich or were trained at the Academy between 1850 and 1918; the paintings are characterized by dark chiaroscuro. Typical painting subjects included landscape, genre, still-life, history. From 1900 to 1918 the academy's director was Ferdinand Freiherr von Miller. In 1946, the Royal Academy of Fine Arts was merged with the School of arts and crafts and the School of applied arts. In 1953, its name was changed to the current Academy of Fine Arts; the large 19th-century Renaissance Revival style building complex, designed by Gottfried Neureuther, was completed in 1886.
It has housed the Academy since then. A new Deconstructivist style expansion, designed by the architectural firm Coop Himmelbau as an extension from the original building, was completed in 2005; the AkademieGalerie is located at the nearby subway station Universität. Since 1989 students could show artworks created for this location; the study at the Academy is organized in class associations. Overall, the Academy accommodates twenty-three classes, led by professors, who each stand for an individual approach to contemporary fine art; these classes are complemented by twenty study workshops and a library, as well as seminars and lectures in art science and didactics. The following study programs are offered: Free Art Art Education Interior Architecture Architecture Art Therapy Lawrence Alma-Tadema Hermann Anschütz Anton Ažbe Nikolaus Gysis Peter von Cornelius Res Ingold Max Klinger Franz von Lenbach Walter Maurer Robin Page Eduardo Paolozzi Sean Scully Jacob Ungerer Gerd Winner Munich School and 19th century Greek art Academic realism — painting style.
Academy of Fine Arts, Munich−related topics Official Akademie der Bildenden Künste München website— History of Akademie der Bildenden Künste München— Designbuild-network.com Building details of Academy—