Adult Contemporary (chart)

The Adult Contemporary chart is published weekly by Billboard magazine and lists the most popular songs on adult contemporary radio stations in the United States. The chart is compiled based on airplay data submitted to Billboard by stations that are members of the Adult Contemporary radio panel; the chart debuted in Billboard magazine on July 17, 1961. Over the years, the chart has gone under a series of name changes, being called Easy Listening, Middle-Road Singles, Pop-Standard Singles, Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks and Adult Contemporary; the Billboard Easy Listening chart, as it was first known, was born of a desire by some radio stations in the late 1950s and early 1960s to continue playing current hit songs but distinguish themselves from being branded as "rock and roll" stations. Billboard had written articles about this trend during the time, the magazine's editors decided to publish a separate chart for these songs beginning in 1961; the magazine offered an "Easy Listening" programming guide beginning January 9, 1961, which continued until the numbered chart appeared in July.

The first No. 1 song on the Billboard Easy Listening chart was "The Boll Weevil Song" by Brook Benton. From 1961 to 1965, this chart was compiled from the Billboard Hot 100 chart by removing songs that were deemed rock and roll by the magazine and re-ranking the remaining songs. Beginning in 1965, the Easy Listening chart would begin to be compiled by a method similar to the one used for other Billboard singles charts: reported playlists from radio stations airing the format as well as sales data submitted by record stores. By the early 1990s, automatic song detection and barcode sales information had begun to be the norm for most of the Billboard charts, although by this time the AC chart was based on radio airplay and no longer incorporated retail sales reports; the Hot Adult Contemporary Tracks chart is compiled in much the same way as for other radio formats. The chart was known as the Easy Listening chart until 1962. In 1964, the name changed again. After alternating the name of this chart twice more in less than a year, Easy Listening was again chosen as the chart name in 1965 when the change in compilation occurred.

In April 1979, the Easy Listening chart became known as Adult Contemporary, those two words have remained consistent in the name of the chart since. In 1996, Billboard created a new chart called Adult Top 40, which reflects radio station programming that exists somewhere between "adult contemporary" music and "pop" music. Although they are sometimes mistaken for each other, the Adult Contemporary chart and the Adult Top 40 chart are separate charts, songs reaching one chart might not reach the other. In addition, the term "hot AC" refers to another subgenre of radio programming, distinct from the Adult Contemporary chart, despite the apparent similarity in name. In the early years of the Easy Listening chart, the top song on the chart was always a Top 10 pop hit as well; the method for compiling the chart at that time allowed some rock and roll artists, such as Lesley Gore and The Drifters, to make the chart on occasion with their softer or ballad releases, regardless of whether Easy Listening and middle of the road radio stations were playing those songs.

In 1965, no #1 pop hits appeared on the Easy Listening chart. After 1965, differences between the Hot 100 chart and the Easy Listening chart became more pronounced. Better reflecting what middle of the road stations were playing, the composition of the chart changed dramatically; as rock music continued to harden, there was much less crossover between the Hot 100 and Easy Listening chart than there had been in the early half of the 1960s. Several #1 Easy Listening hits of the late 1960s only "Bubbled Under" on the pop chart, or failed to "Bubble Under." In 1967, only one single reached No. 1 on both charts – "Somethin' Stupid" by Frank Sinatra and Nancy Sinatra. This trend began to reverse by the end of the decade. Notable artists with multiple #1 songs on this chart during the 1960s include Elvis Presley, Roy Orbison, Connie Francis, Dean Martin, Andy Williams, The 5th Dimension, Glen Campbell. "Love Is Blue" by Paul Mauriat held the top of the Easy Listening chart for 11 weeks in 1968, which remained the longest stay at #1 until 1993.

The Hot 100 and Easy Listening charts became more similar again toward the end of the 1960s and into the early and mid-1970s, when the texture of much of the music played on Top 40 radio once more began to soften. Contemporary artists who recorded adult-appeal music, such as The Carpenters, Barbra Streisand, Barry Manilow, Anne Murray, John Denver, Helen Reddy began to be played more on Top 40 radio. Much of the music recorded by singer-songwriters such as James Taylor, Carole King, Janis Ian got as much, if not more, airplay on this format than on Top 40 stations. A few of the acts that came of age as pop artists targeting younger audiences in the 1960s and early 1970s started moving toward easy listening as they matured. Easy Listening radio began including songs by artists who had begun in other genres, such as rock and roll, R&B, or country; the longest stay at #1 on the Easy Listening chart in the 1970s wa

Liz Cunningham

Elizabeth Anne Cunningham is an Australian politician. She was an independent member of the Legislative Assembly of Queensland from 1995 to 2015, representing the electorate of Gladstone. A conservative MLA in a traditionally Labor district, Cunningham is most well known for having brought Rob Borbidge's Coalition minority government to power in 1996, following the loss of the Mundingburra by-election by the Goss Labor government. Cunningham was involved in local politics prior to entering state politics, serving on the Calliope Shire Council from 1988 to 1995 and serving as its mayor from 1991 to 1995. A social conservative and devout Christian, running in a traditionally Labor seat in the 1992 election, she ran a strong campaign on "back to basics" issues, in particular concern about the downgrading of Gladstone Hospital, she narrowly lost to Labor candidate Neil Bennett in 1992, reducing the notional Labor majority from 12 points to only 2 points. Three years she defeated Bennett on her second attempt due to National preferences.

She became the first non-Labor MLA for Gladstone in 63 years, only the third in 80 years. Cunningham's victory was significant in the light of the close result of the 1995 state election, it appeared as if the result would be a hung parliament with Cunningham holding the balance of power, although counting delivered a one-seat majority to the Goss Labor government. The situation gave her significant influence, as she forced the retention of incumbent Speaker Jim Fouras for the new parliament over the party's desired replacement, her inaugural speech on September 1995 reaffirmed her combined focus on community issues and social policy, criticising the Goss government's transport and health policies, advocating the reintroduction of corporal punishment, a return to institutionalisation of the mentally ill, a return to Christian values. Cunningham's influence in the Assembly increased in December 1995 when the Court of Disputed Returns ordered a by-election in the seat of Mundingburra, which the Labor government had held by 16 votes in the general election.

After a disastrous by-election campaign which included the disendorsement of incumbent MLA Ken Davies, Liberal candidate Frank Tanti won, costing the government its majority and leaving Cunningham in a position to choose the next Premier of Queensland. Cunningham announced that she would support the Coalition on matters of confidence and supply in the Legislative Assembly, citing their having won the popular vote in the general election. Rather than face certain defeat in the legislature, Goss resigned, paving the way for Borbidge to succeed him, she declined an offer from the new government to become Speaker, insisting that it would compromise her ability to represent her electorate. Throughout her first term, Cunningham supported the Coalition government. With her support, Borbidge was able to fend off numerous no-confidence motions and pass most of his major legislative proposals; when the ALP moved against the government over the Carruthers and Connolly-Ryan inquiries, Cunningham helped block a no-confidence motion in the government and, although she moved a motion against Attorney-General Denver Beanland, insisted that she did not demand his resignation.

This resulted in criticism from some quarters that she was another National Party MP. She insisted that the government consult with her on most legislation, including budgets and, she was able to exercise significant power; this was made clear in 1996, when she watered down the government's workplace compensation reforms, despite strong government resistance, so as to retain access to the common law for injured workers, workers compensation for travel to and from work, among other things. As a conservative MP, Cunningham became known for her opposition to abortion and her support of capital punishment. In 1996, she was the only member of the parliament to oppose new gun control reforms in the aftermath of the Port Arthur massacre, which otherwise received bipartisan support; the following year, Cunningham was responsible for an amendment which defined the term "life" in the state's criminal code as "beginning at conception". Cunningham increased her primary vote at the 1998 state election, but her political influence declined when Peter Beattie formed an ALP government with the support of newly elected independent Peter Wellington.

Taking a similar line to the state National Party, Cunningham noted in the lead-up to the election that she would be willing to work with any members of the far-right One Nation party if they were elected. She held her seat with an increased majority at the 2001 election, won enough votes to clinch reelection without the need for preferences. In April 2002, Cunningham was asked to undergo a breath test, she refused on the grounds of suffering asthma, was subsequently charged. After receiving little sympathy from Premier Beattie, she was fined and had her driving license suspended, her third term was marked by an attempt to ban flag-burning, which failed after the government blocked her private member's bill on the grounds that it violated free speech. Her call for a Commission of Inquiry into child sexual abuse in foster care failed due to opposition from the government, she received her highest primary vote yet at the 2004 election, again with enough votes to win without going to preferences.

Cunningham was nominated for Speaker after the election, with the support of the opposition National–Liberal coalition, the One Nation Party, the state's six independents, but was soundly defeated by government nominee Ray Hollis. She raised allegations of bullying aga

Canadian Children's Book Centre

Canadian Children's Book Centre is a national non-profit organization that dedicates its resources to promoting quality Canadian children's literature to parents, librarians and youth across Canada. Founded in 1976, the CCBC has library collections in five cities across Canada with its national office located in Toronto. TD Canadian Children's Book Week Founded in 1977, TD Canadian Children's Book Week is the largest celebration of Canadian books for young people in Canada; each spring, authors and storytellers visit communities throughout the country to participate in readings and workshops with Canadian youth. Book week reaches over 35,000 teens in schools and libraries across Canada every year. In 2011, Book Week reached new media heights when Canadian television host, Ben Mulroney, was named as the honorary patron for TD Canadian Children's Book Week 2011. TD Grade One Book Giveaway Program Founded in 2000, in cooperation with ministries of education, school boards, library organizations across Canada, the TD Grade One Book Giveaway Program was created in order to provide every Grade One student across Canada with the gift of a free book in either English or French.

Over 500,000 free books are distributed annually to children across the country. Canadian National Children's Book Awards The Canadian Children's Book Centre, with the help of its sponsors, honours the great achievements of Canadian authors and illustrators through its book awards: TD Canadian Children's Literature Award Marilyn Baillie Picture Book Award Norma Fleck Award for Canadian Children's Non-Fiction Geoffrey Bilson Award for Historical Fiction for Young People John Spray Mystery Award Canadian Children's Book News A quarterly magazine, Canadian Children's Book News is a review publication that critiques the latest Canadian children's books, it has author and illustrator interviews, profiles of Canadian publishers and bookstores. Best Books for Kids and Teens Directed at teachers, librarians and writers, Best Books for Kids & Teens is a magazine that acts as a guide to the best Canadian children's books, magazines and video; each of the selections is handpicked by expert committees of teachers and librarians across the country.

Get Published: The Writing for Children Kit A kit for new writers with information on how to submit manuscripts and portfolios, copyright procedures, a list of current Canadian publishers who accept unsolicited manuscripts. The CCBC has an online directory listing authors and storytellers available for school and library visits; each listing includes the presenter's contact information and reading workshop descriptions