Adrenaline known as epinephrine, is a hormone and medication. Adrenaline is produced by both the adrenal glands and a small number of neurons in the medulla oblongata, where it acts as a neurotransmitter involved in regulating visceral functions, it plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles, output of the heart, pupil dilation response and blood sugar level. It does this by binding to beta receptors, it is found in some single-celled organisms. Polish physiologist Napoleon Cybulski first isolated epinephrine in 1895; as a medication, it is used to treat a number of conditions including anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, superficial bleeding. Inhaled adrenaline may be used to improve the symptoms of croup, it may be used for asthma when other treatments are not effective. It is given intravenously, by injection into a muscle, by inhalation, or by injection just under the skin. Common side effects include shakiness and sweating. A fast heart rate and high blood pressure may occur.
It may result in an abnormal heart rhythm. While the safety of its use during pregnancy and breastfeeding is unclear, the benefits to the mother must be taken into account. A case has been made for the use of adrenaline infusion in place of the accepted treatment of inotropes for preterm infants with clinical cardiovascular compromise. Although there is sufficient data which recommends Adrenaline infusions as a viable treatment, more trials are needed in order to conclusively determine that these infusions will reduce morbidity and mortality rates among preterm, cardiovascularly compromised infants; the adrenal medulla is a minor contributor to total circulating catecholamines, though it contributes over 90% of circulating adrenaline. Little adrenaline is found in other tissues in scattered chromaffin cells. Following adrenalectomy, adrenaline disappears below the detection limit in the blood stream; the adrenal glands contribute about 7% of circulating noradrenaline, most of, a spill over from neurotransmission with little activity as a hormone.
Pharmacological doses of adrenaline stimulate α1, α2, β1, β2, β3 adrenoceptors of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic nerve receptors are classified as adrenergic, based on their responsiveness to adrenaline; the term "adrenergic" is misinterpreted in that the main sympathetic neurotransmitter is noradrenaline, rather than adrenaline, as discovered by Ulf von Euler in 1946. Adrenaline does have a β2 adrenoceptor-mediated effect on metabolism and the airway, there being no direct neural connection from the sympathetic ganglia to the airway; the concept of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic nervous system being involved in the flight and fright response was proposed by Cannon. But the adrenal medulla, in contrast to the adrenal cortex, is not required for survival. In adrenalectomized patients hemodynamic and metabolic responses to stimuli such as hypoglycemia and exercise remain normal. One physiological stimulus to adrenaline secretion is exercise; this was first demonstrated using the denervated pupil of a cat as an assay confirmed using a biological assay on urine samples.
Biochemical methods for measuring catecholamines in plasma were published from 1950 onwards. Although much valuable work has been published using fluorimetric assays to measure total catecholamine concentrations, the method is too non-specific and insensitive to determine the small quantities of adrenaline in plasma; the development of extraction methods and enzyme-isotope derivate radio-enzymatic assays transformed the analysis down to a sensitivity of 1 pg for adrenaline. Early REA plasma assays indicated that adrenaline and total catecholamines rise late in exercise when anaerobic metabolism commences. During exercise the adrenaline blood concentration rises from increased secretion from the adrenal medulla and from decreased metabolism because of reduced hepatic blood flow. Infusion of adrenaline to reproduce exercise circulating concentrations of adrenaline in subjects at rest has little haemodynamic effect, other than a small β2-mediated fall in diastolic blood pressure. Infusion of adrenaline well within the physiological range suppresses human airway hyper-reactivity sufficiently to antagonize the constrictor effects of inhaled histamine.
A link between what we now know as the sympathetic system and the lung was shown in 1887 when Grossman showed that stimulation of cardiac accelerator nerves reversed muscarine-induced airway constriction. In experiments in the dog, where the sympathetic chain was cut at the level of the diaphragm, Jackson showed that there was no direct sympathetic innervation to the lung, but that bronchoconstriction was reversed by release of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. An increased incidence of asthma has not been reported for adrenalectomized patients. Exercise induces progressive airway dilation in normal subjects that correlates with work load and is not prevented by beta blockade; the progressive dilation of the airway with increasing exercise is mediated by a progressive reduction in resting vagal tone. Beta blockade with propranolol causes a rebound in airway resistance after exercise in normal subjects over the same time course as the bronchoconstriction seen with exercise induced asthma.
The reduction in airway resistance during exercise reduces the work of breathing. Every emotional response has a behavioral component, an autonomic component, a hormonal component; the hormonal component includes
William of Sainte-Mère-Église was a medieval Bishop of London. William's family originated from Sainte-Mère-Église, in the Cotentin Peninsula, he held the prebend of'Ealdstreet' in the diocese of London as well as being dean of St Martin le Grand in London, he held a prebend in the diocese of York. In 1193, along with the bishop of Salisbury Hubert Walter, found King Richard I of England where he was being held captive at Ochsenfurt in Germany, he was named the clerk of the exchequer, responsible for overseeing the Jewish moneylenders, worked in Walter's new system of supervision to reduce fraud. William was elected to the see of London on 16 September 1198 and consecrated on 23 May 1199, he retired to the Augustinian priory of St Osyth's. He died on 27 March 1224
The German Knight's Cross was an award of the German Freikorps which existed after the close of the First World War. The award was designed by Captain Alfred von Randow. Known alternatively as the "Randow Cross", the decoration was issued to members of the Free Corps formation "Volunteer Detachment von Randow", raised in January 1919 for security in the Baltic region. There were two classes of the German Knight's Cross, the first being the standard German Knight’s Cross as well as a Silver Breast Star. In May 1919, two additional degrees were created: the Golden Breast Star as well as the Grand Cross of the German Knight’s Cross; the original German Knight's Cross was divided into two separate classes, creating the following series of degrees. German Knight's Cross – black ribbon with clasp German Knight's Cross – tunic medal Silver Breast Star of the German Knight's Cross – star medal on tunic pocket Golden Breast Star of the German Knight's Cross – star medal on tunic pocket Grand Cross of the German Knight's Cross – worn as a neck decorationAll classes could be worn with or without swords to denote combat-related Freikorps actions.
The German Knight's Cross was issued between 1919 and 1923 with sporadic presentations until 1928. The decoration was declared obsolete and unauthorized for wear by the Nazi Party in 1933. Recipients were thereafter eligible for the Honor Cross of the World War. Knight's Cross description
Wehrheim station is the station of Wehrheim in the German state of Hesse. It is located on the Taunus Railway and the station building is heritage-listed Stations of a standard type were built in Köppern and Wehrheim for the Taunus Railway, opened on 15 October 1895; the Wehrheim station building at line-kilometre 9.2 is the only one of these buildings, preserved. It is an elongated brick building, consisting of the ticket hall, a dispatcher’s room connecting to the track and a goods shed; the building has been changed by the raising of the flat roof and the plaster has been changed compared to its original state. While the station was built on a green field, both sides of the station are now surrounded by buildings; the first stationmaster was Wilhelm Ernst. Boom barriers were installed in 1904 on the former Usingen–Bad Homburg district road after an accident had occurred a few years earlier: a wagon had tried to cross the tracks in front of a train; this failed and the driver and horse died.
There was an accident on Obernhainer Weg on the other side of the station on 28 June 1915: a cow-hauled wagon of the farmer Ludwig Bender was hit by a train and a cow died. This level crossing was provided with flashing lights and with half barriers in 1992. After the Dahlerau train disaster, extension signals were retrofitted in Wehrheim and on many branch lines at the end of the 1970s; the entrance signals in Wehrheim were replaced with branch-line colour light signals. The single-track Taunus Railway has two platform tracks in the station; the trains of the Taunus Railway operate every half hour on weekdays, otherwise hourly. The tracks are used—even when there is no other train crossing—in directional mode: track 1 for trains to Usingen and track 2 for trains to Bad Homburg, although some non-crossing trains to Bad Homburg use track 1 because among other things it is more accessible for students; the neighbouring stations are at Saalburg. Rowedder, Eva. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen. Hochtaunuskreis.
Darmstadt: Konrad Theiss Verlag. ISBN 978-3-8062-2905-9. Koppenhöfer, Johanna. Wehrheim-Wirena – Die Chronik. Pp. 227–232. ISBN 978-3-00-028403-8. Schomann, Heinz. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen. Eisenbahnbauten und -strecken 1839–1939. Darmstadt: Konrad Theiss Verlag. P. 734. ISBN 3-8062-1917-6
Andrea Stolowitz is an American playwright and university professor based in Portland, Oregon. She serves as the Ronni Lacroute Playwright in Residence at Artists Repertory Theatre, a five-year post begun in 2017, her work has been produced nationally and internationally and she is a three time award winner of the Oregon Book Award for Drama. In addition to her post with Artists Repertory Theatre, Stolowitz has been a longtime member of the writing collective Playwrights West, is an affiliated artist with English Theatre Berlin/International Performing Arts Center, core member with The Playwrights Center, has been named a member of the New Dramatists class of 2024. An MFA playwriting alumna of UC-San Diego, Stolowitz has taught at Willamette University, the University of Portland, Duke University. In addition to critical reception, since 2009 Stolowitz has been the recipient of numerous artist and development grants from the North Carolina State Arts, the Sustainable Arts Foundation, the Oregon Arts Commission, the Regional Arts and Culture Council.
2019 Oregon Book Award for Successful Strategies 2019 Women’s Film, TV and Theatre Award with Portia Krieger 2015 Oregon Book Award for Ithaka 2014 DAAD Faculty Research Fellowship 2013 Oregon Book Award for Antarktikos 2013 Sitka Center for Arts and Ecology Fellowship 2012 Lorraine Hansberry Fellowship & Hedgebrook Writers Residency 2012 Literary Arts Drama Fellowship 2011 Fowler/Levin New Play Prize 2010 Soapstone Writers Award 2006 Ledig House International Writers’ Colony Fellowship 2005 Walter E. Dakin Playwriting Fellowship, Sewanee Writers' Conference Antarktikos Berlin Diary Ithaka Knowing Cairo Recent Unsettling Events Successful Strategies Tales of Doomed Love Pep Talk Psychic Utopia Time, A Fair Hustler So I Was Driving Along Artists Repertory Theatre profile New Play Exchange profile Playwrights West profile
Sao Kya Seng or Sao Kya Hseng was a politician, a mining engineer, an agriculturalist and the last saopha of Hsipaw State, from 1947 to 1959. He studied mining engineering at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, United States, from 1949 to 1953, he graduated with a BSc degree in 1953 and married. His bride, Sao Nang Thu Sandi or Inge Eberhard, a German-speaking Austrian student who had received a Fulbright Scholarship in 1951, was studying at Colorado Women's College, a constituent college of University of Denver. In 1954, he returned to Burma with her, they had two daughters and Kennari. After arrival, they were crowned as saopha and mahadevi although Sao Kya Seng had received this title since 1947, he abdicated in 1959. He served as a member of the Chamber of Nationalities from 1954 to 1962, upper house of Burma from 1948 to 1962, member for Shan State Council and secretary for the Association of Shan Princes from 1954 to 1962, representing Hsipaw constituency, Shan State, he was arrested in 1962 after General Ne Win's 1962 Burmese coup d'état.
Sao Kya Seng was last seen being taken into custody at an army checkpoint near Taunggyi. Sao Kya Seng was considered by the Shan people as one of the Shan national leaders who promoted federalism and democracy, together with Sao Shwe Thaik and Sao Hkun Hkio, his nephew, Khun Htun Oo, son of his elder brother Sao Kyar Zon, served as president of Shan National League for Democracy, a major political party representing Shan people. Sao Kya Seng's wife, wrote a book, Twilight Over Burma: My Life as a Shan Princess, in 1994 about her marriage and life in Burma; the book became the film, Twilight Over Burma, in 2015. The film was banned in both Thailand. Thailand Joins Myanmar in Banning Movie