Adoration of the Magi (Filippino Lippi)
The Adoration of the Magi is a painting by the Italian Renaissance painter Filippino Lippi. It is signed and dated at 1496, it is housed in the Uffizi of Florence. The panel was painted for the Convent of the San Donato agli Scopeti, in substitution of the one commissioned in 1481 to Leonardo da Vinci, who left it unfinished. In 1529 it was acquired by Cardinal Carlo de' Medici and in 1666 it became part of the Uffizi collection. Filippino Lippi followed Leonardo's setting, in particular in the central part of the work. Much of its inspiration was derived from Botticelli's Adoration of the Magi in the Uffizi: this is evident in the disposition of the characters on the two sides, with the Holy Family portrayed in the centre under. To Botticelli's work, Filippino portrayed numerous members of the Medici cadet line, who had adhered to the Savonarolian Republic in the period in which the work was executed. On the left and holding with a quadrant, is Pierfrancesco de' Medici, who had died 20 years before.
Behind him, are his two sons Giovanni, holding a goblet, Lorenzo, from whom a page is removing a crown. The general style is that of Filippino's late career, characterized by a greater care to details and by a nervous rhythm in the forms, influenced by the knowledge of foreign painting schools. Adoration of the Magi Adoration of the Magi Page at artonline.it Filippino Lippi - Adoration of the Magi at the Uffizi
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with 383,084 inhabitants in 2013, over 1,520,000 in its metropolitan area. Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era, it is considered the birthplace of the Renaissance, has been called "the Athens of the Middle Ages". A turbulent political history includes periods of rule by the powerful Medici family and numerous religious and republican revolutions. From 1865 to 1871 the city was the capital of the established Kingdom of Italy; the Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini. The city attracts millions of tourists each year, the Historic Centre of Florence was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1982; the city is noted for Renaissance art and architecture and monuments.
The city contains numerous museums and art galleries, such as the Uffizi Gallery and the Palazzo Pitti, still exerts an influence in the fields of art and politics. Due to Florence's artistic and architectural heritage, it has been ranked by Forbes as one of the most beautiful cities in the world. Florence is an important city in Italian fashion, being ranked in the top 15 fashion capitals of the world. In 2008, the city had the 17th highest average income in Italy. Florence originated as a Roman city, after a long period as a flourishing trading and banking medieval commune, it was the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was politically and culturally one of the most important cities in Europe and the world from the 14th to 16th centuries; the language spoken in the city during the 14th century was, still is, accepted as the Italian language. All the writers and poets in Italian literature of the golden age are in some way connected with Florence, leading to the adoption of the Florentine dialect, above all the local dialects, as a literary language of choice.
Starting from the late Middle Ages, Florentine money—in the form of the gold florin—financed the development of industry all over Europe, from Britain to Bruges, to Lyon and Hungary. Florentine bankers financed the English kings during the Hundred Years War, they financed the papacy, including the construction of their provisional capital of Avignon and, after their return to Rome, the reconstruction and Renaissance embellishment of Rome. Florence was home to the Medici, one of European history's most important noble families. Lorenzo de' Medici was considered a political and cultural mastermind of Italy in the late 15th century. Two members of the family were popes in the early 16th century: Leo X and Clement VII. Catherine de Medici married King Henry II of France and, after his death in, reigned as regent in France. Marie de' Medici married Henry IV of France and gave birth to the future King Louis XIII; the Medici reigned as Grand Dukes of Tuscany, starting with Cosimo I de' Medici in 1569 and ending with the death of Gian Gastone de' Medici in 1737.
The Etruscans formed in 200 BC the small settlement of Fiesole, destroyed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 80 BC in reprisal for supporting the populares faction in Rome. The present city of Florence was established by Julius Caesar in 59 BC as a settlement for his veteran soldiers and was named Fluentia, owing to the fact that it was built between two rivers, changed to Florentia, it was built in the style of an army camp with the main streets, the cardo and the decumanus, intersecting at the present Piazza della Repubblica. Situated along the Via Cassia, the main route between Rome and the north, within the fertile valley of the Arno, the settlement became an important commercial centre. In centuries to come, the city experienced turbulent periods of Ostrogothic rule, during which the city was troubled by warfare between the Ostrogoths and the Byzantines, which may have caused the population to fall to as few as 1,000 people. Peace returned under Lombard rule in the 6th century. Florence was conquered by Charlemagne in 774 and became part of the Duchy of Tuscany, with Lucca as capital.
The population began to grow again and commerce prospered. In 854, Florence and Fiesole were united in one county. Margrave Hugo chose Florence as his residency instead of Lucca at about 1000 AD; the Golden Age of Florentine art began around this time. In 1013, construction began on the Basilica di San Miniato al Monte; the exterior of the church was reworked in Romanesque style between 1059 and 1128. In 1100, Florence was a "Commune"; the city's primary resource was the Arno river, providing power and access for the industry, access to the Mediterranean sea for international trade. Another great source of strength was its industrious merchant community; the Florentine merchant banking skills became recognised in Europe after they brought decisive financial innovation to medieval fairs. This period saw the eclipse of Florence's powerful rival Pisa, the exercise of power by the mercantile elite following an anti-aristocratic movement, led by Giano della Bella, that resulted in a set of laws called the Ordinances of Justice.
Of a population estimated at 94,00
Adoration of the Magi (Leonardo)
The Adoration of the Magi is an early painting by Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo was given the commission by the Augustinian monks of San Donato a Scopeto in Florence, but he departed for Milan the following year, leaving the painting unfinished, it has been in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence since 1670. The Virgin Mary and Child are depicted in the foreground and form a triangular shape with the Magi kneeling in adoration. Behind them is a semicircle of accompanying figures, including what may be a self-portrait of the young Leonardo. In the background on the left is the ruin of a pagan building, on which workmen can be seen repairing it. On the right are men on horseback fighting and a sketch of a rocky landscape; the ruins are a possible reference to the Basilica of Maxentius, according to Medieval legend, the Romans claimed would stand until a virgin gave birth. It is supposed to have collapsed on the night of Christ's birth; the ruins dominate a preparatory perspective drawing by Leonardo, which includes the fighting horsemen.
The palm tree in the center has associations with the Virgin Mary due to the phrase "You are stately as a palm tree" from the Song of Solomon, believed to prefigure her. Another aspect of the palm tree can be the usage of the palm tree as a symbol of victory for ancient Rome, whereas in Christianity it is a representation of martyrdom—triumph over death—so in conclusion we can say that the palm in general represents triumph; the other tree in the painting is from the carob family, the seeds from the tree are used as a unit of measurement. They measure valuable jewels; this tree and its seeds are associated with crowns, suggesting Christ as the king of kings or the Virgin as the future queen of heaven, as well as that this is nature's gift to the new born Christ. As with Michelangelo's Doni Tondo, the background is supposed to represent the Pagan world supplanted by the Christian world, as inaugurated by the events in the foreground; the artist uses bright colors to illuminate the figures in the foreground of the painting.
Jesus and the Virgin Mary are, in fact, painted the color of light. The trees are painted an unusual color for trees of any kind. On the right side the most credible self-portrait of Leonardo da Vinci as a 30-year-old can be seen, according to several critics. Much of the composition of this painting was influenced by an earlier work of the Northern artist Rogier van der Weyden; the relationship between figures and the viewer’s standpoint, the high horizon raised viewpoint, space receding into the far distance, a central figural group poised before a rock formation in the middle of the landscape are all copied from van der Weyden's Entombment of Christ. Owing to the painting's unfinished status in 1481, the commission was handed over to Filippino Lippi, who painted another Adoration of the Magi, completed in 1496, in substitution of the one commissioned to Leonardo, it is housed in the Uffizi in Florence. Domenico Ghirlandaio completed a separate painting, expanding upon Leonardo's theme, in 1488.
In 2002, Dr. Maurizio Seracini, an art diagnostician alumnus of the University of California, San Diego and a native Florentine, was commissioned by the Uffizi to undertake a study of the paint surface to determine whether the painting could be restored without damaging it. Seracini, who heads Editech, a Florence-based company he founded in 1977 focused on the "diagnostics of cultural heritage", used high-resolution digital scans as well as thermographic, ultrasound and infrared diagnostic techniques to study the painting in ultra-fine detail, he concluded that the painting could not be restored without damaging it and that Leonardo only did the underdrawing. Another artist was responsible for all of the existing paintwork on top of the underdrawing. Seracini stated that "none of the paint we see on the Adoration today was put there by Leonardo." As a part of his diagnostic survey on the Adoration of the Magi, Seracini completed more than 2,400 detailed infrared photographic records of the painting's elaborate underdrawing, scientific analyses.
The new images revealed by the diagnostic techniques used by Seracini were made public in 2002 in an interview with New York Times reporter Melinda Henneberger. In 2005, nearing the end of his investigation, Seracini gave another interview, this time to Guardian reporter John Hooper. Seracini published his results in 2006: M. Seracini, "Diagnostic Investigations on the Adoration of the Magi by Leonardo da Vinci" in The Mind of Leonardo – The Universal Genius at Work, exhibit catalogue edited by P. Gauluzzi, Giunti Florence, 2006, pp. 94–101. In the Smithsonian Channel TV program, Da Vinci Detective, Seracini conjectures that, upon seeing the preliminary drawings for the altarpiece they had commissioned, they rejected it due to the sensational scenario presented to them. Expecting a traditional interpretation including the three wise men, they were instead confronted with a maelstrom of unrelated, half-emaciated figures surrounding the Christ-Child, as well as a full-blown battle scene in the rear of the picture.
They chose instead to relegate it to a storage house, rather than to destroy the original work. It was only much and in the context of the subsequent rise in value of Leonardo artworks, that it was resurrected and painted over by unknown persons to make it more "sale-able." This re-working of the panel resulted in alterations to Leonardo's original design for the piece. The Uffizi Gallery has completed a six-year restoration of the work, it has been cleaned with years of dirt and old varnish removed
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries and marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity. The traditional view focuses more on the early modern aspects of the Renaissance and argues that it was a break from the past, but many historians today focus more on its medieval aspects and argue that it was an extension of the middle ages; the intellectual basis of the Renaissance was its version of humanism, derived from the concept of Roman Humanitas and the rediscovery of classical Greek philosophy, such as that of Protagoras, who said that "Man is the measure of all things." This new thinking became manifest in art, politics and literature. Early examples were the development of perspective in oil painting and the recycled knowledge of how to make concrete. Although the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe: the first traces appear in Italy as early as the late 13th century, in particular with the writings of Dante and the paintings of Giotto.
As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch. In politics, the Renaissance contributed to the development of the customs and conventions of diplomacy, in science to an increased reliance on observation and inductive reasoning. Although the Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man"; the Renaissance began in the 14th century in Italy. Various theories have been proposed to account for its origins and characteristics, focusing on a variety of factors including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at the time: its political structure, the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici, the migration of Greek scholars and texts to Italy following the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks.
Other major centres were northern Italian city-states such as Venice, Milan and Rome during the Renaissance Papacy. The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and, in line with general scepticism of discrete periodizations, there has been much debate among historians reacting to the 19th-century glorification of the "Renaissance" and individual culture heroes as "Renaissance men", questioning the usefulness of Renaissance as a term and as a historical delineation; the art historian Erwin Panofsky observed of this resistance to the concept of "Renaissance": It is no accident that the factuality of the Italian Renaissance has been most vigorously questioned by those who are not obliged to take a professional interest in the aesthetic aspects of civilization – historians of economic and social developments and religious situations, most natural science – but only exceptionally by students of literature and hardly by historians of Art. Some observers have called into question whether the Renaissance was a cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and nostalgia for classical antiquity, while social and economic historians of the longue durée, have instead focused on the continuity between the two eras, which are linked, as Panofsky observed, "by a thousand ties".
The word Renaissance meaning "Rebirth", first appeared in English in the 1830s. The word occurs in Jules Michelet's 1855 work, Histoire de France; the word Renaissance has been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century. The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, spreading to the rest of Europe by the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, art, politics, science and other aspects of intellectual inquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the humanist method in study, searched for realism and human emotion in art. Renaissance humanists such as Poggio Bracciolini sought out in Europe's monastic libraries the Latin literary and oratorical texts of Antiquity, while the Fall of Constantinople generated a wave of émigré Greek scholars bringing precious manuscripts in ancient Greek, many of which had fallen into obscurity in the West.
It is in their new focus on literary and historical texts that Renaissance scholars differed so markedly from the medieval scholars of the Renaissance of the 12th century, who had focused on studying Greek and Arabic works of natural sciences and mathematics, rather than on such cultural texts. In the revival of neo-Platonism Renaissance humanists did not reject Christianity. However, a subtle shift took place in the way that intellectuals approached religion, reflected in many other areas of cultural life. In addition, many Greek Christian works, including the Greek New Testament, were brought back from Byzantium to Western Europe and engaged Western scholars for the first time since late antiquity; this new engagement with Greek Christian works, the return to the original Greek of the Ne
Youth of Moses
The Youth of Moses or The Trials of Moses is a fresco by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli and his workshop, executed in 1481–1482 in the Sistine Chapel, Rome. On 27 October 1480, together with other Florentine painters, left for Rome where he had been called as part of the reconciliation project between Lorenzo de' Medici, the de facto ruler of Florence, Pope Sixtus IV; the Florentines started to work in the Sistine Chapel as early as the Spring of 1481, along with Pietro Perugino, there. The theme of the decoration was a parallel between the Stories of Moses and those of Christ, as a sign of continuity between the Old and the New Testament – a continuity between the divine law of the Tables and the message of Jesus, who, in turn, chose Peter as his successor: this would result in a legitimation of the latter's successors, the popes of Rome. Botticelli, helped by numerous assistants, painted three scenes. On 17 February 1482 his contract was renovated, including the other scenes to complete the chapel's decoration.
However, on 20 February his father died: he returned to Florence, where he remained. The fresco shows several episodes of Moses' youth, taken from Exodus, it parallels the fresco on the opposite wall by Botticelli, which depicts the Temptations of Jesus. The frieze has the inscription TEMPTATIO MOISI LEGIS SCRIPTAE LATORIS. On the right is Moses killing the Egyptian who had harassed a Hebrew, fleeing to the desert. In the next episode Moses fights the shepherds who were preventing Jethro's daughters to water their cattle at the pit, takes the water for them. In the third scene, in the upper left corner, Moses removes his shoes and receives from God the task to return to Egypt and free his people. In the lower left corner, he drives the Jews to the Promised Land. Moses is always distinguishable in the scenes by the green cloak. Santi, Bruno. "Botticelli". I protagonisti dell'arte italiana. Florence: Scala. Media related to Trials and Calling of Moses at Wikimedia Commons
Venus and Mars (Botticelli)
Venus and Mars is a panel painting of about 1485 by the Italian Renaissance painter Sandro Botticelli. It shows the Roman gods Venus, goddess of love, Mars, god of war, in an allegory of beauty and valour; the youthful and voluptuous couple recline in a forest setting, surrounded by playful baby satyrs. The painting was intended to commemorate a wedding, set into panelling or a piece of furniture to adorn the bedroom of the bride and groom as part of a set of works; this is suggested by the close view of the figures. It is seen as representation of an ideal view of sensuous love, it seems that Botticelli worked out the concept for the painting, with its learned allusions, with an advisor such as Poliziano, the Medici house poet and Renaissance Humanist scholar. The National Gallery's dating in 2017 of "c. 1485". Lightbown dates it to "probably around 1483", but the Ettlingers to "the latter half of the 1480s". All dates depend on analysis of the style, as the painting has not been convincingly tied to a specific date, such as a wedding.
It therefore comes a few years after the Primavera and Pallas and the Centaur and around the time of The Birth of Venus. It is the only one of these paintings not in the Uffizi in Florence, has been in the National Gallery in London since 1874. Venus watches Mars sleep while two infant satyrs play, carrying his helmet and lance as another rests inside his breastplate under his arm. A fourth blows a small conch shell in his ear in an effort, so far unsuccessful, to wake him; the clear implication is that the couple have been making love, the male habit of falling asleep after sex was a regular subject for ribald jokes in the context of weddings in Renaissance Italy. The lance and conch can be read as sexual symbols; the scene is set in a grove of myrtle, traditionally associated with Venus and marriage, or laurel, associated with Lorenzo de' Medici, or both plants. There is a limited view of the meadow beyond, leading to a distant walled city. In the foreground, a swarm of wasps hovers around Mars' head as a symbol that love is accompanied by pain.
Another explanation, first suggested by Ernst Gombrich, is that the wasps represent the Vespucci family that may have commissioned the painting. They had been neighbours of Botticelli since his childhood, had commissioned his Saint Augustine in His Study for the Ognissanti church in 1480 in addition to other commissions, their coat of arms included wasps, as their name means "little wasps" in Italian, the wasps' nest, in a hollow in the tree in the top left corner, is in the place in the panel where the coat of arms of a patron was painted. The painting is thought to have been set into panelling as a spalliera, or part of furniture such as a bed, the back of a lettuccio, a wooden sofa, or a similar piece. Ronald Lightbown describes Mars as "Botticelli's most perfect male nude", though there are not a large number of these; the Venus here, unlike in the artist's Birth of Venus, is clothed, as she is in marital mode. This despite Venus being the wife of Vulcan, making the relationship adulterous by normal human standards.
In Greek Neoplatonism, Harmony was the daughter of their union. Other late classical sources regarded Cupid as a child of the union; the usual view of scholars is that the painting was commissioned to celebrate a marriage, is a uncomplicated representation of sensual pleasure, with an added meaning of love conquering or outlasting war. This was a commonplace in Renaissance thinking, which might be elaborated in terms of Renaissance Neoplatonism; as with the other mythologies, Ernst Gombrich and Edgar Wind were the first to analyse the painting in these terms. The couple's relationship could be considered in terms of astrology, in which Mars is, according to Marsilio Ficino, "outstanding in strength among the planets, because he makes men stronger, but Venus masters him...she seems to master Mars, but Mars never masters Venus". The Victorian critic John Addington Symonds, without disagreeing with that interpretation, thought the newly fashionable Botticelli overrated and "harboured an irrational dislike for the picture", writing that "The face and attitude of that unseductive Venus... opposite her snoring lover, seems to symbolize the indignities which women have to endure from insolent and sottish boys with only youth to recommend them."One dissenting interpretation is from Charles Dempsey, who finds a more sinister meaning in the picture, with the little satyrs as incubi who torment sleepers, provoking "sexual terrors in the dreams of those bound in a state of sensual error and confusion."
He concludes that "The idea of love here invested in Venus seems to be revealed, not in a positive celebration of the spirit animating natural life shown in the Primavera and Birth of Venus but as an empty sensual fantasy that disarms and torments the slumbering spirit of a once virile martial valour. The work is agreed by all to draw on the description by Lucian, a poet in Greek of the 2nd-century AD, of a famous painting, now lost, by Echion of the wedding ceremony of Alexander the Great and Roxana; the ancient painting adapted iconography associated with Venus and Mars to the historical Alexander and his bride. Lucian's ekphrasis or description mentions amoretti or putti playing with Alexander's armour during the ceremony, two carrying his lance and one who has crawled inside his breastplate; this is taken both as evidence of Botticelli's collaboration with Hu
The Story of Nastagio Degli Onesti, part one
The Story of Nastagio Degli Onesti, part one is a painting in tempera on wood by Sandro Botticelli, dated 1483. It is held in the Prado in Madrid; the picture is one of a series of four commissioned by Lorenzo the Magnificent in 1483 to donate to Giannozzo Pucci on the occasion of his wedding to Lucrezia Bini that year. The four were held in the Palazzo Pucci in Florence until 1868; the first three are now in the Prado, the last one is now in original location after having spent some time in the Watney Collection in Charlbury, England. The story of Nastagio degli Onesti, a nobleman of Ravenna, is the eighth tale of the fifth day in The Decameron by Giovanni Boccaccio; this theme was chosen for its happy ending to a love affair, in which the daughter of Paolo Traversari, who rejects Nastagio's courting, changes her mind after witnessing the infernal punishment of another woman guilty of the same sin of ingratitude towards her lover. The first episode of the story is set in a pine wood around Ravenna, the city where the story takes place.
Nastagio has left the city, disappointed by his unreturned affection, wanders alone and sorrowful. He is surprised by the sudden appearance of a woman being chased by a knight and his dogs, which seize her in their teeth in spite of Nastagio's attempts to defend her. On the left in the painting are some tents, in which Nastagio is seen being advised by his friends to leave town for a while. Nastagio is shown in close-up, roaming the forest, he appears again nearby with a stick, seeking to drive away the dogs that are trying to bite a half-naked woman, chased by a dashing knight with a sword and golden armour. The scene has a strong narrative character, showing successive scenes within one picture and requiring three representations of Nastagio, a late medieval procedure; the tall, upright trunks of the trees combine with the horizontal seascape in the background to form a kind of grid, giving a remarkable effect of depth. The drama combines with the formal elegance of the slender figures and the graceful gestures of people and animals to achieve a magical suspension between fable and reality.
Although the conception of the four pictures is due to Botticelli, the execution was entrusted in part to his assistants, in particular Bartolomeo di Giovanni for the first three pictures and Jacopo da Sellaio for the fourth. Dempsey, Charles, "Botticelli, Sandro", Oxford Art Online, Oxford University Press Santi, Bruno, "Botticelli", I protagonisti dell'arte italiana, Florence: Scala Group, ISBN 8881170914 Museo Nacional del Prado: On-line gallery