The Christian doctrine of the Trinity holds that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons". The three Persons are distinct, yet are one "substance, essence or nature". In this context, a "nature" is. Sometimes differing views are referred to as nontrinitarian. Trinitarianism contrasts with positions such as Binitarianism and Monarchianism, of which Modalistic Monarchianism and Unitarianism are subsets. While the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, the New Testament possesses a "triadic" understanding of God and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas; the doctrine of the Trinity was first formulated among the early Christians and fathers of the Church as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions. The word trinity is derived from Latin trinitas, meaning "the number three, a triad, tri".
This abstract noun is formed from the adjective trinus, as the word unitas is the abstract noun formed from unus. The corresponding word in Greek is τριάς, meaning "a set of three" or "the number three"; the first recorded use of this Greek word in Christian theology was by Theophilus of Antioch in about the year 170. He wrote: In like manner the three days which were before the luminaries, are types of the Trinity, of God, His Word, His wisdom, and the fourth is the type of man, who needs light, that so there may be God, the Word, man. While the developed doctrine of the Trinity is not explicit in the books that constitute the New Testament, it was first formulated as early Christians attempted to understand the relationship between Jesus and God in their scriptural documents and prior traditions; the New Testament possesses a "triadic" understanding of God and contains a number of Trinitarian formulas. The Ante-Nicene Fathers asserted Christ's deity and spoke of "Father and Holy Spirit" though their language is not that of the traditional doctrine as formalized in the fourth century.
Trinitarians view these as elements of the codified doctrine. An early Trinitarian formula appears towards the end of the first century, where Clement of Rome rhetorically asks in his epistle as to why corruption exists among some in the Christian community. Ignatius of Antioch provides early support for the Trinity around 110, exhorting obedience to "Christ, to the Father, to the Spirit"; the pseudonymous Ascension of Isaiah, written sometime between the end of the first century and the beginning of the third century, possesses a "proto-trinitarian" view, such as in its narrative of how the inhabitants of the sixth heaven sing praises to "the primal Father and his Beloved Christ, the Holy Spirit". Justin Martyr writes, "in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, of our Saviour Jesus Christ, of the Holy Spirit"; the first of the early church fathers to be recorded using the word "Trinity" was Theophilus of Antioch writing in the late 2nd century. He defines the Trinity as God, His Word and His Wisdom in the context of a discussion of the first three days of creation, following the early Christian practice of identifying the Holy Spirit as the Wisdom of God.
The first defense of the doctrine of the Trinity was in the early 3rd century by the early church father Tertullian. He explicitly defined the Trinity as Father and Holy Spirit and defended his theology against "Praxeas", though he noted that the majority of the believers in his day found issue with his doctrine. St. Justin and Clement of Alexandria used the Trinity in their doxologies and St. Basil in the evening lighting of lamps. Origen of Alexandria has been interpreted as Subordinationist, but some modern researchers have argued that Origen might have been anti-Subordinationist. Although there is much debate as to whether the beliefs of the Apostles were articulated and explained in the Trinitarian Creeds, or were corrupted and replaced with new beliefs, all scholars recognize that the Creeds themselves were created in reaction to disagreements over the nature of the Father and Holy Spirit; these controversies took some centuries to be resolved. Of these controversies, the most significant developments were articulated in the first four centuries by the Church Fathers in reaction to Adoptionism and Arianism.
Adoptionism was the belief that Jesus was an ordinary man, born of Joseph and Mary, who became the Christ and Son of God at his baptism. In 269, the Synods of Antioch condemned Paul of Samosata for his Adoptionist theology, condemned the term homoousios in the modalist sense in which he used it. Among the Non-Trinitarian beliefs, the Sabellianism taught that the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit are one and the same, the difference being verbal, describing different aspects or roles of a single being. For this view Sabellius was excommunicated for heresy in Rome c. 220. In the fourth century, Arianism, as traditionally understood, taught that the Father existed prior to the Son, not, by nature, God but rather a changeable creature, granted the dignity of becoming "Son of God". In 325, the First C
Holy Spirit in Christianity
For the majority of Christian denominations, the Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost is the third person of the Trinity: the Triune God manifested as God the Father, God the Son,and God the Holy Spirit. Nontrinitarian Christians, who reject the doctrine of the Trinity, differ from mainstream Christianity in their beliefs about the Holy Spirit and fall into several distinct categories such as Unitarianism, Binitarianism and others; some Christian theologians identify the Holy Spirit with the Ruach Hakodesh in Jewish scripture, with many similar names including the Ruach Elohim, Ruach YHWH, the Ruach Hakmah. In the New Testament it is identified with the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of Truth, the Paraclete and the Holy Spirit; the New Testament details a close relationship between the Holy Spirit and Jesus during his earthly life and ministry. The Gospels of Matthew and Luke and the Nicene Creed state that Jesus was "conceived by the Holy Spirit, born of the Virgin Mary"; the Holy Spirit descended on Jesus like a dove during his baptism, in his Farewell Discourse after the Last Supper Jesus promised to send the Holy Spirit to his disciples after his departure.
The Holy Spirit is referred to as "the Lord, the Giver of Life" in the Nicene Creed, which summarises several key beliefs held by many Christian denominations. The participation of the Holy Spirit in the tripartite nature of conversion is apparent in Jesus' final post-resurrection instruction to his disciples at the end of the Gospel of Matthew: "make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them into the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit," and "For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them." Since the first century, Christians have called upon God with the trinitarian formula "Father and Holy Spirit" in prayer and benediction. In the book of the Acts of the Apostles the arrival of the Holy Spirit happens fifty days after the resurrection of the Christ, is celebrated in Christendom with the feast of Pentecost. In Christian theology, pneumatology refers to the study of the Holy Spirit; the Koine Greek word pneûma is found around 385 times in the New Testament, with some scholars differing by three to nine occurrences.
Pneuma appears 105 times in the four canonical gospels, 69 times in the Acts of the Apostles, 161 times in the Pauline epistles, 50 times elsewhere. These usages vary: in 133 cases, it refers to "spirit" in a general sense and in 153 cases to "spiritual". Around 93 times, the reference to the Holy Spirit, sometimes under the name pneuma and sometimes explicitly as the pneûma tò Hagion, it was translated into the Vulgate as Spiritus and Spiritus Sanctus. The English terms "Holy Ghost" and "Holy Spirit" are complete synonyms: one derives from the Old English gast and the other from the Latin loanword spiritus. Like pneuma, they both refer to the breath, to its animating power, to the soul; the Old English term is shared by all other Germanic languages and is older, but the King James Bible used both interchangeably, 20th-century translations of the Bible overwhelmingly prefer "Holy Spirit" because the general English term "ghost" has come to refer only to the spirit of a dead person. Source: וְר֣וּחַ קָדְשׁ֑וֹ – His Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ קָ֝דְשְׁךָ֗ – Thy Holy Spirit וְר֣וּחַ אֱלֹהִ֔ים – Spirit of God נִשְׁמַת־ר֨וּחַ חַיִּ֜ים – The Breath of the Spirit of Life ר֣וּחַ יְהוָ֑ה – Spirit of YHWH ר֧וּחַ חָכְמָ֣ה וּבִינָ֗ה – Spirit of Wisdom and Understanding ר֤וּחַ עֵצָה֙ וּגְבוּרָ֔ה – Spirit of Counsel and Might ר֥וּחַ דַּ֖עַת וְיִרְאַ֥ת יְהוָֽה – Spirit of Knowledge and Fear of YHWH πνεύματος ἁγίου – Holy Spirit πνεύματι θεοῦ – Spirit of God ὁ παράκλητος – The Comforter, cf. Paraclete John 14:26 πνεῦμα τῆς ἀληθείας – Spirit of Truth Πνεῦμα Χριστοῦ – Spirit of Christ Depending on context: πνεῦμα – Spirit Πνεύματος – Spirit What the Hebrew Bible calls "Spirit of God" and "Spirit of Elohim" is called in the Talmud and Midrash "Holy Spirit".
Although the expression "Holy Spirit" occurs in Ps. 51:11 and in Isa. 63:10–11, it had not yet acquired quite the same meaning, attached to it in rabbinical literature: in the latter it is equivalent to the expression "Spirit of the Lord". In Gen.1:2 God's spirit hovered over the form of lifeless matter, thereby making the Creation possible. Although the ruach ha-kodesh may be named instead of God, it was conceived of as being something distinct; the most characteristic sign of the presence of the ruach ha-kodesh is the gift of prophecy. The use of the word "ruach" in the phrase ruach ha-kodesh seems to suggest that Judaic authorities believed the Holy Spirit was a kind of communication medium like the wind; the spirit talks sometimes sometimes with a feminine voice. The term Holy Spirit appears at least 90 times in the New Testament; the sacredness of the Holy Spirit to Christians is affirmed in all three Syno
Saint Michael Fighting the Dragon
Saint Michael Fighting the Dragon is a woodcut of 1498 by Albrecht Dürer, part of his Apocalypse series, illustrating the Book of Apocalypse or Revelation of St. John. "And there was war in heaven: his angels fought against the dragon. As recounted by the Revelation of Saint John, at the end of the world war will break at between Heaven and Hell, between good and evil; as the commander of the Army of God, Archangel Michael leads the other angels in the fight against evil, represented in this picture by a seven-headed dragon. Each of the dragon’s heads represents one of the seven deadly sins. Dürer chose to capture this fight between good and evil at the moment when Saint Michael is thrusting his spear into one of the heads. Surrounding Saint Michael are three other angels ready to attack. Beneath the fighting lies a calm and serene landscape with mountains and a small town, highlighted by a church with a tall spire, in the distance. At the bottom in the center of the page Dürer has placed his distinctive “AD” monogram, in all of his engravings.
Albrecht Dürer considered printmaking to be one of the most important art forms even equal to the art of painting. His technical skill is well demonstrated in St. Michael Fighting the Dragon; the influence of Dürer's training under Michael Wolgemut on the quality of Dürer's works can be seen in the vast amount of detail in the print. Dürer includes details ranging from the small trees surrounding the town to details of St. Michael’s face. Dürer uses atmospheric perspective to create the illusion of space by depicting the mountains with less detail the farther away they are supposed to be, he creates different dark tones through his use of lines. In respect to the poses of the figures Archangel Michael, Dürer broke with the traditional pose for a hero fighting against evil, more elegant and instead put St. Michael in a pose that captures the magnitude of the task at hand. St. Michael’s eyebrows are furrowed with concentration and his hands are on the sword, about to fiercely attack the dragon.
All original woodcuts in the series were made on pear wood. Beginning in the 14th century with the work of Petrarch, the father of humanism, humanist ideals began to spread throughout Europe. Early humanists stressed the importance of studying the classics and Roman works, learning the liberal arts. During the 15th century, Renaissance humanists, applied humanism to their civic lives and stated that people should use their knowledge in the service of the state, they believed that individuals had a great potential to succeed and could use that potential to improve society. In northern Europe, Christian Humanists combined humanist ideals with Christianity by emphasizing both education and scriptural knowledge. Artistically, humanists encouraged the study of the human form to portray the beauty of the human body. One of the leading Christian Humanists was Desiderius Erasmus, who became a friend of Albrecht Dürer when Dürer visited the Netherlands in 1520 and 1521. Well before that visit, Dürer traveled to Italy in the autumn of 1494 and talked with many Italian humanists.
He visited the workshops of numerous Italian humanist artists, including Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini. Due to this exposure to humanism and Italian art, Dürer became fascinated with how to best capture the proportions of the human body and spent much time studying the human body and anatomical proportions; this interest can not only be seen in many of his paintings, but in a number of his engravings, including St. Michael Fighting the Dragon. Another major influence on Dürer’s works was the rise of Nuremberg as an intellectual center and as a leader in engravings. One of the main reasons behind Nuremberg's prominence was the release of the Nuremberg Chronicle in 1493; this book contained around 650 original illustrations from Michael Wolgemut, one of the leading engravers of the late-Gothic era, his workshop. The Nuremberg Chronicle not only demonstrated the capabilities of the new printing press, but paved the way for the work of Albrecht Dürer in the coming years. Albrecht Dürer was an apprentice under Wolgemut and learned the art of engraving from one of the most well known engravers of the time.
Technically, the development of better printing presses in Nuremberg allowed for Dürer to include much more detail in his work, from depicting St. Michael’s hair with little curls to capturing the sails of two boats off in the distance, it allowed for his work to be more distributed. Kleiner, Fred S. and Helen Gardner. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Global History. Boston, MA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2009. "Sixteenth Century." Sixteenth Century: A Heavenly Craft, The Woodcut in Early Printed Books. 3 October 2005. Library of Congress. 7 March 2010 <https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/heavenlycraft/heavenly-16th.html>. "St. Michael Fighting the Dragon by Albrecht Durer." BackToClassics.com Virtual Art Gallery. 2009. BackToClassicals.com. 1 March 2010 <http://www.backtoclassics.com/gallery/albrechtdurer/stmichaelfightingthedragon/>. "The Revelation of St John: 11. St Michael Fighting the Dragon." Web Gallery of Art. 28 February 2010. <http://www.wga.hu/index1.html>. Zuffi, Stefano. Dürer. London: DK, 1999. Print. Web Gallery of Art Back to Classics Article Sixteenth Century: A Heavenly Craft
Feast of the Rosary
The Feast of the Rosary is a 1506 oil painting by Albrecht Dürer, now in the National Gallery, Czech Republic. The work dates to Dürer's sojourn in Venice, had been commissioned by Jakob Fugger, intermediary between emperor Maximilian I and Pope Julius II, during the painter's stay as the banker's guest in Augsburg; the contract was renewed in the Italian city by the brotherhoods of the traders from Nuremberg and from other German cities, the latter being supported by the Fugger family. According to the contract, the painting, to be housed in the church of the German nation in Venice, San Bartolomeo at Rialto, should be finished before May 1506; the subject was the Feast of the Rosary, a theme connected to the particular worship that the German citizens in Venice had towards Our Lady of the Rosary. The execution however dragged on until September of that year, when the Doge, the Patriarch and other Venetian nobles visited Dürer's workshop to see the finished work. In a letter written to Nurnberg's Senate in 1523, Dürer wrote how, in that occasion, the doge had proposed him the position of the Republic's painter, but he had refused.
The visitors included among other artists, Giovanni Bellini. The work was acquired by emperor Rudolf II in 1606, it was assigned to the Strahov Monastery and, during the centuries, it underwent to several restorations, causing damage to the painted surface. It was moved to the Rudolfinum and to the National Gallery of the Czech capital; the painting shows the Virgin Enthroned holding the Child in the center, with two flying angels who are holding, above her, an elaborated royal crown made of gold and gems. The throne's backrest is covered with a green drape and by a baldachin, held by two flying cherubim. Below is an angel playing an evident homage to Giovanni Bellini's altarpieces. Mary is depicted in the act of distributing rose garlands to two groups of kneeling worshippers, portrayed on two symmetrical rows at the sides; the two rows are headed, on the left, by Pope Julius II, crowned by the Child and followed by a procession of religious figures. Dürer based his portrait of the emperor on a drawing by Ambrogio de Predis, who had worked for Maximilian at Innsbruck.
The pope and the emperor, considered at the time the supreme authorities of the Catholic world, have deposed the papal tiara and the imperial crown, are now kneeling to receive the Madonna's blessing. Other angels are distributing crowns of flowers, as well as St. Dominic of Guzman, who stands at the side of the Virgin. Near the left border is the patriarch of Venice, Antonio Soriano, with the hands joined, next to him, Burkard von Speyer chaplain of the church of San Bartolomeo, portrayed by Dürer in another painting. On the right, nearby a lush Alpine landscape, is the artist's self-portrait with a cartouche in a hand: here is the signature with a short inscription, reporting the time needed to complete the work; the characters next to the painter are Leonhard Vilt, founder of the Brotherhood of the Rosary in Venice, Hieronymus of Augsburg, the architect of the new Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Annexed is the donor's portrait; the style of the work is reminiscent of some Bellini's works featuring the same quiet monumental appearance, such as the San Giobbe Altarpiece or the San Zaccaria Altarpiece regarding the guitar playing angel in the center.
Most the work was subject to repainting, including the great part of the heads and some half of the panel Costantino Porcu, ed.. Dürer. Milan: Rizzoli
St. Jerome in the Wilderness (Dürer)
St. Jerome in the Wilderness is a double-sided oil on panel painting by the German Renaissance artist Albrecht Dürer, executed around 1496, now in the National Gallery in London, where both sides are displayed; the work was attributed to Dürer in 1957, basing on the resemblance between the lion and a similar animal on a membrane drawing from the artist's second trip to Venice, now at the Hamburger Kunsthalle. The lion was surely drawn from St. Mark's Lion depictions in the city; the painting was in the Fitzwilliam Museum of Cambridge, was bought by the London museum. St. Jerome was a common subject of art at the time. Dürer for this works was inspired by similar depictions by Giovanni Bellini, or other artists influenced by Andrea Mantegna. Jerome is portrayed during his hermitage, surrounded by all the symbols traditionally attributed to him: the tamed lion, the hat and the cardinal garments on the ground, the book, the stone he used to hit himself, the crucifix for the prayers; the depiction of nature is typical of Northern European art, with numerous details such as the small birds, the white butterfly in the lower part, as well as the fine rendering of the trunk's bark or the depiction of grass spear by spear.
The sky in the background is similar to Dürer's watercolor of the Pool in the Wood, now in the British Museum. On the reverse of this painting is an intriguing image of what appears to be a meteor/meteorite or comet. Dürer's inspiration may have been the depictions of comets in the Nuremberg Chronicle of 1493. However, those woodcuts are stylized, are not intended to show historical comets, whereas Dürer's image has the feel of an actual observation, as does the blazing star in Dürer's enigmatic engraving Melencolia I, published in 1514. If Dürer's images do represent actual celestial objects there are three possible candidates; the first is the Comet of 1491. Dr Sten Odenwald said that it "allegedly came to within 0.0094 AU on 1491 Feb. 20.0 TT, but the orbit of this comet is uncertain". The second is the Ensisheim meteorite; this was suggested by Ursula B Marvin, in relation to Melencolia I. This object fell in Alsace on 7 November 1492; the third is the comet of 1493, mentioned in the chronological section of Sir David Brewster's The Edinburgh Encyclopædia, which said it was: "seen before and after passing its meridian."
Page at the museum official website
Avarice (Dürer, Vienna)
Avarice is a small oil-on-limewood painting of 1507 by Albrecht Dürer. It shows a grotesque and wrinkled old woman with one sagging breast hanging out of her crimson robe holding a bag of gold coins with both hands; the work is found on the reverse of his Portrait of Young Man. Avarice is allegorical and serves as a warning at both the transience of life and the ultimate worthlessness of earthly fortune, it is grouped, along with Melencolia I, as one of Dürer's vanitas images. Intended to represent both avarice and the passing nature of youthful beauty, the woman is shown in half-length, painted in thick impasto, she has long straight blond hair, glazed eyes, a long nose, a pinched jaw and a mouth with only two remaining teeth, twisted in a scornful laugh. Her visible right arm is muscular and out of proportion to the rest of her body, while a dark tuft of hair sprouts from her underarm. Only her hair and the regular and noble outlines of her face hint at former beauty; the intense focus of the image is achieved by tight cropping and the contrasting of the lush colouring of the woman's gown and hair against a flat black background.
Art historians have compared the work to a Giorgionesque canvas Col tempo, with which it shares obvious thematic similarities, while Dürer's use of impasto and the rich colouring in the foreground display a debt to the Venetian school. The art historian T. Sturge Moore suggests that Dürer may have wanted to show that he could paint like Giorgione. Others believe that the work is a satire on a sitter who had not paid him as much as he might have wished for an earlier portrait. However, given the artist's financial situation at this time, it seems unlikely that he would have deliberately offended potential patrons or customers. Writer Jessie Allen discounts this theory and believes that the work was unable to attract a buyer and so, to save money, Dürer used the other side of the canvas to create a commercially viable image; the work is seen as unfinished, is sometimes referred to as a sketch. Avarice is held in the Kunsthistorisches Vienna, it is in good condition, the colours retain their vibrancy.
In the Kunsthistoriches it is labeled "Allegorische Frauenfigur/Allegorical Female Figure" Allen, Jessie. Albert Dürer. Kessinger, 2005. ISBN 0-7661-9475-2 Bailey, Martin. Dürer. London: Phidon Press, 1995. ISBN 0-7148-3334-7 Silver, Larry & Smith, Jeffrey Chipps; the Essential Dürer. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. ISBN 0-8122-4187-8 Sturge Moore, T. Albert Dürer. Bastian Books, 2008. ISBN 0-554-23107-7 Thausing, Moriz. Albert Dürer: His Life and Work, Part 1. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-7661-5416-5
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I
The Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I is an oil painting by Albrecht Dürer, dating to 1519 and now at the Kunsthistorisches Museum of Vienna, Austria. It portrays the emperor Maximilian I. In the Spring of 1512, the newly elected emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg sojourned in Nuremberg, where he got acquainted with Dürer. To celebrate the emperor and his house, the artist conceived the large Triumphal Arch woodcut, for which he was rewarded with 100 yearly florins. In 1518, during the Diet of Augsburg, Maximilian called Dürer to portray him; the artist met the emperor in the castle and made a pencil drawing of him, from which he painted the panel portrait. On the drawing's margin, he noted: "Is the emperor Maximilian that I Albrecht Dürer portrayed in Augsburg, up in the high palace, in his small room, Monday 28 June 1518"; the oil panel was completed when the emperor had died, with some variants from the initial drawing. The latter is now housed in the Vienna; the emperor is portrayed from three-quarter on a green background.
The arms lie on an unseen parapet coinciding with the lower boundary of the painting, according to the Flemish painting tradition. His left hand holds a large pomegranate, a symbol of cohesion in the diversity and thus of the Holy Roman Empire. Maximilian wears a gown with a wide fur collar and a broad-brimmed dark hat, with a brooch in the center, his grey hair crown his still aristocratic face. In the upper left is the Habsburg coat of arms and Golden Fleece chain, near a long inscription in capital characters which resumes the titles and the deeds of the emperor POTENTISSIMVS. MAXIMVS. ET. INVICTISSIMVS. CAESAR. MAXIMILIANVS/ QVI. CVNCTOS. SVI. TEMPORIS. REGES. ET. PRINCIPES. IVSTICIA. PRVDENCIA/ MAGNANIMITATE. LIBERALITATE PRAECIPVE. VERO. BELLICA. LAVDE. ET/ ANIMI. FORTITVDINE. SVPERAVIT. NATVS. EST. ANNO. SALVTIS. HVMANAE./ M. CCCC. LIX. DIE. MARCII. IX. VIXIT. ANNOS. LIX. MENSES. IX. DIES. XXV/ DECESSIT. VERO. ANNO. M. D. XIX. MENSIS. IANVARII. DIE. XII. QVEM. DEVS/ OPT. MAX. IN. NVMERVM. VIVENCIVM. REFERRE. VELIT Costantino Porcu, ed..
Dürer. Milan: Rizzoli. Page at the museum's website