The Fitzwilliam Museum is the art and antiquities museum of the University of Cambridge. It is located on Trumpington Street opposite Fitzwilliam Street in central Cambridge. Founded in 1816, the Fitzwilliam Museum includes one of the best collections of antiquities and modern art in western Europe. With over half a million objects and artworks in its collections, the displays in the Museum explore world history and art from antiquity to the present; the treasures of the museum include artworks by Monet, Rubens, Vincent van Gogh, Rembrandt, Cézanne, Van Dyck, Canaletto, as well as a winged bas-relief from Nimrud. Admission to the public is always free; the museum is a partner in the University of Cambridge Museums consortium, one of 16 Major Partner Museum services funded by Arts Council England to lead the development of the museums sector. The museum was founded in 1816 with the legacy of the library and art collection of Richard FitzWilliam, 7th Viscount FitzWilliam; the bequest included £100,000 "to cause to be erected a good substantial museum repository".
The Fitzwilliam now contains over 500,000 items and is one of the best museums in the United Kingdom. The collection was placed in the Perse School building in Free School Lane, it was moved in 1842 to the Old Schools in central Cambridge, which housed the Cambridge University Library. The "Founder's Building" was built during the period 1837-1843 to the designs of George Basevi, completed by C. R. Cockerell; the foundation stone of the new building was laid by Gilbert Ainslie in 1837. The museum opened in 1848; the Palladian Entrance Hall, by Edward Middleton Barry, was completed in 1875. A further large bequest was made to the University in 1912 by Charles Brinsley Marlay, including £80,000 and 84 paintings from his private collection. A two-storey extension to the south-east, paid for by the Courtauld family, was added in 1931 expanding the space of the museum and allowing research teams to work on site; the museum buildings and, the boundary along the street frontage, are Grade I listed. The museum has five departments: Antiquities.
Together these cover antiquities from ancient Egypt, Nubia and Rome, Romano-Egyptian art, Western Asiatic displays, a new gallery of Cypriot art. Among the notable works in the antiquities collection is a bas-relief from Persepolis. There is the largest collection of 16th-century Elizabethan virginal manuscript music written by some of the most notable composers of the time, such as William Byrd, Doctor John Bull, Orlando Gibbons and Thomas Tallis; the Egyptian Galleries at the Fitzwilliam Museum reopened in 2006 after a two-year, £1.5 million programme of refurbishment and research. The redevelopment allowed for the public display of more antiquities, confined to the Fitzwilliam's underground storage facility; the Egyptian Galleries are among the museum's most popular exhibits. They feature an immersive public display which allows families and young visitors to understand the context and landscape of ancient Egyptian through participatory exhibitions. Today, the Fitzwilliam's Egyptian Galleries contain some of the best displays on Egyptian antiquities outside the British Museum.
The museum has a wide collection of paintings and sketches, including works by Monet, Rubens, Vincent van Gogh, Cézanne, Rembrandt, Van Dyck, Canaletto and Renoir. It has extensive works by J. M. W. Turner, which has its origins in a set of 25 watercolour drawings donated to the university by John Ruskin in 1861. Sir Sydney Cockerell, serving as director of the museum at the time, acquired a further eight Turner watercolours and some of his writings; the museum's collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings includes a version of Ford Madox Brown's The Last of England, voted eighth-greatest painting in Britain in 2005's Radio 4 poll, the Greatest Painting in Britain Vote. Many items in the museum are on loan from colleges of the University of Cambridge, for example an important group of impressionist paintings owned by King's College, which includes Cézanne's The Abduction and a study for Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte by Seurat. Many of the Fitzwilliam's paintings were donated by alumni and donors of the University of Cambridge, for instance, the economist Maynard Keynes donated his personal collection, including Cezanne's Still Life With Apples which he bought in 1918.
Anglo-American Benjamin West – 2 paintings.
The Last Supper (Leonardo)
The Last Supper is a late 15th-century mural painting by Italian artist Leonardo da Vinci housed by the refectory of the Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy. It is one of the western world's most recognizable paintings; the work is presumed to have been started around 1495–96 and was commissioned as part of a plan of renovations to the church and its convent buildings by Leonardo's patron Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan. The painting represents the scene of the Last Supper of Jesus with his apostles, as it is told in the Gospel of John, 13:21. Leonardo has depicted the consternation that occurred among the Twelve Apostles when Jesus announced that one of them would betray him. Due to the methods used, a variety of environmental factors, intentional damage little of the original painting remains today despite numerous restoration attempts, the last being completed in 1999; the Last Supper measures 460 cm × 880 cm and covers an end wall of the dining hall at the monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan, Italy.
The theme was a traditional one for refectories, although the room was not a refectory at the time that Leonardo painted it. The main church building had only been completed, but was remodeled by Bramante, hired by Ludovico Sforza to build a Sforza family mausoleum; the painting was commissioned by Sforza to be the centerpiece of the mausoleum. The lunettes above the main painting, formed by the triple arched ceiling of the refectory, are painted with Sforza coats-of-arms; the opposite wall of the refectory is covered by the Crucifixion fresco by Giovanni Donato da Montorfano, to which Leonardo added figures of the Sforza family in tempera. Leonardo began work on The Last Supper in 1495 and completed it in 1498—he did not work on the painting continuously; the beginning date is not certain, as the archives of the convent for the period have been destroyed, a document dated 1497 indicates that the painting was nearly completed at that date. One story goes, he wrote to the head of the monastery, explaining he had been struggling to find the perfect villainous face for Judas, that if he could not find a face corresponding with what he had in mind, he would use the features of the prior who complained.
The Last Supper portrays the reaction given by each apostle when Jesus said one of them would betray him. All twelve apostles have different reactions with various degrees of anger and shock; the apostles were identified by their names using a manuscript found in the 19th century. From left to right, according to the apostles' heads: Bartholomew, son of Alphaeus, Andrew form a group of three. Judas Iscariot and John form another group of three. Judas is wearing red and green and is in shadow, looking rather withdrawn and taken aback by the sudden revelation of his plan, he is clutching a small bag signifying the silver given to him as payment to betray Jesus, or a reference to his role within the 12 disciples as treasurer. He is tipping over the salt cellar; this may be related to the near-Eastern expression to "betray the salt" meaning to betray one's Master. He is the only person to have his elbow on the table and his head is horizontally the lowest of anyone in the painting. Peter looks angry and is holding a knife pointed away from Christ foreshadowing his violent reaction in Gethsemane during Jesus' arrest.
He is leaning towards John and touching him on the shoulder because in John's Gospel he signals the "beloved disciple" to ask Jesus, to betray him. The youngest apostle, appears to swoon and lean towards Peter. Jesus Apostle Thomas, James the Greater, Philip are the next group of three. Thomas is upset. James the Greater looks stunned, with his arms in the air. Meanwhile, Philip appears to be requesting some explanation. Matthew, Jude Thaddeus, Simon the Zealot are the final group of three. Both Jude Thaddeus and Matthew are turned toward Simon to find out if he has any answer to their initial questions. In common with other depictions of the Last Supper from this period, Leonardo seats the diners on one side of the table, so that none of them has his back to the viewer. Most previous depictions excluded Judas by placing him alone on the opposite side of the table from the other eleven disciples and Jesus, or placing halos around all the disciples except Judas. Leonardo instead has Judas lean back into shadow.
Jesus is predicting that his betrayer will take the bread at the same time he does to Saints Thomas and James to his left, who react in horror as Jesus points with his left hand to a piece of bread before them. Distracted by the conversation between John and Peter, Judas reaches for a different piece of bread not noticing Jesus too stretching out with his right hand towards it; the angles and lighting draw attention to Jesus, whose turned right cheek is located at the vanishing point for all perspective lines. The painting contains several references to the number 3, which represents the Christian belief in the Holy Trinity; the Apostles are seated in groupings of three. The painting can be interpreted using the Fibonacci series: 1 table, 1 ce
The Doni Tondo or Doni Madonna, is the only finished panel painting by the mature Michelangelo to survive. Now in the Uffizi in Florence and still in its original frame, the Doni Tondo was commissioned by Agnolo Doni to commemorate his marriage to Maddalena Strozzi, the daughter of a powerful Tuscan family; the painting is in the form of a tondo, meaning in Italian,'round', a shape, associated during the Renaissance with domestic ideas. The work was most created during the period after Doni's marriage in 1503 or 1504, before the Sistine Chapel ceiling frescoes were begun in 1508; the Doni Tondo portrays the Holy Family in the foreground, along with John the Baptist in the middle-ground, contains five nude male figures in the background. The inclusion of these nude figures has been interpreted in a variety of ways. Mary is the most prominent figure in the composition, taking up much of the center of the image, she sits directly on the ground without a cushion between herself and the grass, to better communicate the theme of her relationship to the earth.
Joseph is positioned higher in the image than Mary, although this is an unusual feature in compositions of the Holy Family. Mary is seated between his legs, as if he is protecting her, his great legs forming a kind of de facto throne. There is some debate as to whether Mary is receiving the Child from Joseph or vice versa, although it is clear that the former is the case as she has put down the book she was reading. Saint John the Baptist, the patron saint of Florence, is commonly included in Florentine works depicting the Madonna and Child, he is in the middle-ground between the Holy Family and the background. The scene appears to be a rural one, with the Holy Family enjoying themselves on the grass and separated from the curiously unrelated group at the back by a low wall; the painting is still in its original frame, one that Michelangelo might have influenced or helped design. The frame is ornately carved and rather unusual for the five heads it contains which protrude three-dimensionally into space.
Similar to the nudes of the background, the meanings of these heads has been the subject of speculation. The frame contains carvings of crescent moons, stars and lions’ heads; these symbols are references to the Doni and Strozzi families, taken from each one's coat of arms. As depicted on the frame, “the moons are bound together with ribbons that interlock with the lions,” referring to the marriage of the two families. There is a horizontal band a wall, separating the foreground and background; the background figures are five nudes, whose meaning and function are subject to much speculation and debate. Because they are much closer to us, the viewers, the Holy Family is much larger than the nudes in the background, a device to aid the illusion of deep space in a two-dimensional image. Behind Saint John the Baptist is a semi-circular ridge, against which the'ignudi' are leaning, or upon which they are sitting; this semi-circle reflects or mirrors the circular shape of the painting itself and acts as a foil to the vertical nature of the principal group.
Mary and Joseph gaze at Christ. The far background contains a mountainous landscape rendered in atmospheric perspective; the Doni Tondo is believed to be the only existing panel picture Michelangelo painted without the aid of assistants. The juxtaposition of bright colors foreshadows the same use of color in Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling frescoes; the folds of the drapery are modelled, the modelling of the figures is distinctly sculptural, suggesting they are carved in medium marble. The nude figures in the background have softer modelling and look to be precursors to the ignudi, the male nude figures in the Sistine Ceiling frescoes. Michelangelo's technique includes shading from the most intense colors first to the lighter shades on top, using the darker colors as shadows. By applying the pigment in a certain way, Michelangelo created an "unfocused" effect in the background and focused detail in the foreground; the most vibrant color is located within the Virgin's garments, signifying her importance within the image.
The masculinity of Mary could be explained by Michelangelo's use of male models for female figures, as was done for the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo used a limited palette of pigments comprising Lead White, Verdigris and a few others, he avoided ochres and used little vermilion. The composition is, most partially influenced by the cartoon for Leonardo da Vinci’s The Virgin and Child with St. Anne. Michelangelo's Holy Family forms a tight, separated group in the centre foreground of the image, with the Virgin's figure constructing a typical Renaissance pyramid or triangle. Michelangelo saw the drawing in 1501 while in Florence working on the David; the Doni Tondo is associated with Luca Signorelli’s Medici Madonna in the Uffizi. Michelangelo knew of the work and its ideas, he wanted to incorporate those ideas into his own work. Signorelli's Madonna uses a tondo form, depicts nude male figures in the background, displays the Virgin sitting directly on the earth. Three aspects of the painting can be attributed to an antique sardonyx cameo and a 15th-century relief from the circle o
The Mona Lisa is a half-length portrait painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci, described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world." The Mona Lisa is one of the most valuable paintings in the world. It holds the Guinness World Record for the highest known insurance valuation in history at US$100 million in 1962; the painting is a portrait of Lisa Gherardini, the wife of Francesco del Giocondo, is in oil on a white Lombardy poplar panel. It had been believed to have been painted between 1503 and 1506. Recent academic work suggests that it would not have been started before 1513, it was acquired by King Francis I of France and is now the property of the French Republic, on permanent display at the Louvre Museum in Paris since 1797. The subject's expression, described as enigmatic, the monumentality of the composition, the subtle modelling of forms, the atmospheric illusionism were novel qualities that have contributed to the continuing fascination and study of the work.
The title of the painting, known in English as Mona Lisa, comes from a description by Renaissance art historian Giorgio Vasari, who wrote "Leonardo undertook to paint, for Francesco del Giocondo, the portrait of Mona Lisa, his wife." Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as "ma donna" – similar to "Ma’am", "Madam", or "my lady" in English. This became "madonna", its contraction "mona"; the title of the painting, though traditionally spelled "Mona", is commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa, but this is rare in English. Vasari's account of the Mona Lisa comes from his biography of Leonardo published in 1550, 31 years after the artist's death, it has long been the best-known source of information on the provenance of the work and identity of the sitter. Leonardo's assistant Salaì, at his death in 1524, owned a portrait which in his personal papers was named la Gioconda, a painting bequeathed to him by Leonardo; that Leonardo painted such a work, its date, were confirmed in 2005 when a scholar at Heidelberg University discovered a marginal note in a 1477 printing of a volume written by the ancient Roman philosopher Cicero.
Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardo's contemporary Agostino Vespucci. This note likens Leonardo to renowned Greek painter Apelles, mentioned in the text, states that Leonardo was at that time working on a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. In response to the announcement of the discovery of this document, Vincent Delieuvin, the Louvre representative, stated "Leonardo da Vinci was painting, in 1503, the portrait of a Florentine lady by the name of Lisa del Giocondo. About this we are now certain. We cannot be certain that this portrait of Lisa del Giocondo is the painting of the Louvre." The model, Lisa del Giocondo, was a member of the Gherardini family of Florence and Tuscany, the wife of wealthy Florentine silk merchant Francesco del Giocondo. The painting is thought to have been commissioned for their new home, to celebrate the birth of their second son, Andrea; the Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means "jocund" or "the jocund one", a pun on the feminine form of Lisa's married name, "Giocondo".
In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. Before that discovery, scholars had developed several alternative views as to the subject of the painting; some argued that Lisa del Giocondo was the subject of a different portrait, identifying at least four other paintings as the Mona Lisa referred to by Vasari. Several other women have been proposed as the subject of the painting. Isabella of Aragon, Cecilia Gallerani, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, Isabella d'Este, Pacifica Brandano or Brandino, Isabela Gualanda, Caterina Sforza—even Salaì and Leonardo himself—are all among the list of posited models portrayed in the painting; the consensus of art historians in the 21st century maintains the long-held traditional opinion that the painting depicts Lisa del Giocondo. Leonardo da Vinci is thought to have begun painting the Mona Lisa in 1503 or 1504 in Florence, Italy. Although the Louvre states that it was "doubtless painted between 1503 and 1506", the art historian Martin Kemp says there are some difficulties in confirming the actual dates with certainty.
In addition, many Leonardo experts, such as Carlo Pedretti and Alessandro Vezzosi, are of the opinion that the painting is characteristic of Leonardo's style in the final years of his life, post-1513. Other academics argue that, given the historical documentation, Leonardo would have painted the work from 1513. According to Leonardo's contemporary, Giorgio Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, left it unfinished". Leonardo in his life, is said to have regretted "never having completed a single work". Circa 1504, Raphael executed a pen and ink sketch, today in the Louvre Museum, in which the subject is flanked by large columns. Experts universally agree. Other copies of the Mona Lisa, such as those in the National Museum of Art and Design in Oslo and The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore display large flanking columns; as a result, it was thought that the Mona Lisa in the Louvre had side columns and had been cut. However, as early as 1993, Zöllner observed; this was confirmed through a series of tests conducted in 2004.
Infrared radiation, sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, is therefore invisible to the human eye, although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nanometers s from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions. IR wavelengths extend from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers, to 1 millimeter. Most of the thermal radiation emitted by objects near room temperature is infrared; as with all EMR, IR carries radiant energy and behaves both like a wave and like its quantum particle, the photon. Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by astronomer Sir William Herschel, who discovered a type of invisible radiation in the spectrum lower in energy than red light, by means of its effect on a thermometer. More than half of the total energy from the Sun was found to arrive on Earth in the form of infrared; the balance between absorbed and emitted infrared radiation has a critical effect on Earth's climate.
Infrared radiation is emitted or absorbed by molecules when they change their rotational-vibrational movements. It excites vibrational modes in a molecule through a change in the dipole moment, making it a useful frequency range for study of these energy states for molecules of the proper symmetry. Infrared spectroscopy examines transmission of photons in the infrared range. Infrared radiation is used in industrial, military, law enforcement, medical applications. Night-vision devices using active near-infrared illumination allow people or animals to be observed without the observer being detected. Infrared astronomy uses sensor-equipped telescopes to penetrate dusty regions of space such as molecular clouds, detect objects such as planets, to view red-shifted objects from the early days of the universe. Infrared thermal-imaging cameras are used to detect heat loss in insulated systems, to observe changing blood flow in the skin, to detect overheating of electrical apparatus. Extensive uses for military and civilian applications include target acquisition, night vision and tracking.
Humans at normal body temperature radiate chiefly at wavelengths around 10 μm. Non-military uses include thermal efficiency analysis, environmental monitoring, industrial facility inspections, detection of grow-ops, remote temperature sensing, short-range wireless communication and weather forecasting. Infrared radiation extends from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers to 1 millimeter; this range of wavelengths corresponds to a frequency range of 430 THz down to 300 GHz. Below infrared is the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Sunlight, at an effective temperature of 5,780 kelvins, is composed of near-thermal-spectrum radiation, more than half infrared. At zenith, sunlight provides an irradiance of just over 1 kilowatt per square meter at sea level. Of this energy, 527 watts is infrared radiation, 445 watts is visible light, 32 watts is ultraviolet radiation. Nearly all the infrared radiation in sunlight is shorter than 4 micrometers. On the surface of Earth, at far lower temperatures than the surface of the Sun, some thermal radiation consists of infrared in the mid-infrared region, much longer than in sunlight.
However, black body or thermal radiation is continuous: it gives off radiation at all wavelengths. Of these natural thermal radiation processes, only lightning and natural fires are hot enough to produce much visible energy, fires produce far more infrared than visible-light energy. In general, objects emit infrared radiation across a spectrum of wavelengths, but sometimes only a limited region of the spectrum is of interest because sensors collect radiation only within a specific bandwidth. Thermal infrared radiation has a maximum emission wavelength, inversely proportional to the absolute temperature of object, in accordance with Wien's displacement law. Therefore, the infrared band is subdivided into smaller sections. A used sub-division scheme is: NIR and SWIR is sometimes called "reflected infrared", whereas MWIR and LWIR is sometimes referred to as "thermal infrared". Due to the nature of the blackbody radiation curves, typical "hot" objects, such as exhaust pipes appear brighter in the MW compared to the same object viewed in the LW.
The International Commission on Illumination recommended the division of infrared radiation into the following three bands: ISO 20473 specifies the following scheme: Astronomers divide the infrared spectrum as follows: These divisions are not precise and can vary depending on the publication. The three regions are used for observation of different temperature ranges, hence different environments in space; the most common photometric system used in astronomy allocates capital letters to different spectral regions according to filters used. These letters are understood in reference to atmospheric windows and appear, for instance, in the titles of many papers. A third scheme divides up the band based on the response of various detectors: Near-infrared: from 0.7 to 1.0 µm. Short-wave infrared: 1.0 to 3 µm. InGaAs covers to about 1.8 µm. Mid-wave infrared: 3 to 5 µm (defined by the atmospheric window and covered by indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride and by lead
The biblical Magi referred to as the Wise Men or Kings, were – in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition – distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold and myrrh. They are regular figures in traditional accounts of the nativity celebrations of Christmas and are an important part of Christian tradition. Matthew is the only of the four canonical gospels to mention the Magi. Matthew reports that they came "from the east" to worship the "king of the Jews"; the gospel never mentions the number of Magi, but most western Christian denominations have traditionally assumed them to have been three in number, based on the statement that they brought three gifts. In Eastern Christianity the Syriac churches, the Magi number twelve, their identification as kings in Christian writings is linked to Psalm 72:11, "May all kings fall down before him". Traditional nativity scenes depict three "Wise Men" visiting the infant Jesus on the night of his birth, in a manger accompanied by the shepherds and angels, but this should be understood as an artistic convention allowing the two separate scenes of the Adoration of the Shepherds on the birth night and the Adoration of the Magi to be combined for convenience.
The single biblical account in Matthew presents an event at an unspecified point after Christ's birth in which an unnumbered party of unnamed "wise men" visits him in a house, not a stable, with only "his mother" mentioned as present. The New Revised Standard Version of Matthew 2:1–12 describes the visit of the Magi in this manner: In the time of King Herod, after Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, wise men from the East came to Jerusalem, asking, "Where is the child, born king of the Jews? For we observed his star at its rising, have come to pay him homage." When King Herod heard this, he was frightened and all Jerusalem with him. They told him, "In Bethlehem of Judea. Herod secretly called for the wise men and learned from them the exact time when the star had appeared, he sent them to Bethlehem, saying, "Go and search diligently for the child. When they had heard the king, they set out; when they saw that the star had stopped, they were overwhelmed with joy. On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother.
Opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they left for their own country by another path; the text specifies no interval between the birth and the visit, artistic depictions and the closeness of the traditional dates of December 25 and January 6 encourage the popular assumption that the visit took place the same winter as the birth, but traditions varied, with the visit taken as occurring up to two winters later. This maximum interval explained Herod's command at Matthew 2:16–18 that the Massacre of the Innocents included boys up to two years old. More recent commentators, not tied to the traditional feast days, may suggest a variety of intervals; the wise men are mentioned twice shortly thereafter in verse 16, in reference to their avoidance of Herod after seeing Jesus, what Herod had learned from their earlier meeting. The star which they followed has traditionally become known as the Star of Bethlehem.
The Magi are popularly referred to as wise kings. The word magi is the plural of Latin magus, borrowed from Greek μάγος, as used in the original Greek text of the Gospel of Matthew. Greek magos itself is derived from Old Persian maguŝ from the Avestan magâunô, i.e. the religious caste into which Zoroaster was born. The term refers to the Persian priestly caste of Zoroastrianism; as part of their religion, these priests paid particular attention to the stars and gained an international reputation for astrology, at that time regarded as a science. Their religious practices and use of astrology caused derivatives of the term Magi to be applied to the occult in general and led to the English term magic, although Zoroastrianism was in fact opposed to sorcery; the King James Version translates the term as wise men. The same word is given as sorcerer and sorcery when describing "Elymas the sorcerer" in Acts 13:6–11, Simon Magus, considered a heretic by the early Church, in Acts 8:9–13. Several translations refer to the men outright as astrologers at Matthew Chapter 2, including New English Bible.
Although the Magi are referred to as "kings," there is nothing in the account from the Gospel of Matthew that implies that they were rulers of any kind. The identification of the Magi as kings is linked to Old Testament prophecies that describe the Messiah being worshipped by