Ivana Marie "Ivanka" Trump is an American businesswoman, fashion designer, reality television personality, politician. She is the daughter of Donald's first wife Ivana, she is the first Jewish member of a First Family, having converted before marrying her Jewish husband, Jared Kushner. Trump is a fourth generation businessperson who followed in the footsteps of her great-grandmother Elizabeth, grandfather Fred, father, serving for a time as an executive vice president of the family-owned Trump Organization, she was a boardroom judge on her father's TV show The Apprentice. Starting in March 2017, she left the Trump Organization and began serving in her father's presidential administration as an adviser alongside her husband, she assumed this official, unpaid position after ethics concerns were raised about her having access to classified material while not being held to the same restrictions as a federal employee. She was considered part of the president's inner circle before becoming an official employee in his administration.
Ivana Marie Trump was born in Manhattan, New York City, is the second child of Czech-American model Ivana and Donald Trump, who in 2017 became the 45th president of the United States. Her father has German and Scottish ancestry and her mother has Czech and Austrian ancestry. For most of her life, she has been nicknamed "Ivanka," a diminutive form of Ivana. Trump's parents divorced in 1992 when she was ten years old, she has two brothers, Donald Jr. and Eric, a half-sister, a half-brother, Barron. Trump attended the Chapin School in Manhattan until she was 15, when she transferred to Choate Rosemary Hall in Wallingford, Connecticut, she characterized Choate's "boarding-school life" as being like a "prison", while her "friends in New York were having fun". After graduating from Choate, she attended Georgetown University for two years transferred to the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania, from which she graduated cum laude with a bachelor's degree in economics in 2004, her father had transferred to Wharton after two years at another institution.
Trump worked for Forest City Enterprises. In 2005, she joined the family business as Executive Vice President of Development & Acquisitions at The Trump Organization. In 2007, she formed a partnership with Dynamic Diamond Corp. the company of diamond vendor Moshe Lax, to create Ivanka Trump Fine Jewelry, a line of diamond and gold jewelry sold at her first flagship retail store in Manhattan. In November 2011, her retail flagship moved from Madison Avenue to 109 Mercer Street, a larger space in the fashionable Soho district. In December 2012, members of 100 Women in Hedge Funds elected Ivanka Trump to their board. On October 2, 2015, it was reported that "Ivanka Trump's flagship store on Mercer Street appear to be closed" and, noting that the shop had been "stripped clean". In October 2016, the only dedicated retail shop and flagship boutique for Ivanka Trump Fine Jewelry was located at Trump Tower in Manhattan, New York City, with her brand being available at Hudson's Bay and fine-jewelry stores throughout the U.
S. and Canada, as well as in Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates. She had her own line of Ivanka Trump fashion items, including clothes, handbags and accessories, available in major U. S. and Canadian department stores including Macy's and Hudson's Bay. Her brand was criticized for copying designs by other designers, by PETA and other animal rights activists for using fur from rabbits. In 2016, the U. S. Consumer Product Safety Commission recalled Ivanka Trump-branded scarves because they did not meet federal flammability standards. A 2016 analysis found that most of the fashion line was produced outside the U. S. Ivanka Trump-brand shoes have been supplied by Chengdu Kameido Shoes in Sichuan and Hangzhou HS Fashion in Zhejiang. In February 2017, department store chains Neiman Marcus and Nordstrom dropped Trump's fashion line, citing "poor performance."On February 9, 2017, Presidential Advisor Kellyanne Conway controversially encouraged Fox News viewers to purchase Trump's retail products.
In June 2017, three people with the organization called China Labor Watch were arrested by Chinese authorities while investigating Huajian International, which makes shoes for several American brands, including Ivanka Trump's brand. The Trump Administration called for their release. On July 24, 2018, Trump announced that she shut down her company after deciding to pursue a career in public policy instead of returning to her fashion business; when Trump was attending boarding school as a teenager, she got into modeling "on weekends and holidays and not during the school year," according to her mother, Ivana Trump. She was featured in print advertisements for Tommy Hilfiger and Sasson Jeans and walked fashion runways for Versace, Marc Bouwer and Thierry Mugler. In May 1997, she was featured on the cover of Seventeen which ran a story on "celeb moms & daughters". Trump joined the Trump Organization in an executive position. Soon after that, she started her jewelry and apparel lines, appeared in advertisements promoting the Trump Organization and her products.
She was featured in women's and special interest publications in "soft-hitting" profiles focusing on "looks and product lines" and was featured on the cover of some issues, such as Harper's Bazaar, Forbes Life, Golf Magazine, Town & Country, Vogue. She was featured on the cover of Stuff in August 2006 and again in September 2007. In 2006, Trump filled in for Carolyn Kepcher on five episodes of her father's television program The Apprentice 5, first appearing to help judge the Gillette task in week 2. Like Kepcher, Tru
Stein Mart is an American discount men and women's department store chain based in Jacksonville, Florida. The company reported a profit of $25.6 million in 2013 with operation of 260 stores in 29 states. Stein Mart has locations in the Southeast and California. Stein Mart stores carry recent trends in clothing for both women. Additionally, home décor and shoes are all available at discounted prices. Stein Mart was founded in 1908 by Sam Stein, a Russian Jewish immigrant who opened his first store in Greenville, Mississippi; the department store carried general merchandise until Stein's son, took over the company upon his death in 1932. It was that the store redirected its focus toward discounted clothing; the chain targeted customers who shopped department stores on a regular basis, inducing them to purchase goods by offering discounts of 25 to 60 percent off department store prices. By the late 1970s, Stein Mart had become a leading retailer of clothing for the family in the Mississippi Delta.
Under Jay Stein’s leadership, Stein Mart grew from three stores in 1977 to 40 stores in 1990, to 123 stores by the end of 1996. In determining the prime locations for new Stein Mart stores, management targeted cities with populations of 125,000 or more and relied on demographic research regarding income and occupation to help predict whether a community might support a discounter of designer merchandise. In 2002, Jay Stein stepped down but remained as chairman and the largest Stein Mart share holder to this day. John H. Williams Jr. served as vice chairman and chief executive officer of the company from September 2001 to February 2003 and still serves on the Stein Mart board. Michael D. Fisher held the position of president and chief executive officer of the company from 2003 to August 2007. At that time, Fisher resigned and Linda McFarland Farthing was appointed as president and chief executive officer of Stein Mart. Farthing had been a longtime Stein Mart board member and held the president and CEO position for one year.
Upon her resignation in 2008, David H. Stovall Jr. served as CEO until 2011. In September 2011, he announced his retirement, leaving Jay Stein to take over as the interim CEO. On April 25, 2014, Stein Mart announced that the Board of Directors had created the Office of the President, appointing D. Hunt Hawkins and Brian R. Morrow to share the office. Both reported to CEO Jay Stein. Hawkins had been with the company for 20 years, starting as Senior Vice President of Human Resources and COO since December 2011. Morrow joined Stein Mart as Chief Merchandising Officer in February 2010 after holding similar positions with Macy's North/Marshall, Mervyn's and Macy's West. On March 15, 2016, Stein Mart named Dawn Robertson as CEO. Robertson resigned as CEO in September 2016 at which time D. Hunt Hawkins was named Interim CEO; the company announced the appointment of MaryAnne Morin as President and "interim" was removed from the CEO title of D. Hunt Hawkins on January 26, 2017. In response to the downward trend of their stock price, the company announced plans to improve their financials by cutting 10% of their corporate staff, trimming inventory by 15%, slashing $22 million from the prior year's capital expenses, suspending the 4th quarter stock dividend.
On January 31, 2018, Stein Mart announced that it would explore strategic alternatives for the company. When Stein Mart's Director of Stores Gary Pierce requested early retirement on May 1, 2018, he agreed to remain with the company until the end of February 2019; the Form 8-K filed by Stein Mart stated that Executive Vice President Pierce would stay, “in order to provide for an orderly transition of his duties”. Stein Mart sells clothes for women and men as well as home décor and shoes. Stein Mart expanded their home department in Fall of 2010, now carries houseware and décor for the house; the Boutique portion of the store offers women special occasion clothing. The "Attitudes" section of the store carries clothing for women. For decades Stein Mart has leased its shoe department working with DSW, Inc. In addition, Stein Mart started working with Perfumania in 2010 to stock an assortment of fragrances. In October 2010, due to popular demand by Stein Mart shoppers, the retailer began offering limited online shopping with Ship from Store for shorter delivery times.
In 2003, Stein Mart introduced the "Real Shopper" campaign with support from Orlando-based advertising agency, Fry Hammond Barr. This multimedia advertising campaign features real Stein Mart shoppers chosen via casting calls held throughout the country; as part of the casting call, Stein Mart looks for loyal female customers to share their stories about why they enjoy being a Stein Mart shopper. Each season six to eight female shoppers are chosen to appear in the campaign and are featured in Stein Mart's Sisterhood book online. On April 7, 2005, The Women of Studio Arena Theatre sponsored a luncheon and fashion show in Transit Valley Country Club, fashions was shown by Stein Mart. Stein Mart Official website "Stein Mart." - Encyclopedia of Mississippi - University of Mississippi
Rolex SA is a Swiss luxury watch manufacturer based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded as Wilsdorf and Davis by Hans Wilsdorf and Alfred Davis in London, England in 1905, the company registered Rolex as the brand name of its watches in 1908 and became Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. in 1915. After World War I, the company moved its base of operations to Geneva, Switzerland in order to avoid heavy taxation from a recovering post-war Britain, in 1920 Hans Wilsdorf registered Montres Rolex SA in Geneva as the new company name which became Rolex SA in years. Since 1960, the company has been owned by a private family trust. Rolex SA and its subsidiary Montres Tudor SA design, manufacture and service wristwatches sold under the Rolex and Tudor brands. In 2018, Forbes ranked Rolex as the world's 71st most valuable brand; as of 2018, among the world's top ten most expensive watches sold at auctions, three are Rolex watches. In particular, Paul Newman's Rolex Daytona holds the title of the most expensive wristwatch and the second most expensive watch sold at auction, fetching 17.75 million US dollars in New York on October 26, 2017.
Alfred Davis and his brother-in-law Hans Wilsdorf founded Wilsdorf and Davis, the company that would become Rolex S. A. in London, England in 1905. Wilsdorf and Davis' main commercial activity at the time involved importing Hermann Aegler's Swiss movements to England and placing them in watch cases made by Dennison and others; these early wristwatches were sold to many jewellers, who put their own names on the dial. The earliest watches from Wilsdorf and Davis were hallmarked "W&D" inside the caseback. In 1908, Wilsdorf registered the trademark "Rolex", which became the brand name of watches from Wilsdorf and Davis, opened an office in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. Wilsdorf wanted his watch brand's name to be pronounceable in any language, he thought that the name "Rolex" was onomatopoeic, sounding like a watch being wound. It is pronounceable in many languages and, as all its upper-case letters have the same size and can be written symmetrically, it was short enough to fit on the face of a watch.
In 1914, Kew Observatory awarded a Rolex watch a Class A precision certificate, a distinction granted to marine chronometers. In November 1915, the company changed its name to Rolex Watch Co. Ltd. After World War I, Hans Wilsdorf left England in 1919 due to heavy post-war taxes levied on luxury imports, as well as to the high cost driven by exporting duties on the silver and gold used for the watch cases; as a result, Wilsdorf moved the company to Geneva, where the company's name was changed to Montres Rolex S. A. in 1920, to Rolex S. A in years. Upon the death of his wife in 1944, Wilsdorf established the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, a private trust, in which he left all of his Rolex shares, making sure that some of the company's income would go to charity. Wilsdorf passed away in 1960, since the trust has owned and run Rolex SA. In December 2008, following the abrupt departure of Chief Executive Patrick Heiniger for "personal reasons", Rolex SA denied that it had lost 1 billion Swiss francs invested with Bernard Madoff, the American asset manager who pleaded guilty to an £30 billion worldwide Ponzi scheme fraud.
The company announced Heiniger's death on March 5, 2013. Rolex SA is owned by the private Hans Wilsdorf Foundation, registered as a charity and does not pay corporate income taxes. In 2011, a spokesman for Rolex declined to provide evidence regarding the amount of charitable donations made by the Wilsdorf Foundation. In Geneva where the company is based, it is said to have gifted, among many things, two housing buildings to social institutions of Geneva. According to the 2017 Brand Z report, the brand value is estimated $8.053 billion. Rolex watches continue to have a reputation as status symbols, it produces more than 800,000 timepieces each year. Rolex SA offers products under the Tudor brands. Montres Tudor has designed and marketed Tudor watches since 6 March 1946. Rolex founder Hans Wilsdorf conceived of the Tudor Watch Company to create a product for authorized Rolex dealers to sell that offered the reliability and dependability of a Rolex, but at a lower price; the number of Rolex watches was limited by the rate that they could produce in-house Rolex movements, thus Tudor watches were equipped with off-the-shelf movements while using similar quality cases and bracelets.
Tudor watches have been manufactured by Montres Tudor SA using movements supplied by ETA SA. Since 2015, Tudor has begun to manufacture watches with in-house movements; the first model introduced with a in-house movement was the Tudor North Flag. Following this, updated versions of the Tudor Pelagos and Tudor Heritage Black Bay have been fitted with an in-house caliber. Tudor watches are marketed and sold in most countries around the world including the United States, Canada, Mexico, South Africa, some countries in Europe including the UK, South Asia, the Middle East and countries in South America Brazil and Venezuela. Montres Tudor SA discontinued sales of Tudor-branded watches in the United States in 2004, but Tudor returned to the United States market in the summer of 2013 and to the UK in 2014. One of Rolex's company slogans is "A Crown for Every Achievement". Rolex produced mechanical watches, but it has participated in the development of the original quartz watch movements. Although Rolex has made few quartz models for its Oyster line, the company's engineers were instrumental in design and implementation
Győr is the most important city of northwest Hungary, the capital of Győr-Moson-Sopron County and Western Transdanubia region, and—halfway between Budapest and Vienna—situated on one of the important roads of Central Europe. The city is the sixth-largest in Hungary, one of the seven main regional centres of the country; the area along the Danube River has been inhabited by varying cultures since ancient times. The first large settlement dates back to the 5th century BCE, they called the town Ara Bona "Good altar" contracted to Arrabona, a name, used until the eighth century. Its shortened form is still used as the Slovak names of the city. Roman merchants moved to Arrabona during the 1st century BCE. Around 10 CE, the Roman army occupied the northern part of Western Hungary, which they called Pannonia. Although the Roman Empire abandoned the area in the 4th century due to constant attacks by the tribes living to the east, the town remained inhabited. Around 500 the territory was settled by Slavs, in 547 by the Lombards, in 568–c.
800 by the Avars, at that time under Frankish and Slavic influence. During this time it was called Rabba and Raab. Between 880 and 894, it was part of Great Moravia, briefly under East Frankish dominance; the Magyars fortified the abandoned Roman fortress. Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, founded an episcopate there; the town received its Hungarian name Győr. The Hungarians lived in tents in cottages, in what is now the southeastern part of the city centre; the town was affected by all the trials and tribulations of the history of Hungary: it was occupied by Mongols during the Mongol invasion of Hungary and was destroyed by the Czech army in 1271. After the disastrous battle of Mohács, Baron Tamás Nádasdy and Count György Cseszneky occupied the town for King Ferdinand I while John Zápolya was attempting to annex it. During the Ottoman occupation of present-day central and eastern Hungary, Győr's commander Kristóf Lamberg thought it would be futile to try to defend the town from the Turkish army.
He burned down the town and the Turkish forces found nothing but blackened ruins, hence the Turkish name for Győr, Yanık kale. During rebuilding, the town was surrounded with a castle and a city wall designed by the leading Italian builders of the era; the town changed in character during these years, with many new buildings built in Renaissance style, but the main square and the grid of streets remained. In 1594, after the death of Count János Cseszneky, captain of Hungarian footsoldiers, the Ottoman army occupied the castle and the town. In 1598 the Hungarian and Austrian army occupied it. During the Turkish occupation the city was called Yanık Kala. In 1683, the Turks returned only to leave after being defeated in the Battle of Vienna. During the following centuries, the town became prosperous. In 1743 Győr was elevated to free royal town status by Maria Theresa; the religious orders of Jesuits and Carmelites settled there, building schools, churches, a hospital, a monastery. In June 14, 1809, during the War of the Fifth Coalition this was the site of the Battle of Győr, where the army of Eugène de Beauharnais defeated the Hungarian "noble insurrection" and an Austrian corps under the Archdukes Joseph and Johann.
Napoleon's forces had some of its walls blown up. The leaders of the town soon realized. Most of the ramparts were destroyed. In the mid-19th century, Győr's role in trade grew; the town lost its importance in trade when the railway line between Budapest and Kanizsa superseded river traffic after 1861. The town leaders compensated for this loss with industrialisation; the town prospered till World War II but, during the war, several buildings were destroyed. Some large-scale terror-bombings devastated the industrial and some residential areas and the airport, because the Rába factory was a main tank and aeroplane producer. One of these raids destroyed some parts of the maternity hospital; the 1950s and'60s brought more change: only big blocks of flats were built, the old historical buildings were not given care or attention. In the 1970s the reconstruction of the city centre began. In 1989 Győr won the European award for the protection of monuments. A 100-year-old Raba factory on the River Danube close to the historical centre is to be replaced by a new community called Városrét.
The mixed-use community will have residential and commercial space as well as schools and parks. The city's main theatre is the National Theatre of Győr, finished in 1978, it features large ceramic ornaments made by Victor Vasarely. The city has several historical buildings, for example the castle, the Lutheran Evangelic church; the ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába, Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops, can be recognized by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the 15th-century Gothic Dóczy Chapel; the Cathedral in Romanesque style, was rebuilt in Gothic and Baroque style. Other sights include: Town Hall Benedictine church of St. Ignatius of Loyola Carmelite church Museum of Roman ArchaeologyThe Pannonhalma Archabbey is located some 20 km outside the town. After the year 2000 the ci
Sarasota is a city in Sarasota County on the southwestern coast of the U. S. state of Florida. The area is renowned for its cultural and environmental amenities, beaches and the Sarasota School of Architecture; the city is at the southern end of the Tampa Bay Area, north of Punta Gorda. Its official limits include Sarasota Bay and several barrier islands between the bay and the Gulf of Mexico. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, in 2013 Sarasota had a population of 53,326. In 1986 it became designated as a certified local government. Sarasota is a principal city of the Sarasota metropolitan area, is the seat of Sarasota County; the islands separating Sarasota Bay from the gulf near the city, known as keys, include Lido Key and Siesta Key, which are famous worldwide for the quality of their sandy beaches. The keys that are included in the boundary of Sarasota are Lido Key, St. Armands Key, Otter Key, Casey Key, Coon Key, Bird Key, portions of Siesta Key. Siesta Key was named Sarasota Key. At one time, it and all of Longboat Key were considered part of Sarasota and confusing contemporaneous references may be found discussing them.
Longboat Key is the largest key separating the bay from the gulf, but it was evenly divided by the new county line of 1921. The portion of the key that parallels the Sarasota city boundary that extends to that new county line along the bay front of the mainland was removed from the city boundaries at the request of John Ringling in the mid-1920s, who sought to avoid city taxation of his planned developments at the southern tip of the key. Although they never were completed in the faltering economy, those development concessions granted by the city never were reversed and the county has retained regulation of those lands; the city limits had expanded with the real estate rush of the early twentieth century, reaching 70 square miles. The wild speculation boom began to crash in 1926 and following that, the city limits began to contract, shrinking to less than a quarter of that area; the area known today as Sarasota, Florida first appeared on a sheepskin Spanish map from 1763 with the word "Zarazote" over present day Sarasota and Bradenton.
The municipal government of Sarasota was established when it was incorporated as a town in 1902. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.9 square miles, of which 14.9 sq mi is land and 11.0 sq mi is water. Sarasota has a humid subtropical climate bordering a tropical savanna climate, with hot, humid summers, warm, dry winters. There are distinct rainy and dry seasons, with the rainy season lasting from June to September, the dry season from October to May; the most recent recorded freezes in Sarasota took place on January 18, 2018, when the temperature dropped to 30 °F at the Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport. However, Sarasota averages less than one frost annually; as of the 2010 U. S. Census, there were 51,917 people residing in the city; the population density was 3,541.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 29,151 housing units at an average density of 1,988.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.41% White, 15.11% African American, 0.43% Native American, 1.33% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 5.22% from other races, 2.34% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.63% of the population. There were 23,427 households out of which 19.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.3% were married couples living together, 12.3% had a female head of household with no husband present, 48.5% were non-families. 38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, 18.4% of the population was under the age of 18, 9.2% ranged from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, 22.0% were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.8 males. The per capita income for residents of the city was $23,197. Females had a median income of $23,510 versus $26,604 for males; the median income for a household in the city was $34,077 and the median income for a family was $40,398.
About 12.4% of families and 16.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.5% of those under age 18 and 7.7% of those age 65 or over. Tourism contributes to the economy of Sarasota. Companies based in Sarasota include the Boar's Head Provision Company. Major employers include Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Doctors Hospital of Sarasota, APAC Customer Services, L-3 Aviation Recorders, The Zenith and Capgemini. Sarasota municipal government was last incorporated in 1913, changing from a town type to adopting the city type of local government found in the United States and the title of its government changed to "City of Sarasota". Sarasota was designated as the county seat when Sarasota County was carved out of Manatee County in 1921 during the creation of several new counties. In 1945 the commission-manager government form was adopted for the city and it is governed by a five-person commission elected by popular vote, two members of which serve in the ceremonial positions of "mayor" and "vice-mayor", as chosen by the commission every April.
Two at-large commissioners are elected by all voters and the city is divided into three districts for which the residents of each elect one district representative to the five member commission. Many aspects of the city are overseen by the county government ranging from the schools, the libraries, the bay, major waterways, county designated roads, the airport, fir
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Hungarian Revolution of 1956
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or the Hungarian Uprising, was a nationwide revolution against the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956. Leaderless when it first began, it was the first major threat to Soviet control since the Red Army drove Nazi Germany from its territory at the End of World War II in Europe; the revolt began as a student protest, which attracted thousands as they marched through central Budapest to the Hungarian Parliament building, calling out on the streets using a van with loudspeakers. A student delegation, entering the radio building to try to broadcast the students' demands, was detained; when the delegation's release was demanded by the protesters outside, they were fired upon from within the building by the State Security Police, known as the ÁVH. One student was wrapped in a flag and held above the crowd; this was the start of the revolution. As the news spread and violence erupted throughout the capital.
The revolt spread across Hungary, the government collapsed. Thousands organised into militias, battling the Soviet troops. Pro-Soviet communists and ÁVH members were executed or imprisoned, former political prisoners were released and armed. Radical impromptu workers' councils wrested municipal control from the ruling Hungarian Working People's Party and demanded political changes. A new government formally disbanded the ÁVH, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. By the end of October, fighting had stopped, a sense of normality began to return. Appearing open to negotiating a withdrawal of Soviet forces, the Politburo changed its mind and moved to crush the revolution. On 4 November, a large Soviet force invaded other regions of the country; the Hungarian resistance continued until 10 November. Over 2,500 Hungarians and 700 Soviet troops were killed in the conflict, 200,000 Hungarians fled as refugees. Mass arrests and denunciations continued for months thereafter.
By January 1957, the new Soviet-installed government had suppressed all public opposition. These Soviet actions, while strengthening control over the Eastern Bloc, alienated many Western Marxists, leading to splits and/or considerable losses of membership for communist parties in capitalist states. Public discussion about the revolution was suppressed in Hungary for more than 30 years. Since the thaw of the 1980s, it has been a subject of intense debate. At the inauguration of the Third Hungarian Republic in 1989, 23 October was declared a national holiday. During World War II, Hungary was a member of the Axis powers, allied with the forces of Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and Bulgaria. In 1941, the Hungarian military participated in the occupation of Yugoslavia and the invasion of the Soviet Union; the Red Army was able to force back the Hungarian and other Axis invaders, by 1944 was advancing towards Hungary. Fearing invasion, the Hungarian government began armistice negotiations with the Allies.
These ended when Nazi Germany invaded and occupied the country and set up the pro-Axis Government of National Unity. Both Hungarian and German forces stationed in Hungary were subsequently defeated when the Soviet Union invaded the country in late 1944. Toward the end of World War II, the Soviet Army occupied Hungary, with the country coming under the Soviet Union's sphere of influence. After World War II, Hungary was a multiparty democracy, elections in 1945 produced a coalition government under Prime Minister Zoltán Tildy. However, the Hungarian Communist Party, a Marxist–Leninist group who shared the Soviet government's ideological beliefs wrested small concessions in a process named salami tactics, which sliced away the elected government's influence, despite the fact that it had received only 17% of the vote. After the elections of 1945, the portfolio of the Interior Ministry, which oversaw the Hungarian State Security Police, was transferred from the Independent Smallholders Party to a nominee of the Communist Party.
The ÁVH employed methods of intimidation, falsified accusations and torture to suppress political opposition. The brief period of multi-party democracy came to an end when the Communist Party merged with the Social Democratic Party to become the Hungarian Working People's Party, which stood its candidate list unopposed in 1949; the People's Republic of Hungary was declared. The Hungarian Working People's Party set about to modify the economy into socialism by undertaking radical nationalization based on the Soviet model. Writers and journalists were the first to voice open criticism of the government and its policies, publishing critical articles in 1955. By 22 October 1956, Technical University students had resurrected the banned MEFESZ student union, staged a demonstration on 23 October that set off a chain of events leading directly to the revolution. Hungary became a communist state under the authoritarian leadership of Mátyás Rákosi. Under Rákosi's reign, the Security Police began a series of purges, first within the Communist Party to end opposition to Rákosi's reign.
The victims were labeled as "Titoists", "western agents", or "Trotskyists" for as insignificant a crime as spending time in the West to participate in the Spanish Civil War. In total, about half of all the middle and lower level party officials—at least 7,000 people—were purged. From 1950 to 1952, the Security Police forcibly relocated thousands of people to obtain property and housing for the Working People's Party members, to remove the threat of the intellectual