Bay of Biscay
The Bay of Biscay is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarc'h to the Spanish border, the northern coast of Spain west to Cape Ortegal; the south area of the Bay of Biscay washes over the northern coast of Spain and is known as the Cantabrian Sea. The average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres; the Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast standing for the western Basque districts. Its name in other languages is: Asturian: golfu de Biscaya Basque: Bizkaiko golkoa Breton: pleg-mor Gwaskogn French: golfe de Gascogne Galician: golfo de Biscaia Gascon and Occitan: golf de Gasconha Latin: Sinus Biscaiensis Spanish: Golfo de Vizcaya Parts of the continental shelf extend far into the bay, resulting in shallow waters in many areas and thus the rough seas for which the region is known. Large storms occur in the bay during the winter months; the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Ocean's fiercest weather.
Up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as "a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point"; the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The main rivers that empty into the Bay of Biscay are Loire, Garonne, Adour, Bidasoa, Urumea, Urola, Artibai, Oka, Nervión, Agüera, Asón, Pas, Nansa, Sella, Nalón, Esva, Eo, Landro and Sor. In late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometers inland; as winter begins, weather becomes severe. Depressions enter from the west frequently and they either bounce north to the British Isles or they enter the Ebro Valley, dry out, are reborn in the form of powerful thunderstorms as they reach the Mediterranean Sea; these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though constant rain to its shores. Sometimes powerful windstorms form if the pressure falls traveling along the Gulf Stream at great speed, resembling a hurricane, crashing in this bay with their maximum power, such as the Klaus storm.
The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelf's border anti-clockwise, keeping temperatures moderate all year long. The main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Biarritz, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Santander, Gijón and Avilés; the southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish "Mar Cantábrico", from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river, but this name is not used in English. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and Mare Gallaecum. On some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos; the Bay of Biscay has been the site of many famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay; the Biscay campaign of June 1795 consisted of a series of manoeuvres and two battles fought between the British Channel Fleet and the French Atlantic Fleet off the southern coast of Brittany during the second year of the French Revolutionary Wars.
USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on 22 June 1918. In 1920 SS Afrique sank after losing power and drifting into a reef in a storm with the loss of 575 lives. On 28 December 1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46 ° 00 ′ N 01 ° 30 ′ W. All hands were lost. On 12 April 1970, Soviet submarine K-8 sank in the Bay of Biscay due to a fire that crippled the submarine's nuclear reactors. An attempt to save the sub failed, resulting in the death of forty sailors and the loss of four nuclear torpedoes. Due to the great depth, no salvage operation was attempted; the car ferries from Gijón to Nantes/Saint-Nazaire, Portsmouth to Bilbao and from Plymouth and Poole to Santander provide one of the most convenient ways to see cetaceans in European waters. Specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information. Volunteers and employees of ORCA observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on Brittany Ferries' Portsmouth to Santander route.
Many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most it is one of the few places in the world where the beaked whales, such as the Cuvier's beaked whale, have been observed frequently. Biscay Dolphin Research monitored cetacean activity from the P&O Ferries cruiseferry Pride of Bilbao, on voyages from Portsmouth to Bilbao. North Atlantic Right Whales, one of the most endangered whales, once came to the bay for feeding and for calving as well, but whaling activities by Basque people wiped them out sometime prior to 1850s; the eastern population of this species are considered to be extinct, a
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is the largest administrative region in France, located in the southwest of the country. The region was created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014 through the merger of three regions: Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes, it covers 84,061 km2 – or 1⁄8 of the country – and has 5,800,000 inhabitants.. The new region was established on 1 January 2016, following the regional elections in December 2015, it is the largest region in France by area, with a territory larger than that of Austria. Its largest city, together with its suburbs and satellite cities, forms the 7th-largest metropolitan area of France, with 850,000 inhabitants; the region has 25 major urban areas, among which the most important after Bordeaux are Bayonne, Poitiers, La Rochelle, as well as 11 major clusters. The growth of its population marked on the coast, makes this one of the most attractive areas economically in France. After Île-de-France, New Aquitaine is the premier French region in research and innovation, with five universities and several Grandes Ecoles.
The agricultural region of Europe with the greatest turnover, it is the French region with the most tourism jobs, as it has three of the four historic resorts on the French Atlantic coast:, as well as several ski resorts, is the fifth French region for business creation. Its economy is based on agriculture and viticulture, tourism, a powerful aerospace industry, digital economy and design and pharmaceutical industries, financial sector, industrial ceramics. Many companies specializing in surfing and related sports have located along the coast; the new region includes major parts of Southern France, marked by Basque, Oïl cultures. It is the "indirect successor" to medieval Aquitaine, extends over a large part of the former Duchy of Eleanor of Aquitaine; the region's interim name Aquitaine-Limousin-Poitou-Charentes was a hyphenated placename, known as ALPC, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names – Aquitaine and Poitou-Charentes – in alphabetical order. In June 2016, a working group headed by historian Anne-Marie Cocula, a former vice president of Aquitaine, proposed the name "Nouvelle Aquitaine".
The decision came after the popular favorite, "Aquitaine", faced resistance by regional politicians from Limousin and Poitou-Charentes. The other popular favorite, "Grande Aquitaine," was rejected for its connotation with a feeling of superiority. Alain Rousset, president of the region, concurred with the working group's conclusion, reaffirming that he considered the acronym "ALPC" no choice at all. For those deploring the loss of "Limousin" and "Poitou-Charentes", he noted that the predecessor region of Aquitaine subsumed the identities of the Périgord or the Pays Basque, which did not disappear during its 40 years of operation. On 27 June 2016, just a few days ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council unanimously adopted Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the region's permanent name. France's Conseil d'État approved Nouvelle-Aquitaine as the new name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective two days later. For the recent history of each former administrative regions and departments before 2016, For the history of past entities covering much of the area of the region before the French revolution, At 84,061 square kilometers, the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine is larger than French Guiana, which makes it the largest region in France.
Nouvelle-Aquitaine is delimited by four other French regions, three autonomous communities in Spain to the south, the North Atlantic Ocean to the west. Nouvelle-Aquitaine comprises twelve departments: Charente, Charente-Maritime, Corrèze, Dordogne, Landes, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques, Deux-Sèvres and Haute-Vienne, its largest city and only metropolis is Bordeaux, in the heart of an urban agglomeration of nearly one million inhabitants. Taking into consideration the urban area, the new region is home to six of the fifty largest metropolitan areas of French territory: Bordeaux Bayonne Limoges Poitiers Pau La Rochelle. In addition, the region has a network of medium towns scattered throughout its territory, including: Angoulême Agen Brive-la-Gaillarde Niort Périgueux Bergerac Villeneuve-sur-Lot Dax Mont-de-Marsan The region covers a large part of the Aquitaine Basin and a small portion of the Paris Basin and the Limousin plate and the western part of the Pyrenees, it is part of five watersheds facing the Atlantic Ocean: Loire, Charente and Dordogne (and their extension, the
The Ardanabia is a left tributary of the Adour, in the French Basque Country, in Aquitaine, Southwest France. The Ardanabia rises in the moors of Hasparren, flows north meandering between Mouguerre and Briscous and joins the Adour below Urcuit; the name Ardanabia proceeds from ardan-habia, that can be analyzed as'river course in vineyards'. Pyrénées-Atlantiques: Hasparren, Briscous, Urcuit. Angeluko Erreka Ur Handia http://www.geoportail.fr The Ardanabia/Ardanavy at the Sandre database
Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour
The Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour is a two-shaft low bypass turbofan aircraft engine developed by Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Limited, a joint venture between Rolls-Royce and Turbomeca. The engine is named after a river in south western France; the Adour is a turbofan engine developed to power the Anglo-French SEPECAT Jaguar fighter-bomber, achieving its first successful test run in 1968. It is produced in versions without reheat; as of July 2009 more than 2,800 Adours have been produced, for over 20 different armed forces with total flying hours reaching 8 million in December 2009. The U. S. military designation for this engine is the F405-RR-401, used to power the fleet of Boeing / BAE Systems T-45 Goshawk trainer jets of the United States Navy. Bench engines Ten prototype engines were built for testing by both Turbomeca. Flight development engines Development engines for 25 built. Adour Mk 101 - First production variant for the Jaguar, 40 built. Adour Mk 102 - Second production variant with the addition of part-throttle reheat.
Adour Mk 104 - Much more powerful version available in early'80s, with higher operating temperature, capable of about 5,500 kgf dry and 8,000 lb with max A/B. While it was only marginal better in military thrust at take off, this engine improved the Jaguar low power-to weight ratio and gave much better performances, with 10% more thrust at take off, up to 27% more thrust in high subsonic cruise, helping Jaguar in their typical flight envelope. Adour Mk 106 - Replacement for the Jaguar's Mk104 engine with a reheat section; the RAF refitted its fleet with this engine as part of the GR3 upgrade. In May 2007, following the retirement of the last 16 Jaguars from No. 6 Squadron RAF, based at RAF Coningsby, the Adour 106 has been phased out of RAF service. Adour Mk 801 - For Mitsubishi F-1 & T-2 TF40-IHI-801A - Licence-built version of Mk 801 by Ishikawajima-Harima for Mitsubishi F-1 & T-2 Adour Mk 804 - Licence-built by HAL for Indian Air Force phase 2 Jaguars Adour Mk 811 - Licence-built by HAL for Indian Air Force phase 3 to 6 Jaguars.
BAe-built Jaguars were powered with two Adour 804E turbofans. Adour Mk 821 - Engine upgrade of Mk804 and Mk811 engines, was under development for the Indian Air Force Jaguar aircraft. Adour Mk 151-01 Used by the Royal Air Force training aircraft fleet Adour Mk 151-02 - Used by the Red Arrows Adour Mk 851 Adour Mk 861 Adour Mk 871 - Used by Hawk 200 F405-RR-401 - Similar configuration to Mk 871, for US Navy T-45 Goshawk. Adour Mk 951 - Designed for the latest versions of the BAE Hawk and powering the BAE Taranis and Dassault nEUROn UCAV technology demonstrators; the Adour Mk 951 is a more fundamental redesign than the Adour Mk 106, with improved performance and up to twice the service life of the 871. It features an all-new fan and combustor, revised HP and LP turbines, introduces Full Authority Digital Engine Control; the Mk 951 was certified in 2005. F405-RR-402 - Upgrade of F405-RR-401, incorporating Mk 951 technology, certified 2008. Did not enter into service due to funding issues. A high-bypass engine built around the core of the Adour and intended as a Spey replacement was developed by Rolls-Royce in 1967 as the Rolls-Royce RB.203 Trent.
Aermacchi MB-338 BAE Hawk BAE Taranis Dassault nEUROn McDonnell Douglas T-45 Goshawk SEPECAT Jaguar Ishikawajima-Harima TF40-IHI-801AMitsubishi F-1 Mitsubishi T-2 Data from Rolls-Royce Type: Turbofan Length: 114 inches Diameter: 22.3 inches Dry weight: 1,784 lb Compressor: 2-stage LP, 5-stage HP Turbine: 1-stage LP, 1-stage HP Maximum thrust: 6,000 lb dry / 8,430 lb with reheat Overall pressure ratio: 10.4 Bypass ratio: 0.75-0.8 Fuel consumption: dry 0.81 lb/ Thrust-to-weight ratio: 4.725:1 Related lists List of aircraft engines Notes Bibliography RAF Jaguar Specs F405 Adour engine
Dax is a commune in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France, sub-prefecture of the Landes department. It is known as a spa, it is a market town, former bishopric and busy local centre for the Chalosse area. It was first established by the Romans, its reputation is supposed to date from a visit by Julia, the daughter of the first Emperor Octavian Augustus, its Roman name was Civitas Aquensium. In the Middle Ages, it was administered by viscounts until 1177. With the acquisition of Aquitaine by Henry II Plantagenet King of England, Dax remained under English rule until 1451, when it was conquered by French troops before the end of the Hundred Years' War, it withstood a Spanish siege in 1521-1522. Roman archaeological crypt, including the foundations of a Roman temple from the second century AD.97 Remains of the Gallic-Roman walls Cathedral of Notre-Dame Ste-Marie97 Church of Saint-Vincent-de-Xaintes.97 Fontaine Chaude.97 Logroño, Spain Maurice Boyau, ace of the First World War who spent most of his life in Dax Jean-Charles de Borda, mathematician Vincent de Paul, theologian born in a village near Dax Victor Denain and politician Roger Ducos, politician born in Dax Patrick Edlinger, rock climber Brigitte Lovisa Fouché, painter Laurent Fressinet, chess player Raphaël Ibañez, rugby player Christophe Lamaison, rugby player Émile Magne, art historian and literary critic Diocese of Dax Guiraude de Dax US Dax, a French rugby union club based in Dax.
Dacquoise INSEE statistics Official website Dax Cathedral Dax Cathedral
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
A scow is a flat-bottomed type of sailboat. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, scows were used to carry cargo in coastal waters and inland waterways, having the advantage when navigating shallow water or serving small harbours. Scows were in common use in the American Great Lakes and other parts of the U. S. in southern England, in New Zealand. In modern times their main purpose is for racing. Sailing scows have significant advantages over the traditional deep keel sailing vessels that were common at the time the sailing scow was popular. Keelboats, while stable and capable in open water, were incapable of sailing into shallow bays and rivers, which meant that to ship cargo on a keelboat required a suitable harbour and docking facilities, else the cargo had to be loaded and unloaded with smaller boats. Flat bottomed scows, on the other hand, could navigate shallow waters, could be beached for loading and unloading; the cost of this shallow water advantage was the loss of the seaworthiness of flat bottomed scow boats in open water and bad weather.
The squared off shape and simple lines of a scow make it a popular choice for simple home-built boats made from plywood. Phil Bolger and Jim Michalak, for example, have designed a number of small sailing scows, the PD Racer and the John Spencer designed Firebug are growing classes of home-built sailing scow; these designs are created to minimize waste when using standard 4-foot by 8-foot sheets of plywood. The scow hull is the basis for the Shantyboat or, on the Chesapeake, the Ark, a cabin houseboat once common on American rivers; the ark was used as portable housing by Chesapeake watermen, who followed, for example, shad runs seasonally. The Thames sailing barge and the Norfolk wherry are two British equivalents to the scow schooner; the Thames sailing barges, while used for similar tasks, used different hull shapes and rigging. The term scow is used around the west Solent for a traditional class of sailing dinghy. Various towns and villages claim their own variants, they are all around 11 feet in length and share a lug sail, pivoting centre board, small foredeck and a square transom with a transom hung rudder.
An American design that reached its zenith of size on the American Great Lakes, used in New Zealand, the schooner rigged scow was used for coastal and inland transport, colonial days to the early 1900s. Scow schooners had a broad, shallow hull, used centreboards, bilgeboards or leeboards rather than a deep keel; the broad hull gave them stability, the retractable foils allowed them to move heavy loads of cargo in waters far too shallow for keelboats to enter. The squared off bow and stern allowed the maximum amount of cargo to be carried in the hull; the smallest sailing scows were otherwise similar in design. The scow sloop evolved into the inland lake scow, a type of fast racing boat. Sailing scows were popular in the American South for economic reasons, because the pine planks found there were difficult to bend, because inlets along the Gulf Coast and Florida were very shallow; the American scow design was copied and modified in New Zealand by early immigrant settlers to Auckland in the 1870s.
In 1873, a sea captain by the name of George Spencer, who had once lived and worked on the American Great Lakes and had gained a first-hand knowledge of the practical working capabilities of the sailing barges that plied their trade on the lakes, recognised the potential use of similar craft in the protected waters of the Hauraki Gulf, Auckland. He commissioned a local shipbuilder, Septimus Meiklejohn, to construct a small flat-bottomed sailing barge named the Lake Erie, built at Omaha, not far from Mahurangi. An account of the launching of this vessel appeared in 1873 in the Auckland newspaper, The Daily Southern Cross, which gave its readers a good idea of the distinctive construction and advantages over other vessels; the Lake Erie was 60 feet 6 inches in length, seventeen feet 3 inches in breadth and had a draught of three feet 4 inches. It was fitted with lee boards, but these were found to be impracticable in rough weather on the New Zealand coast, so that scows were designed and constructed with the much safer slab sided centre board, raised and lowered as and when required.
This one small craft spawned a fleet of sailing scows that were to become forever associated with the gum trade and the flax and kauri industries of northern New Zealand. Scows came in all manner of shape and sizes and all manner of sailing rigs, but the "true" sailing scow displayed no fine lines or fancy rigging, they were designed for hard work and heavy haulage and they did their job remarkably well. They took cattle north from the stockyards of Auckland and returned with a cargo of kauri logs, sacks of kauri gum, firewood, flax or sand. With their flat bottoms they could be sailed or poled much further up the many tributaries and rivers where the bushmen and bullock teams had the freshly sawn kauri logs amassed, thereby saving a great deal of time and energy on the part of the bushmen; the flat-bottomed scows were capable of coming right up on to the beach and grounding over the side went duckboards and banjo shovels. The crew would fill the vessel with a cargo of sand, racing against the turn of the tide, when the tide did turn, back onboard would go the equipment and the ship would float off and put to sea.
Of course an inexperie