Dutch Reformed Church
The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. The allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world and it developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations, a minority of members of the Church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. The Reformation was a time of violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments. The first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden, the Synod of Emden is generally considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands.
The Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church, the first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618, large groups of Marranos settled in Emden and converted to Christianity. Mostly all Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church, in the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions. The Canons of Dort, together with the previously adopted Belgic Confession, most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents. The government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians expulsion, no Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795.
Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of public or privileged church, though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member. Consequently, the Church had close relations with the Dutch government, a privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business. The 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led primarily by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, in the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues. He and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church, in time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church.
In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper. The Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, the rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s dramatically reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church
In particular, freethought is strongly tied with rejection of traditional religious belief. The cognitive application of freethought is known as freethinking, and practitioners of freethought are known as freethinkers, the term first came into use in the 17th century in order to indicate people who inquired into the basis of traditional religious beliefs. Freethinkers hold that knowledge should be grounded in facts, scientific inquiry, the skeptical application of science implies freedom from the intellectually limiting effects of confirmation bias, cognitive bias, conventional wisdom, popular culture, prejudice, or sectarianism. The essay became a cry for freethinkers when published in the 1870s. Clifford was himself an organizer of freethought gatherings, the force behind the Congress of Liberal Thinkers held in 1878. Regarding religion, freethinkers hold that there is insufficient evidence to support the existence of supernatural phenomena. According to the Freedom from Religion Foundation, No one can be a freethinker who demands conformity to a bible, creed, to the freethinker and faith are invalid, and orthodoxy is no guarantee of truth.
And Freethinkers are convinced that religious claims have not withstood the tests of reason, not only is there nothing to be gained by believing an untruth, but there is everything to lose when we sacrifice the indispensable tool of reason on the altar of superstition. Most freethinkers consider religion to be not only untrue, but harmful, philosopher Bertrand Russell wrote the following in his 1944 essay The Value of Free Thought, What makes a freethinker is not his beliefs but the way in which he holds them. To be worthy of the name, he must be free of two things, the force of tradition, and the tyranny of his own passions. No one is free from either, but in the measure of a mans emancipation he deserves to be called a free thinker. On the other hand, according to Bertrand Russell, atheists and/or agnostics are not necessarily freethinkers. As an example, he mentions Stalin, whom he compares to a pope, what I am concerned with is the doctrine of the modern Communistic Party, and of the Russian Government to which it owes allegiance.
In the 18th and 19th century, many regarded as freethinkers were deists. In the 18th century, deism was as much of a dirty word as atheism, deists today regard themselves as freethinkers, but are now arguably less prominent in the freethought movement than atheists. The pansy serves as the long-established and enduring symbol of freethought, the reasoning behind the pansy as the symbol of freethought lies both in the flowers name and in its appearance. The pansy derives its name from the French word pensée, which means thought and it allegedly received this name because the flower is perceived by some to bear resemblance to a human face, and in mid-to-late summer it nods forward as if deep in thought. In all their rule and strictest tie of their order there was but this one clause to be observed, Do What Thou Wilt, when Rabelaiss hero Pantagruel journeys to the Oracle of The Dive Bottle, he learns the lesson of life in one simple word, Trinch
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions. These are often described as stateless societies, although several authors have defined them more specifically as institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations, Anarchism holds the state to be undesirable and harmful. While anti-statism is central, anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of all relations, but not limited to. Anarchism does not offer a fixed body of doctrine from a particular world view. Many types and traditions of anarchism exist, not all of which are mutually exclusive, Anarchist schools of thought can differ fundamentally, supporting anything from extreme individualism to complete collectivism. Strains of anarchism have often divided into the categories of social. The term anarchism is a word composed from the word anarchy and the suffix -ism, themselves derived respectively from the Greek ἀναρχία, i. e. anarchy. The first known use of this word was in 1539, various factions within the French Revolution labelled opponents as anarchists although few shared many views of anarchists.
The first political philosopher to call himself an anarchist was Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, on the other hand, some use libertarianism to refer to individualistic free-market philosophy only, referring to free-market anarchism as libertarian anarchism. The earliest anarchist themes can be found in the 6th century BC, among the works of Taoist philosopher Laozi, zhuangzis philosophy has been described by various sources as anarchist. Zhuangzi wrote, A petty thief is put in jail, a great brigand becomes a ruler of a Nation. Diogenes of Sinope and the Cynics, their contemporary Zeno of Citium, Jesus is sometimes considered the first anarchist in the Christian anarchist tradition. Georges Lechartier wrote that The true founder of anarchy was Jesus Christ, the first anarchist society was that of the apostles. This is exemplified when the glorification of the state is viewed as a form of sinful idolatry, the French renaissance political philosopher Étienne de La Boétie wrote in his most famous work the Discourse on Voluntary Servitude what some historians consider an important anarchist precedent.
The radical Protestant Christian Gerrard Winstanley and his group the Diggers are cited by authors as proposing anarchist social measures in the 17th century in England. The term anarchist first entered the English language in 1642, during the English Civil War, as a term of abuse, used by Royalists against their Roundhead opponents. By the time of the French Revolution some, such as the Enragés, began to use the term positively, in opposition to Jacobin centralisation of power, by the turn of the 19th century, the English word anarchism had lost its initial negative connotation. Modern anarchism emerged from the secular or religious thought of the Enlightenment, as part of the political turmoil of the 1790s in the wake of the French Revolution, William Godwin developed the first expression of modern anarchist thought
The Rasphuis was a tuchthuis or prison in Amsterdam that was established in 1596 in the former Convent of the Poor Clares on the Heiligeweg. In 1815 it was closed, and in 1892 the building was demolished to make way for a swimming pool, on the site today is the Kalvertoren shopping centre. The Rasphuis was a prison for male criminals. Female criminals were sent to the Spinhuis, the detainees in the Rasphuis were made to shave wood from the brazilwood tree, rasping it into powder using an eight to twelve bladed rasp, hence the name. The Rasphuis was founded after the torture of 16-year-old assistant tailor Evert Jansz, Jansz confessed, as a result of the torture, to theft on two occasions from his boss. The usual punishment for this was public flogging, but the city decided to try to rehabilitate Jansz. Under the influence of Dirck Volkertszoon Coornhert and C. P, hooft the city decided, on 19 June 1589, to build a prison. Shortly after the opening, Jansz was sentenced to a beating and forced labour.
The founding of the Rasphuis signified a sea-change in Dutch correctional thinking, until it was universally believed that criminals needed to be punished. In the Rasphuis, the effort was made to instill a sense of order, the Rasphuis was thus intended as an institute for rehabilitation. Over the entrance gate, which still stands, is the inscription Wilde beesten moet men temmen or Wild beasts must be tamed, there is a persistent myth that the Rasphuis contained a water dungeon, the so-called Waterhuis. Geert Mak and other historians, point out there is no evidence whatsoever for the existence of this room. Within a few years, the Rasphuis began to be exploited as a source of cheap labour and more adults were incarcerated in the Rasphuis. A secret section was created where families could lock up uncontrollable or otherwise crazy relatives, at a fee, the Rasphuis could be visited, for example by families wishing to let their children see what would become of them if they were not well-behaved.
For a long time, the Rasphuis had a monopoly in parts of the Netherlands for the processing of Brazilwood, a mill was built in Zaandam in 1601 to process Brazilwood, but this mill worked under the control of the Rasphuis. Inspectors worked in the Zaanstreek to ensure that the monopoly was adhered to, the quality and delivery from the Rasphuis left much to be desired however and, over time, this monopoly was weakened due to increased competition from other sources. During the French occupation of the Netherlands the cities lost their right to impose monopolies, in 1815 the Rasphuis was closed. The inside of the Rasphuis was depicted in a sketch by van Toornenbergen in 1799, university of Pennsylvania Press, Oxford Press
Pantheism is the belief that all reality is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent god. Pantheists thus do not believe in a personal or anthropomorphic god. The term pantheism was not coined until after Spinozas death, and his work, was the major source from which Western pantheism spread. Pantheistic concepts may date back thousands of years, and some religions in the East continue to contain pantheistic elements, Pantheism derives from the Greek πᾶν pan and θεός theos. There are a variety of definitions of pantheism, some consider it a theological and philosophical position concerning God. As a religious position, some describe pantheism as the polar opposite of atheism, from this standpoint, pantheism is the view that everything is part of an all-encompassing, immanent God. All forms of reality may be considered either modes of that Being, some hold that pantheism is a non-religious philosophical position. To them, pantheism is the view that the Universe and God are identical, pantheistic tendencies existed in a number of early Gnostic groups, with pantheistic thought appearing throughout the Middle Ages.
These included a section of Johannes Scotus Eriugenas 9th-century work De divisione naturae, the Roman Catholic Church has long regarded pantheistic ideas as heresy. Giordano Bruno, an Italian monk who evangelized about an immanent and he has since become known as a celebrated pantheist and martyr of science. Bruno influenced many thinkers including Baruch Spinoza, in the West, pantheism was formalized as a separate theology and philosophy based on the work of the 17th-century philosopher Baruch Spinoza. Spinoza was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi Portuguese origin, whose book Ethics was an answer to Descartes famous dualist theory that the body, Spinoza held the monist view that the two are the same, and monism is a fundamental part of his philosophy. He was described as a God-intoxicated man, and used the word God to describe the unity of all substance, although the term pantheism was not coined until after his death, Spinoza is regarded as its most celebrated advocate. His work, was the source from which Western pantheism spread.
The breadth and importance of Spinozas work was not fully realized until years after his death. Spinozas magnum opus, the posthumous Ethics, in which he opposed Descartes mind–body dualism, has earned him recognition as one of Western philosophys most important thinkers, Hegel said, You are either a Spinozist or not a philosopher at all. His philosophical accomplishments and moral character prompted 20th-century philosopher Gilles Deleuze to name him the prince of philosophers, Spinoza was raised in the Portuguese Jewish community in Amsterdam. He developed highly controversial ideas regarding the authenticity of the Hebrew Bible, the Jewish religious authorities issued a cherem against him, effectively excluding him from Jewish society at age 23
Culemborg is a municipality and a city in the centre of the Netherlands. The city is situated just south of the Lek River, the cities of Utrecht and s-Hertogenbosch can be reached easily by train. It received city rights in 1318, in Joan Blaeus map of 1649, Culemborg remains entirely enclosed by walls behind its city moat-like encircling canals. The moated castle stands outside the city walls, houses present a united front along streets and the two canals that cut the city in three sections, but they all face gardens behind, and market gardens are plentiful within the city walls. In 1995, Culemborg was one of the cities which was evacuated because of the risk of flooding. Culemborg is served by Culemborg railway station, which trains to Utrecht 4x per hour and 2x per hour to Breda. The railway station provides a bus hub, offering buses to the various neighbouring cities and villages. Dutch topographic map of the municipality of Culemborg, June 2015 Dough processing company Rademaker BV, founded in 1977, moved to Culemborg in 1981, there are two traditional windmills in Culemborg, De Hoop and Johanna.
The base of a mill, De Koornvriend, survives
Leiden is a city and municipality in the Dutch province of South Holland. Leiden is located on the Oude Rijn, at a distance of some 20 kilometres from The Hague to its south, the recreational area of the Kaag Lakes lies just to the northeast of Leiden. A university city since 1575, Leiden houses Leiden University, the oldest university of the Netherlands, Leiden is a city with a rich cultural heritage, not only in science, but in the arts. One of the worlds most famous painters, was born, other famous Leiden painters include Lucas van Leyden, Jan van Goyen and Jan van Steen. The city has one of Europes most prominent scientific centres for more than four centuries. Modern scientific medical research and teaching started in the early 18th century in Leiden with Boerhaave, many important scientific discoveries have been made here, giving rise to Leiden’s motto, ‘City of Discoveries’. It is twinned with Oxford, the location of the United Kingdoms oldest university, Leiden University and Leiden University of Applied Sciences together have around 35,000 students.
Leiden is a university city, university buildings are scattered throughout the city. Leiden was formed on a hill at the confluence of the rivers Oude. In the oldest reference to this, from circa 860, the settlement was called Leithon, the name is said to be from Germanic *leitha- canal. Leiden has in the past erroneously been associated with the Roman outpost Lugdunum Batavorum and this particular castellum was thought to be located at the Burcht of Leiden, and the citys name was thought to be derived of the Latin name Lugdunum. However the castellum was in closer to the town of Katwijk. The landlord of Leiden, situated in a stronghold on the hill, was subject to the Bishop of Utrecht. This county got its name in 1101 from a domain near the stronghold, Leiden was sacked in 1047 by Emperor Henry III. Early 13th century, Countess of Holland took refuge here when she was fighting in a war against her uncle, William I. He besieged the stronghold and captured Ada, Leiden received city rights in 1266.
In 1389, its population had grown to about 4,000 persons, burgrave Filips of Wassenaar and the other local noblemen of the Hook faction assumed that the duke would besiege Leiden first and send small units out to conquer the surrounding citadels. But John of Bavaria chose to attack the citadels first and he rolled the cannons with his army but one which was too heavy went by ship
NRC Handelsblad, often abbreviated to NRC, is a daily evening newspaper published in the Netherlands by NRC Media. NRC Handelsblad was first published on 1 October 1970 after a merger of the Amsterdam newspaper Algemeen Handelsblad, the papers motto is Lux et Libertas – Light and Freedom. In February 2006, NRC Handelsblad started a newspaper, nrc•next. Editor Folkert Jensma was succeeded on 12 December 2006, by Birgit Donker, after a dispute with the new owners Donker had to step down on 26 April 2010 and was replaced by Belgian Peter Vandermeersch. On 7 March 2011 the paper changed its format from broadsheet to tabloid, the circulation of NRC Handelsblad in 2014 was 188,500 copies, putting it in 4th place among the national dailies. In 2015 the NRC Media group was acquired by the Belgian company Mediahuis
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format